Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2015-2016
Diversity and Inclusion in Action
©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, (2017).
Catalogue No. Ci95-1E-PDF
- Foreword from the Minister
- Part One: The Multiculturalism Program in 2015-2016
- Part Two: Implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act Across Federal Institutions
- Award-winning Federal Institutions
- Highlights of Policies, Programs and Practices by Federal Institutions in their Efforts to Meet the Act
- Ensuring Equal Opportunity for Employment and Advancement in Federal Institutions
- Enhancing the Ability to Contribute to the Continuing Evolution of Canada
- Enhancing Cross-cultural Understanding and Respect for Diversity
- Collecting Statistical Data and Conducting Research
- Leveraging Language Skills and Cultural Understanding
- Promoting Activities that are Responsive to Multicultural Reality of Canada
- Annex A: Federal Institutions that Provided a Submission
Foreword from the Minister
We are pleased to present the Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 2015–2016 – Diversity and Inclusion in Action, which highlights the concrete actions that the Government of Canada has undertaken over the past year to advance the objectives of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act.
The Act recognizes the importance of preserving and enhancing the multicultural heritage of Canadians. It affirms and reinforces our commitment to diversity and inclusion as a vital and powerful approach to making our country welcoming, strong and safe. In the words of our Prime Minister, “As the first country in the world to adopt a policy of multiculturalism 45 years ago, Canada has shown time and time again that a country can be stronger not in spite of its differences, but because of them.” (Statement by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on Multiculturalism Day, June 27, 2016)
The Government of Canada is committed to helping new and established Canadians succeed in building a strong and inclusive society. The work that Canadian Heritage and other federal government organizations perform is crucial in creating an environment where Canadian diverse cultures and identities are acknowledged and celebrated, and where all Canadians enjoy full participation in our society and a deep sense of belonging to our great country.
This past year was one of transition as the Multiculturalism Program moved from the Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada to the Department of Canadian Heritage. The Program continues to serve Canadians as it brings new focus to leveraging the programs at Canadian Heritage and its Portfolio organizations, whose objectives support and complement those of the Multiculturalism Program. The PCH-led Cultural Welcome Strategy is just one example of the synergies that exist within Canadian Heritage to further our commitment to multiculturalism. This strategy provided welcome kits to help introduce 25,000 Syrian refugees to Canada’s rich and diverse cultural heritage.
The Multiculturalism Program had many achievements in 2015-2016. Inter-Action, the Multiculturalism Grants and Contributions Program, provided $4.7 million in support for community-based initiatives to both raise awareness of, and reinforce the importance of diversity and inclusion in Canadian society. In addition, in February 2015, we marked the 20th anniversary of Black History Month. This important celebration was marked by the unveiling of a stamp to honour the Number 2 Construction Battalion Unit, a First World War Canadian battalion composed of Black soldiers. We also celebrated Asian Heritage Month in May. To coincide with the Year of Sport in Canada, this year’s activities highlighted the achievements of Asian-Canadian athletes. Special attention was also paid to the journey of Vietnamese refugees to Canada, as 2015 was the 40th anniversary of the fall of Saigon.
As we celebrate the 150th anniversary of Confederation, all Canadians have an opportunity to come together in their communities, to showcase their achievements and to reflect on Canada’s place in the world.
The strength and success of Canada’s diversity stem from a commitment to a vision. In 1971, Canada was the first country to adopt a multiculturalism policy. In 1988, this vision was enshrined in law with the unanimous adoption by Parliament of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. Under the Act, the “Government of Canada recognizes the diversity of Canadians as regards race, national or ethnic origin, colour and religion as a fundamental characteristic of Canadian society and is committed to a policy of multiculturalism designed to preserve and enhance the multicultural heritage of Canadians while working to achieve the equality of all Canadians in the economic, social, cultural and political life of Canada”. This vision is reinforced by section 27 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which states that the Charter “shall be interpreted in a manner consistent with the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canadians.” This vision is realized through a dedicated effort on the part of leaders and individual Canadians, and through strong rules and institutions that support mutual respect and collaboration.
Canada has a robust suite of legislation, public policies and programs designed to empower Canadians to fully participate in society. The principles of inclusive diversity are enshrined in key legislation, such as the Canadian Human Rights Act, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Employment Equity Act and the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. Strong public policies and programs dedicated to equality, such as the education and health care systems, ensure that all Canadians have access to fundamental services that support individual, community and societal well-being. Processes and programs hold the Government of Canada accountable for its actions and offer mechanisms for Canadians to seek recourse when their rights are not respected, such as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada and the Language Rights Support Program.
When we come together to bridge cultural differences between us, we build our society in enduring ways.
Statement by Minister Mélanie Joly on Multiculturalism Day, June 27, 2016
Canada also offers strong supports for newcomers to the country, be they refugees or new immigrants. Notably, the Government of Canada showed leadership with its commitment to welcome large numbers of Syrian refugees at a time of crisis in 2015-16, but it was the support of private sponsors, in the form of individuals and communities, that made this initiative such an overwhelming success. Canada is also a party to international conventions such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which uphold the principles of inclusive and accountable governance, elimination of discrimination on the basis of race, sex, language or religion, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.
The Multiculturalism Program seeks to preserve and enhance multiculturalism in Canada by: building a more integrated and inclusive society; improving the responsiveness of institutions to meet the needs of a diverse population; and actively engaging in discussions on multiculturalism and diversity at the international level. All federal institutions play an important role in encouraging and assisting individuals, organizations and institutions to project the multicultural reality of Canada in their activities.
Today Canada is more diverse than ever. Among the G8 countries, Canada had the highest proportion of foreign-born population (20.6%), well above that of Germany (13.0% in 2010) and the United States of America (12.9% in 2010)Footnote 1. At the same time, more than 19% of Canada’s total population was a visible minority in 2011Footnote 2, with peaks in major cities like Toronto, Vancouver and MontrealFootnote 3. Canada is home to more than 200 ethnic origins and 200 languagesFootnote 4, and religious affiliations other than Christian have grown from 4.9% in 2001 to 7.2% in 2011Footnote 5. In addition, Canada is home to diverse Indigenous peoples, who together account for 4.3% of the Canadian population and a much faster growth rate of 20% from 2006 to 2011, compared to 5% for the non-Indigenous population.Footnote 6 Looking to the future, the ethno-cultural diversity of Canada’s population is expected to increase and contribute to heightened creativity, innovation and economic success as well as strong and resilient communities.
Canadians are proud of their diversity. Indeed, 85% of Canadians believe that ethnic and cultural diversity is a value that Canadians share to a great or moderate extent.Footnote 7 Additionally, an increasing majority of Canadians view multiculturalism as one of the most important symbols of Canadian national identity.Footnote 8 Canadians increasingly see themselves as a multicultural, bilingual treaty nation with a commitment to human rights and equality.Footnote 9 On the international stage, Canada stands out as a place where people from different backgrounds live together in peace and harmony and celebrate their differences.
Our national identity as Canadians embraces our immense diversity, celebrates our differences, and welcomes and builds communities through mutual respect. Our diversity is a leading source of innovation and is reflected in how Canada is viewed at home and abroad. Moreover, strong diversity fuels inclusive and sustainable economic growth that helps strengthen the middle class now and into the future.
Yet, complex challenges remain. Discrimination still occurs in Canada, and across the globe we are challenged by fear of the “other” and instances of persecution. Exclusion impacts individuals, communities and society, oftentimes across generations, whether it be families that have fled persecution as refugees relocating to Canada, Indigenous peoples healing from a turbulent past of assimilation or transgendered Canadians asserting their equal rights. The Government of Canada supports multiculturalism as a way to ensure that all Canadians, regardless of race, religion, or sexual orientation can contribute to, and benefit from our open and inclusive diverse society.
Part One: The Multiculturalism Program in 2015-2016
The 2015-2016 Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act is divided into two sections. Part One highlights key achievements of the Multiculturalism Program, and contributions to implementation of Canada’s Multiculturalism Policy made by the Department of Canadian Heritage between April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016. Part Two highlights policies, programs and practices of a sample of federal institutions in implementing the Act over the same period.
Overview of the Multiculturalism Program
Fiscal Year 2015-2016 saw the transfer of the Multiculturalism Program from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada to Canadian Heritage following an Order in Council on November 4, 2015, that designated the Minister of Canadian Heritage as the minister responsible for the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. The two departments worked together to ensure that program and policy activities continued to benefit Canadians during this transition.
The objectives of the Multiculturalism Program remain the same, namely:
- to build an integrated, socially cohesive society;
- to improve the responsiveness of institutions to meet the needs of a diverse population; and
- to actively engage in discussions on multiculturalism and diversity at an international level.
Four areas of activity are carried out in support of these objectives:
- Managing the Inter-Action grants and contribution program which provides funding to recipients to undertake projects and events;
- Conducting public outreach and promotional activities;
- Helping federal and public institutions to meet their obligations under the Canadian Multiculturalism Act; and
- Supporting Canada’s participation in international agreements and institutions, such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.
Inter-Action: Multiculturalism Grants and Contributions Program
Inter-Action supports the socio-economic integration of individuals and communities and helps them to contribute to building an integrated, socially-cohesive society.
Funding is made available to not-for-profit organizations; non-federal Canadian public institutions such as boards of education, schools, colleges and universities, chambers of commerce, law enforcement and police agencies, hospitals and other health-care institutions; some Crown corporations; provincial, territorial, municipal or regional governments; First Nations and Inuit governments, band councils and organizations; private sector entities with a not-for-profit partner organization; and Canadian citizens and permanent residents.
Program funding is delivered through two distinct streams: Events and Projects. Projects provide funding for community development and engagement initiatives to foster an integrated, socially-cohesive society. The Events stream provides funding to community-based events that foster one or more of the following:
- Intercultural/interfaith understanding;
- Civic memory and pride; and/or
- Respect for core democratic values
In 2015-2016, a total of $4.7 million was distributed under the Inter-Action Program.
Examples of initiatives funded in 2015-2016
- Our Canada: Exploring Canadian Values Through Culture, Faith and Identity
Recipient: Canadian Race Relations Foundation
The Our Canada project is a three-year initiative (2014-2017) that provides Canadians with the opportunity to further their understanding of, and respect for, Canadian values and traditions by engaging people throughout Canada in discussions and activities that recognize diversity as a national asset and promote core Canadian rights and principles.
The project has helped to establish and grow local networks of faith and community leaders including a bilingual, online network of 123 participants that regularly posts positive messages of multiculturalism and multi-faith issues as they relate to the workplace. This network has ensured a continued system of communication between the project and the network of leaders, allowing CRRF to pass on communications, program suggestions, and helpful ideas to the various communities the leaders represent. In addition, the project has delivered three consultative symposia across Canada, bringing together different communities, linguistic groups, and local organizations to discuss and share knowledge in order to build an understanding and awareness. A total of approximately 800 people attended the symposia, including in the territories of the Yukon and the North West.
As well, twenty-four workshops, designed to help participants understand and improve their ability to manage situations arising out of conflicting religious practices and cultural values, have been delivered across the country from Halifax to Vancouver for trainers and facilitators working primarily within multicultural settings. More than 250 diversity managers and leaders were in attendance. The participants indicated that the workshops provided them with deeper knowledge and understanding into issues involved with religious practices and cultural values, as well as ways to successfully navigate through them in a workplace. An online toolkit that participants could use in their own workplaces has been developed.
In January 2015, Our Canada launched the 150 Stories initiative, an ongoing activity which will publish one story per week for 150 weeks. Inspired by Canada‘s upcoming sesquicentennial, 150 Stories pays tribute to Canada‘s diversity, democratic principles and multiculturalism by telling the stories of remarkable Canadian individuals, organizations, initiatives and events. The stories have been from across Canada and included those of all communities, especially Indigenous, Francophone, and different ethnic communities. The stories have gathered a growing following.
- 100 Year Journey
Recipient: Mehfil Magazine
Mehfil Magazine launched the 100 Year Journey project to preserve and share the stories of South Asian pioneers in Canada in order to increase awareness, bridge intercultural understanding, and promote multiculturalism through awareness of the contributions made to Canada’s history by South Asian pioneers.
The project distributed the 100 Year Journey book, a collection of 100 pioneer stories, to thousands of Canadians using both provincial and national networks. The book is also being used as a teaching resource in four school districts in the Vancouver area. In addition, an iPad edition of the 100 Year Journey book was created and released to be used by students, teachers, and all Canadians who wish to learn more about the contributions of South Asian pioneers to Canadian history. The electronic edition of the book has over 80,000 downloads. To maximize the project’s reach, a website was developed to house the current and future pioneer stories and it is being used as an important tool to share resources.
The 100 Year Journey project benefited from significant media coverage, including features on CBC Radio, RED FM in British Columbia and Alberta, and the Vancouver Province newspaper’s web edition.
- Holodomor National Awareness Tour
Recipient: Canada Ukraine Foundation
The Holodomor National Awareness Tour is a project by the Canada Ukraine Foundation that was funded by the Inter-Action Multiculturalism Program to raise awareness about the Holodomor, build bridges among communities in Canada and promote deeper understanding and respect for democratic rights and principles that Canadians hold dear, including the importance of human rights, the rule of law and human dignity. The term Holodomor, which literally means extermination by hunger in Ukrainian, was a man-made famine in Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed an estimated 3 million Ukrainians. The Holodomor has been recognized by some countries, including Canada, as a genocide of the Ukrainian people carried out by the Soviet Union.
The Holodomor National Awareness Tour consists of the Holodomor Mobile Classroom, a 42-foot wheelchair-accessible RV with visual/audio and an interactive mobile learning space to engage and educate students and the public across Canada about the historical events of the Holodomor and their relevance to today’s society.
The first year was short in engaging people across Canada; April – September 2015 saw the finalization and reconstruction of the RV to create the Holodomor Mobile Classroom that is now touring Canada. The first public engagement event was on September 19, 2015, at the Bloor West Village Ukrainian Festival. Since then, there have been many visits to schools and communities that expressed interest.
- Festival des Nations – 10th edition
Recipient: Mon Resto Saint-Michel
The 10th edition of the Festival des Nations took place on July 18, 2015 at the René-Goupil Park in Montréal. Like previous editions, the event was aimed at celebrating the ethno-cultural diversity that characterizes the Montréal neighborhood of Saint-Michel, with a view to promoting social cohesion, acceptance of differences, and understanding. This 10th edition paid tribute to the Afro-Caribbean community. Activities emphasized intercultural understanding, neighborliness and friendliness by drawing on the richness of each community to create a unifying and collaborative event. They included a parade symbolizing openness that allowed citizens to come out and share their culture through their traditional clothing, as well as various cultural performances in music and dance. The festival’s tent housed the “booths of the nations,” which afforded visitors an opportunity to discover a variety of gourmet and artisan products. The event was organized and managed by a committee and four subcommittees of citizens from the neighborhood, comprising around 50 people from various backgrounds. The series of activities served to foster cross-cultural dialogue and social cohesion in a neighborhood characterized by growing ethno-cultural diversity. In addition, the interactions that grew out of this event, in an atmosphere of joy and celebration, helped bolster residents’ sense of belonging and pride. Some 5,000 people took part in the festival.
- Beyond the Music – 2016 Celebration of Black History
Recipient: Canadian Caribbean Association of Halton
The Inter-Action Program provided funding to help support “Beyond the Music – 2016 Celebration of Black History,” a series of events held by the Canadian Caribbean Association of Halton (CCAH) between February 1 and 29, 2016. This project builds upon previous public education events in the Halton region to expand understanding and appreciation of Black heritage and its historical legacy in Ontario, including the central role that the arts play – visual arts, dance, film, music, and the oral tradition. Participants included educators, students, newcomers, Seniors, community members, performing artists, historians and local dignitaries gaining knowledge and engaging in cross-cultural dialogue. Over 6,000 people attended the various events put on by the CCAH during the month of February. They were drawn from the region’s African, Caribbean, Indian, Chinese, British, Italian, German, French, Polish and Portuguese communities, among others. Some specific examples of the events that took place include: 1) Kick-off and opening ceremonies at Oakville Town Hall on February 3 featuring performances by drumming artist Muhtadi and guest speaker Michele Johnson from York University; 2) “Blues-ology” (an interactive concert and dialogue with Chris Whitely and Diana Braithwaite); 3) Sheridan College student poster display on Black history research and, 4) launch of a two week African-Canadian Art exhibit called “Beyond the Rhythm.” The highly-engaging activities were aimed at generating pride, cultural understanding and cross-cultural respect through increased awareness of Black Canadian history, local Black Canadians and the cultural resources present in Halton regional communities.
- Mixed Art Conference
Recipient: Mixed In Canada
This was a one-day conference in Toronto on May 2, 2015, that featured panel presentations followed by facilitated interactive roundtable discussions on specific questions exploring such topics as mixed ethno-racial identity intersecting with issues of shadism/passing, indigeneity, disability, gender and sexual orientation. Other activities included a panel and more interactive breakout discussions on the international context of mixed race identity, as well as a keynote address from researcher Dr. Minelle Mahtani. This was followed by an opening reception and launch of a week-long art exhibition featuring performances and viewing of art related to the conference topics.
The panelists and interactive discussions provided in-depth mutual learning and understanding about participants’ respective journeys navigating their various identities as “mixed race” individuals. The event was successful in broadening perspectives on diverse and intersecting Canadian identities, facilitating new intercultural and other connections, and building a sense of inclusion/belonging among the 120 conference participants.
- "Black Settlement Sites" Talk & Tour
Recipient: Pride of Race, Unity & Dignity through Education Incorporated (PRUDE Inc.)
Saint John, New Brunswick
PRUDE Inc. works to sustain an environment of diversity, equality, respect, and inclusiveness through its cultural awareness and skills development training programs. In February 2016, PRUDE Inc. offered bus tours on Mondays and Tuesdays to high- and middle-school students and members of the community (including newcomers) to promote awareness of local Black history. With the cooperation of several community partners, these two-hour tours were delivered in four languages: English, Arabic, French and Chinese. The tour builds awareness by honoring the legacy of Black Canadians from Saint John and their contribution to society. The Anglophone South School District (ASSD), made up of 74 schools, has been collaborating with PRUDE Inc. for the last three years in bringing this educational experience to the community.
- “BESA: Code of Honour”
Recipient: Jewish Heritage Centre of Western Canada
From November 1 to 15, 2015, the Jewish Heritage Centre of Western Canada hosted the exhibit “BESA: Code of Honour” at the Mennonite Heritage Centre Art Gallery in Winnipeg. The exhibit was on loan from the Canadian Society for Yad Vashem (Toronto). It was accompanied by screenings of a documentary about this critical moment in history when Albanian Muslims provided sanctuary to Jewish people during the Holocaust. In addition to the exhibit installation and film, Jewish, Muslim and multicultural groups, together with the broader community, engaged to learn about this event and joined in structured dialogue (“conversation cafés”) about the potential for communities to come together. The goal was to foster a meaningful and comprehensive discussion between these communities by developing and strengthening both intercultural and interdenominational relations. Approximately 700 people attended this event, which was free and open to the public.
- “Only Laundry should be Separated by Colour”
Recipient: Multicultural Council of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Regina, Prince Albert, Swift Current, Weyburn/Estevan, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan
In an effort to increase shared understanding of racism and discrimination, the Multicultural Council of Saskatchewan's spring 2016 anti-racism campaign focused on March 21, the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. The theme was “Only Laundry should be Separated by Colour” and included a "laundry flash mob" community engagement activity, an expanded public education advertising campaign, film-and-dialogue sessions, and support for local member activities across Saskatchewan. Of note were the anti-racism leadership workshops where students engaged with peers from throughout the province as they participated in activities to explore identity, intercultural relationships, power, privilege, racism and discrimination. Students also learned to facilitate these activities for use in their schools and local communities, and they had access to educational resource packages made available to all schools in Saskatchewan. Activities ran from February to April 2016, and engaged approximately 15,000 active participants, in addition to many more who saw campaign-related posters, television ads and other public education-oriented advertising.
One of the Multiculturalism Program’s key areas of activity is to undertake public outreach and promotion activities designed to engage Canadians on issues related to multiculturalism, diversity and inclusion. In 2015-2016, the following outreach activities and events were delivered under the Multiculturalism Program:
Black History Month
Every February for the last 20 years, all Canadians are invited to participate in Black History Month (BHM) activities that honour the legacy of Black Canadians, past and present. Canadians take this time to gain insight into the experiences of Black Canadians and their varied contributions to our society. The theme of BHM 2016 was “A Story of Courage—The Road to Canada 150.” As in previous years, outreach efforts for BHM 2016 included coordinating a national launch event, developing an educational poster, delivering online and social media content and touring the travelling Black history exhibit called On the Road North.
The official Government of Canada 2016 launch, hosted by the Minister for Canadian Heritage, the Honourable Mélanie Joly, took place on February 3, 2016, at the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa. Approximately 160 invited guests attended.
The evening featured remarks from Minister Joly, Parliamentary Secretary to the Prime Minister Celina Caesar-Chavannes and former Minister Jean Augustine, the first Black woman elected to Canada’s Parliament, where in December 1995 she sponsored the motion establishing Black History Month.
Canada Post unveiled a stamp honouring the Number 2 Construction Battalion Unit. The event also included a modern dance number performed and choreographed by the internationally known Zab Maboungou/Compagnie Danse Nyata Nyata and a performance from Ottawa-based jazz and R&B singer Yaa-Hemaa.
As part of the theme and poster development process, consultations were initiated with different stakeholders of Black History Month in Canada. Most of the groups approached were eager to participate in discussions and forwarded their ideas and proposals. Their feedback was very positive. As a result, IRCC developed and distributed an educational poster for BHM 2016. It reflected a mosaic of portraits representing influential individuals and historic places in Black history in Canada. More than 4,000 copies of the BHM 2016 posters were ordered and distributed.
BHM resources (e.g. posters, website, videos and virtual Black history museum) were promoted to teachers and schools across Canada via an email message sent to approximately 14,000 stakeholders. The promotional efforts resulted in 4,016 direct visits to the website, almost twice as many visits through this channel as in 2015 (2,106).
Asian Heritage Month
May is officially Asian Heritage Month (AHM) in Canada, a time to acknowledge the long and rich history of Asian-Canadians and their contributions to society. The theme for AHM 2015 was “Celebrating Asian Heritage.” As 2015 had previously been declared “The Year of Sport in Canada,” most activities highlighted the achievements of past and present Asian-Canadian athletes. Special attention was also paid to the journey to Canada of Vietnamese refugees, as 2015 was the 40th anniversary of the fall of Saigon and the first year that Journey to Freedom Day (April 30) was recognized by the federal government.
Outreach efforts for AHM 2015 included the development of two educational posters, online and social media content, and promotion of the travelling Asian heritage exhibit.
The first poster showcased the 40th anniversary of the fall of Saigon and honoured the journey to Canada of Vietnamese refugees, while the second highlighted the “Year of Sport in Canada” theme by featuring past and present Asian-Canadian athletes from a variety of sports professions. Copies of the posters were distributed to teachers, schools, libraries and guests at AHM events.
The AHM’s Celebrating Our Heritage video was promoted through the website and social media. Additionally, a one-minute Public Service Announcement (PSA) titled the Journey to Canada of Vietnamese Refugees was developed. CIC worked closely with community groups to collect photos for this new video, which was shared with the departmental regional offices, distributed to local television stations, posted on the CIC YouTube channel and website, and shared through CIC’s social media channels.
To promote AHM, various promotional materials, including the PSA, the video, the poster, trivia contests and educational materials were shared through such channels as local televisions stations, YouTube, the IRCC YouTube page and website, Twitter and Facebook as well as email. All departmental regional offices held activities during the month as well.
Paul Yuzyk Award for Multiculturalism
The Paul Yuzyk Award for Multiculturalism was created in 2009 by the Government of Canada to recognize individuals across Canada who have made exceptional contributions to multiculturalism and integration of newcomers.
2015 was the first time in the award’s history that three distinct categories were open for nominations: Youth, Organization and Lifetime/Outstanding Achievement. To accommodate additional categories, the grant associated with the award was changed from $20,000 for one recipient to $10,000 for each of the three recipients, for a total of $30,000 directed to eligible not-for-profit organizations in the recipients’ names each year.
Other changes in 2015 included: an extensive website content update, an updated paper nomination form and a slightly modified screening process.
The 2015 recipients were: 1) Youth: Priya Saha; 2) Organization: Canadian Ethno-cultural Council and 3) Lifetime Achievement: Dr. Jawahar (Jay) Kalra. What characterizes all three recipients is the commitment to help build a diverse and just Canada, one in which everyone including newcomers and people of diverse backgrounds have equal opportunities to successfully participate in all aspects of our society.
Key Domestic and International Partners
Canadian Race Relations Foundation
The Canadian Race Relations Foundation (CRRF) was created by Parliament to combat racism and discrimination. Since its creation in 1996, CRRF has fulfilled its primary mandate, as prescribed in the Canadian Race Relations Foundation Act, “to facilitate throughout Canada the development, sharing and application of knowledge and expertise in order to contribute to the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination in Canadian society.” The Foundation was established by a one-time $24 million endowment fund, with $12 million contributions from both the National Association of Japanese Canadians and the Government of Canada.
The CRRF’s mission is to:
- Advance an understanding of, and develop approaches to, harmonious race relations and the elimination of racial discrimination;
- Strengthen Canadian identity from the standpoint of democratic principles of inherent human dignity, equality, fairness and justice, which inform its work;
- Expand its clearinghouse and initiatives to inform national policies and public conversation, and
- Facilitate the discussions and conduct further research on race relations and mutual respect.
CRRF conducts a wide variety of activities to support its mandate and mission. The Foundation’s activities are mainly of an outreach and awareness nature, and are intended to help eliminate racism and racial discrimination.
In 2015-2016, the Foundation continued to focus on a wide variety of diversity-related issues, ranging from reconciliation and immigration to inter-cultural and inter-faith dialogue. Various events and activities were held in communities across Canada with the aim of bringing diverse individuals together to discuss themes such as building welcoming communities and celebrating diversity in the North. Key highlights include:
- the Urban Agenda roundtable series, which took place in Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver and featured a panel of thought leaders who presented their perspectives on the challenges and promises of multiculturalism; and
- the Living Together Symposia, a series of knowledge sharing events brought together 475 regional faith and community leaders, academics and diversity champions from across the country.
Another significant initiative by the CRRF is the Our Canada project, which focuses on exploring Canadian values through culture, faith and identity. The project was awarded $2.1 million through the Multiculturalism Program. Initiated in July 2014 and culminating with Canada’s 150th anniversary in 2017, the project includes cross-Canada workshops for diversity professionals, along with youth and educational projects. Our Canada also includes Canada 150-themed initiatives, such as the 150 Stories project, where one story inspired by Canada‘s sesquicentennial celebration is published per week for 150 weeks. In 2015-2016, the Our Canada project reached 31,800 Canadians and produced 24 workshops, among other activities.
The Foundation continues to support diversity-related research through such initiatives as its annual Directions journal, which features academic research papers and editorials.
CRRF also works with survey firms on its “Capturing the Pulse of the Nation” initiative to produce an annual survey on issues related to race relations, human rights and identity. In 2015-2016, public opinion surveys supported by CRRF revealed growing concerns around intergroup relations, particularly between Muslims and non-Muslims and Indigenous Peoples and non-Indigenous Peoples in Canada. CRRF also supported an Environics Survey of Muslims in Canada released in April 2016, which showed that Muslims as a whole are embracing Canada’s diversity and freedoms and feeling more positive about the country than a decade ago, despite ongoing discrimination concerns and the presence of Islamophobia.
Global Centre for Pluralism
The Global Centre for Pluralism (GCP) is an independent not-for-profit with international reach. By fostering pluralism globally, GCP helps serve Canada’s interests by enhancing understanding about choices and actions that can support more peaceful, inclusive and pluralistic societies.
On October 25, 2006, the Government of Canada (GoC) signed a Funding Agreement with His Highness the Aga Khan to support the Centre. Canada’s contribution of $30 million was matched by the Aga Khan’s $10 million contribution to the Endowment Fund and his commitment to contribute no less than $20 million to renovate the Centre’s headquarters in the former War Museum at 330 Sussex Drive.
The Centre complements Canada’s objectives by:
- supporting foreign policy related to global peace, security, human rights and governance, and enhancing Canada’s reputation with its innovative approaches;
- promoting Canada’s experience of pluralism with global audiences and creating opportunities to share it;
- supporting Canada’s model of respect for diversity by bringing wider experiences of pluralism to Canada; and
- providing opportunities for Canadians and Canadian organizations to act globally.
To foster dialogue and greater awareness of pluralism issues, the Centre hosts an Annual Pluralism Lecture Series featuring influential global leaders whose work has inspired positive, practical changes in the world. Now in its fifth year, the 2016 Annual Pluralism lecture was given by South African Justice Albie Sachs, a key architect of South Africa’s post-apartheid constitution.
In 2015, the Centre strengthened its drivers of pluralism framework, known as the “Pluralism Lens,” by launching three major research initiatives with the aim of developing this practitioner tool for assessing the sources of inclusion and exclusion in diverse societies. The Centre also sustained its global engagement efforts focused on Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Tunisia, and the Middle East and North Africa region. Among other activities, a roundtable with civil society organizations was convened in Nairobi, and a Pluralism Forum in Ottawa focused on the need to support the Tunisian transition to a pluralist democracy.
In 2017, the Centre plans to officially launch its new headquarters at 330 Sussex Drive and will award the first recipients of the inaugural Global Pluralism Award.
Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund
A funding agreement to establish the Canadian First World War Internment Recognition Fund was signed in Toronto in 2008, between the Government of Canada and the Ukrainian Canadian Foundation of Taras Shevchenko (the Foundation). The Fund is a $10-million endowment established under the Community Historical Recognition Program to support projects which commemorate and recognize the experiences of ethno-cultural communities affected by First World War internment.
In 2015-2016, grant projects included historical exhibits, awareness campaigns and presentations, commemorative plaques and statues, historical research, educational resources and artistic endeavors, which commemorate and educate Canadians on this dark chapter of our history. Funded projects included:
- an archaeological research initiative at the Castle Mountain and Cave & Basin internment camps in British Columbia;
- an exhibit entitled Fernie at War, The Morrissey Internment Camp, which was unveiled in Fernie, B.C.;
- a collaborative initiative between the Foundation and the Critical Thinking Consortium on a National Educational Plan to inform youth and educators about Canada’s first national internment operations;
- the “Hill 70 Memorial Project,” which commemorates the story of Victoria Cross recipient Filip Knoowal, a “forgotten victory during the First World War,” and highlights Ukrainian Canadian internment in Canada through a national education program and the establishment of a monument at the site of the battle in Loos-en-Goelle, France; and
- a range of historical research initiatives, including support for the work of Dr. Marinel Mandres in Ontario, who is investigating the internment of ethnic Serbs and Romanians from 1914 to 1920.
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations Convention that promotes and encourages universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction based on race, sex, language or religion. Canada made its formal acceptance of the Convention, officially known as accession, in October 1970.
During fiscal year 2015-2016, the Multiculturalism Program led consultations with partner departments regarding Canada’s progress in responding to recommendations from the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD). Canada submitted its 21st and 22nd periodic report to the CERD on implementation of the ICERD in Canada on May 13, 2016. Canada is expected to appear before the CERD in 2017 to discuss its report.
The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance
Canada is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA), an intergovernmental organization that promotes Holocaust education, remembrance and research both nationally and internationally. Through its membership, Canada has the opportunity to share its expertise and play a central role as a conciliator and bridge builder.
In 2015-16, a Canadian delegation, including government officials and experts from civil society, attended two IHRA conferences in Hungary as part of the Hungarian Chair Year. At the meetings, Canada actively engaged in discussions on the European Union’s draft General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and its potential impact on Holocaust research, a priority issue for IHRA and one which Canada had championed during its Chair year. Research and analysis undertaken by IHRA indicated that the lack of precision in the GDPR’s language on the protection of personal data could, unintentionally, deny access to Holocaust-related materials. A positive outcome to IHRA’s advocacy on this issue was achieved in December 2015, when the European Union came to an agreement on a revised version of the GDPR, which now includes a specific reference to making Holocaust-related information available.
Canadian Heritage and its Portfolio Organizations: Contributions in Support of Multiculturalism
The Department of Canadian Heritage (PCH) and its portfolio strive to reflect Canada’s diversity and promote multiculturalism in everything it does. The Department supports culture, the arts, heritage, official languages, citizen engagement and participation, youth and sport initiatives and Indigenous languages and cultures. PCH Portfolio organizations include iconic cultural and heritage institutions, such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the National Museums, Telefilm Canada, the National Film Board of Canada and the National Arts Centre that are key vehicles by which Canadians explore, appreciate and promote their diverse culture at home and abroad. PCH supports key events and initiatives that bring Canadians together to feel a sense of pride and belonging through participation in the arts, culture and sports, including celebrating Canada’s 150th anniversary of Confederation and our athletes’ participation in the Olympic and Paralympic Games. PCH also upholds and promotes Canada’s diversity, equality and openness through the Multiculturalism Program and the promotion of human rights at home and internationally. Together, PCH programs and services provide a unique opportunity to showcase Canada’s multicultural society and build an enduring legacy that will inspire all Canadians, particularly youth.
It is through these programs and those of its many portfolio agencies that Canadian Heritage contributed to promoting multiculturalism and diversity in Canada. Following are some of the activities that were undertaken in 2015-2016:
Support for the welcoming of Syrian refugees
To support the welcoming of 25,000 Syrian refugees to Canada, PCH led the Cultural Welcome Strategy, which provided culture welcome kits to refugees to help introduce them to Canada’s rich and diverse heritage. The welcome kits included: a specially-produced copy of the National Film Board’s Welcome to Canada DVD; English, French and Arabic copies of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; a variety of books donated by Canadian publishers; and Parks Canada toques and colouring books. The program introduced refugees to fundamental principles of Canadian identity including linguistic duality, Indigenous peoples and diversity.
In 2016, the Canada Council for the Arts launched The Arts and Culture Welcome Refugees, a strategy for welcoming Syrian refugees. The initiative will enable arts organizations which are currently receiving core funding from the Council to offer Syrian refugees free access to their activities. The Canada Council and Sun Life Financial have contributed to fund this initiative.
As part of the Government of Canada’s initiative to welcome Syrian refugees, the Canadian Radio Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) published information in three languages (Arabic, English and French) on its website and social media. Included was a list providing newcomers with information on mobile phone contract rights, TV and radio stations available in Arabic and how to access 911 emergency services.
Encouraging the expression of regional and ethno-cultural communities through the arts
The Canada Cultural Spaces Fund, the Canada Arts Presentation Fund, the Canada Cultural Investment Fund, the Canada Book Fund and the Canada Periodical Fund give special consideration to supporting traditionally underrepresented populations by offering higher funding levels or special eligibility requirements that improve access to program funding. These underserved populations include Indigenous peoples, youth, Official Language Minority Communities and ethno-cultural communities. For example, the Canada Arts Presentation Fund funded the Prismatic Arts Society in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, which hosted a multidisciplinary festival in 2015-16 featuring some 45 performances by Indigenous and culturally-diverse artists from five provinces and around the world. They also funded the Festival International Nuits d’Afrique in Montreal which features African and world roots music.
Community festivals as a way to showcase diversity
The local festivals component of the Building Communities through Arts and Heritage Program encourages the activities of local multicultural organizations. In 2015-2016, almost 10% of the applications recommended for funding originated from various ethno-cultural communities. The Building Communities through Arts and Heritage program enables diverse communities to share their cultural offerings to the public, thereby facilitating a greater appreciation for their culture and heritage. As just one example, this program funded the Festival des traditions du monde de Sherbrooke, Quebec. The festival celebrated and promoted a variety of cultures and traditions from around the world. The festival presented a diverse program, including musical performances from different cultures, folkloric dance performances, dance and percussion workshops as well as artistic and historic presentations featuring the ethno-cultural communities represented at the festival. These activities provided opportunities for the public to exchange with local artists, artisans and heritage performers in the spirit of bridging cultural and generational gaps. The festival attracted approximately 76,000 people.
Supporting Official Languages to further enhance acceptance and build communities
The Official Languages Funding Programs provide funding to not-for-profit organizations and provincial and territorial governments to support Official Language Minority Communities across Canada. These programs promote community collaboration to help eliminate barriers that newcomers can face when trying to fully participate in their new communities. There are many communities across Canada that use Official Languages funding to help build a diverse and inclusive society. For example, Official Languages funding supports the Government of Manitoba’s Appartenances et rapprochements culturels par les arts (ARCA) program, which aims to help French not-for-profit organizations and communities support arts and cultural projects that promote Francophone artistic expression to all Manitobans. These projects bring together professional and emerging artists with participants from underrepresented communities. Through the artistic projects, participants have the opportunity to experience Francophone artistic expression as a means to foster a greater sense of cultural belonging.
Celebrating Multiculturalism across Canada
PCH supports and promotes a four-day celebration of Canada’s diversity that begins on June 21 with National Aboriginal Day, continues with Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (June 24) and Canadian Multiculturalism Day (June 27), and comes to a spectacular finish on Canada Day (July 1). These activities aim to bring Canadians together in their communities to discover and appreciate the wealth and diversity of Canadian society. Canadian Multiculturalism Day festivities provide an opportunity to celebrate Canada’s diversity and to appreciate the contributions of the various groups and communities in Canadian society. In 2015-16 alone, PCH funded 123 Canadian Multiculturalism Day celebrations across Canada.
The Department also strives to reflect Canada’s multicultural heritage in its celebrations and events funded by the National Capital Commission. For instance, the Sound and Light show in the Capital, Winterlude, and Canada Day celebrations demonstrated Canada’s multifaceted approach to diversity through stage performances, interpretation and various activities.
Helping youth reach their potential and encouraging greater participation
The Exchanges Canada Program helps youth to enhance their knowledge and understanding of Canada, while connecting with other young Canadians. The program provides funding to not-for-profit organizations that deliver exchange programs, including reciprocal exchanges and thematic youth forums. Participants can discover a rural area or a city centre, a French- or English-speaking community, a province on the other side of the country or an equally exciting place closer to home. It encourages the participation of groups who may be underrepresented, including visible minority youth. The program aims to ensure participation by visible minority youth at levels that reflect the visible minority youth population in Canada (based on Census figures). In 2014-15 alone, over 1,800 Canadian youth identifying as visible minority took part in a funded exchange or forum. Likewise, many organizations that administer the program give priority to participants from underrepresented backgrounds. The program ensures that a diverse group of historically underrepresented youth participate and experience Canada's linguistic and cultural diversity first-hand.
Sport showcases Canada’s diversity on the domestic and international stage
Participation in sport and the pursuit of excellence by Canadian athletes on the international stage is a way to showcase Canada’s diversity and inclusion. In August 2015, Canada hosted the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games in Toronto, Ontario, bringing together athletes from around the world to compete and experience Canada’s rich diversity. The Federal Cultural Strategy extended the spirit of the Games beyond sport venues with cultural and artistic offerings, Torch Relays and community activities. These activities featured performances from ethno-cultural communities and celebrated the diverse cultures of the Americas’ diaspora communities in Canada. The Games and the related activities showcased Canada’s diversity and achievement to Canadian and international visitors.
2015, the Year of Sport in Canada celebrated the role of sport in Canada’s cultural fabric and encouraged sport participation as a way to help promote diversity and inclusion. To help generate interest and involvement in the celebration among Canadians, sport organizations and other levels of government, monthly themes were launched to help highlight the key accomplishments of Canadians in sport. These included: Diversity and Sport (May 2015); Aboriginals and Sport (June 2015); Women in Sport (June 2015); and Inclusive Sport for All Abilities and Disabilities (July 2015).
Also in 2015, the Sport Support Program provided an additional $450,000 in support of the Canadian Tire Jumpstart Charities to give children from refugee and immigrant families the opportunity to enjoy organized sport and recreation activities with other kids in their new communities. PCH has been supporting the Canadian Tire Jumpstart Charities program since its launch in 2005 by providing over $8.9 million in direct support which has given an additional 89,000 kids in financial need – inclusive of diverse groups - the opportunity to participate in organized sport.
New inclusive funding model at the Canada Council for the Arts
In June 2015, the Canada Council for the Arts announced a redesign of its programs to increase the impact of its work for the benefit of all Canadians. The New Funding Model programs, to be launched in 2017, are focused on outcomes and include specific efforts and measures to support the Canada Council’s commitment to equity as articulated in its Strategic Plan 2016-2021. For example, in the New Funding Model, major artistic organizations will be required to reflect the diversity of their geographic communities or region, notably through their artistic programming, organizational make-up and audiences with regard to the inclusion and engagement of Indigenous Peoples, culturally diverse groups, people who are deaf or who have disabilities, and official language minority communities.
The Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21
In February 2016, the Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 held several events related to immigration and diversity to celebrate Black History Month:
- A co-presentation of a series of short films with the African Nova Scotian filmmaker and artist, Cory Bowles. The films focused on issues of diversity, conflict and understanding. The film screening was followed by a speech by the filmmaker and a panel discussion;
- A presentation in partnership with the TD Bank Group of “Dueling Pianos” where father and son duo Eddie and Quincy Bullen engaged a variety of audiences. Based in Toronto with roots in Grenada, the Bullens performed a variety of musical genres, including jazz and contemporary music. The musical arrangements were highlighted by interesting and amusing commentary about their own family relationship and their unique family history.
- An African Drumming session offered in March 2016 was attended by over 45 participants.
In March 2016, the Museum presented the first Francophone author in the Pier 21 Reads series. The author, Kim Thúy, presented her first book, Ru, (the winner of the Governor General's Award for French language fiction 2010). The book was inspired by her early life experiences of fleeing Vietnam with her family at the age of 10 and arriving in Canada as a refugee. Kim Thúy’s presentations were attended by over 450 individuals.
Complexity and diversity of Canada’s past illustrated in new Canadian Hall at Canadian Museum of History
Canadian History Hall, which will open in 2017 at the Canadian Museum of History, is designed to be the most extensive exhibition on Canadian history ever produced. In March 2016, the exhibitions team solicited the help of employees and the public to identify images that will fill the dynamic entranceway to the Museum with illustrations representing Canada to answer the question, “What does Canada look like to you?” The three categories were landmarks, symbols and people. The Hall will integrate multiple perspectives on 15,000 years of history to help visitors understand and connect with the richness and complexity of this country’s past. The Museum has viewed variables such as gender, class, ethnicity and regional experiences as key factors when it comes to shaping and defining our knowledge and interpretation of Canada’s past. Such an approach enables the Museum, as a storyteller, to forge a bond with visitors while sharing powerful and compelling narratives with audiences ready to invest in them.
Canada’s creative and cultural institutions and organizations support individuals and communities, of all origins, to showcase their diversity
The Canada Media Fund provides funding for the creation and promotion of digital content in both official languages and innovative Canadian content and software applications on multiple platforms (e.g. television broadcast, the Internet, mobile devices). By targeting specific production funding envelopes to diverse Canadians, the Canada Media Fund helps to ensure that Canadians’ diverse voices and stories are projected across the country, sharing and exchanging our diverse ethnic and cultural perspectives and experiences. By earmarking funding for Indigenous communities, Official Language Minority Communities and other diverse language groups, it ensures that these minority groups have a voice in our national narrative. The Fund allocates approximately one-third of its resources to French-language programming and two-thirds to English-language programming annually. In 2015-16, the Canada Media Fund provided $10.8 million to Francophone official language minority productions; $7 million to Indigenous programming; $4 million to Anglophone Official language minority productions and $2.5 million to diverse-language productions.
As the national public broadcaster, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Radio Canada provides radio and television services that reflect the circumstances and aspirations of Canadian men, women and children, including equal rights, linguistic duality and the multicultural nature of Canadian society. These programs and services inform, enlighten and entertain Canadians from coast to coast to coast, thereby enhancing the ability of individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of diversity in Canada. CBC offers a variety of regional and cultural perspectives in both English and French, and eight Indigenous languages, as well as in five languages (Arabic, Spanish, Mandarin, French and English) on Radio Canada International (RCI), the crown corporation's international web service. The organization is an industry leader in promoting and supporting diversity in Canada.
Part Two: Implementation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act Across Federal Institutions
The Canadian Multiculturalism Act is a legal tool put in place to preserve and enhance multiculturalism in Canada for the benefit of the whole of society. The Act requires that federal institutions carry out their activities in a way that meets the requirements of the Act. The Minister responsible for multiculturalism is mandated to support the federal institutions in that endeavor and to report on their achievements on an annual basis.
Part Two of the report highlights efforts by a range of federal institutions to advance principles of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act in fiscal year 2015-2016.
Award-winning Federal Institutions
Federal Institutions selected among Canada's Best Diversity Employers (2016)
First published in 2000 and managed by author Richard YeremaFootnote 10 and Tony Meehan, his publisher at MediacorpFootnote 11, the Canada's Top 100 Employers competition is one of the nation's most frequently-mentioned business books and cited by the Globe and Mail as “an instant bible to human resources professionals and job seekers.” Through this nation-wide competition, Mediacorp editors also manage seven special-interest competitions recognizing the nation's best employers for family-friendly workplaces, diversity, environmental values, fast-growing workplaces, young people and older Canadians.
Canada's Best Diversity Employers recognizes employers from across Canada that have exceptional workplace diversity and inclusiveness programs. Launched in 2008, the competition recognizes successful diversity initiatives in a variety of areas, including programs for employees from five groups: (a) Women; (b) Members of visible minorities; (c) Persons with disabilities; (d) Aboriginal peoples; and (e) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered/Transsexual (LGBT) peoplesFootnote 12. Three federal institutions were among employers selected in 2016 as one of the leading diversity employers:
- Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC);
- Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC); and
- Health Canada.
Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC) at a glance
BDC, a federal Crown corporation, is the only bank devoted exclusively to entrepreneurs. It promotes Canadian entrepreneurship with a focus on small and medium-sized businesses. With its 110+ business centres from coast to coast, BDC provides businesses in all industries with financing, investments and advisory services. As the first Canadian financial institution to receive the B Corp certification, BDC supports Canada’s growing sector of social enterprise firms, many of which are also B Corps. As well, BDC has committed to helping women-owned businesses and women entrepreneurs grow in size and scale and supports local and national organizations dedicated to creating networking and mentoring opportunities for women entrepreneurs.
BDC has created a workplace where everyone is engaged, becoming stronger and more innovative through the addition of fresh voices, such as those from new immigrants, Aboriginals, LGBTQ employees and those with disabilities. BDC has been on the Top 100 Employers list for a decade now and has also been selected as a Best Diversity Employer from 2010 to 2016 inclusive.
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) at a glance
Since the launch of the Best Diversity Employers competition in 2008, CHMC has been nominated six times, including the last three years (2014-2016). In promoting inclusiveness and diversity in the workplace, this Canadian employer represents Canada at its best. CMHC has a Wellness and Mental Health Initiative that includes a wide range of education, awareness, training and communications activities to equip CMHC’s leaders, supervisors and employees to protect and improve their own mental health, safeguard the mental health of their colleagues, friends and family members, and take action to nurture mental health and well-being in the broader community. In 2016, CMHC became an Employer Partner with the Canadian Centre for Diversity and Inclusion to help improve the overall inclusivity of the Canadian workforce.
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Health Canada at a glance
Over the years, Health Canada has been one of the leaders in creating an inclusive environment where individuals from a wide variety of backgrounds are recognized and valued for who they are at work, setting an example not only for Canadian business but also for organizations around the world. Health Canada has been named one of Canada’s Best Diversity Employers from 2010 to 2016.
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Highlights of Policies, Programs and Practices by Federal Institutions in their Efforts to Meet the Act
The following section of the report highlights efforts by a range of federal institutions to advance principles of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act in fiscal year 2015-2016. A selection of policies, programs and practices are grouped according to the following six elements identified in subsection 3(2) of the Act, which states that it is the policy of the Government of Canada that all federal institutions shall:
- ensure that Canadians of all origins have an equal opportunity to obtain employment and advancement in those institutions;
- promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the ability of individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada;
- promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the understanding of and respect for the diversity of the members of Canadian society;
- collect statistical data in order to enable the development of policies, programs and practices that are sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada;
- make use, as appropriate, of the language skills and cultural understanding of individuals of all origins; and
- generally, carry on their activities in a manner that is sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada.
For the 2015-2016 reporting period, 108 federal institutions responded to a call-out for input to the annual report on the operation of the Act. A list of federal institutions that provided input can be found in Annex A.
Ensuring Equal Opportunity for Employment and Advancement in Federal Institutions
Following are examples of new and revised policies, programs and practices put in place to ensure equitable opportunities for employment or advancement in various federal institutions in 2015-2016. They include employment equity measures.
Note: While the 1986 Employment Equity Act focuses on equal opportunities for four designated groups (women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal Peoples and members of visible minorities), the Canadian Multiculturalism Act relates to Canadians of all ethnic and cultural origins.
A large number of federal institutions reported meeting an important requirement of the Employment Equity Act, namely having rates of designated groups reach or exceed respective workforce availability rates. The designated groups are women, Aboriginal peoples, members of visible minorities and persons with disabilities.
The numbers reported in the Employment Equity in the Public Service of Canada 2014-2015 (PDF Version, 3.88 MB), which is the latest available report, show that the Government of Canada remains committed to a diverse public service that reflects today’s society. As at March 31, 2015, for the third year in a row all four employment equity designated groups continue to exceed their workforce availability as determined from 2011 Census data and a 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability:
- Representation of women increased slightly from 54.1 per cent to 54.3 per cent, surpassing their workforce availability of 52.5 per cent;
- Representation of members of a visible minority group increased from 13.2 per cent to 13.8 per cent, surpassing their workforce availability of 13.0 per cent;
- Representation of Aboriginal peoples continued to maintain their level at 5.1 per cent, surpassing their workforce availability of 3.4 per cent; and
- Representation of persons with disabilities decreased marginally from 5.7 per cent to 5.6 per cent, continuing to surpass their workforce availability of 4.4 per cent.
Canadian Heritage has recently updated its Employment Equity and Diversity Strategy. The Strategy aims to create a workplace that enables all employees to fully participate, recognizes and leverages the wealth born out of differences and considers workforce diversity a major asset. The strategy proposes measures, including performance indicators, to ensure that the Department achieves excellence in delivering its services. PCH has also established an advisory committee to support diversity and inclusion with the organization, headed by employees and employment equity champions.
All PCH employees are invited each year to complete a short employment equity questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire are used to inform human resources practices to help ensure that the Department is representative of the Canadian population, to better promote diversity in hiring processes and to carry out other actions. The completion rate for the survey was 98% in 2015-16. While the overall representation is above the workforce availability for some of the designated groups, gaps remain for equity groups in certain occupational groups which will be taken into account in future human resources planning.
A large number of institutions have policies in place to help them meet the requirements of both the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and the Employment Equity Act with respect to ensuring a workplace free of harassment and discrimination, and characterized by respect for diversity, fairness and tolerance. The following institutions reported providing training to meet that goal:
- Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency,
- Great Lakes Pilotage Authority,
- Shared Services Canada,
- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Radio Canada,
- Export Development Canada,
- Environment and Climate Change Canada,
- Military Grievances External Review, and
- Defence Construction Canada.
The year 2015-2016 marked the launch of the Positive Space Initiative at Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, which aims at providing a safe space for the LGBTQ+ community. The initiative was promoted through the web, articles and posters, and eight departmental Positive Space champions were trained. Members of the LGBTQ+ community have expressed encouragement that something is being done for their particular group in the department.
The Canada School of Public Service offers a number of courses to help managers and employees work in diverse teams and to understand requirements under the Employment Equity Act. Courses include “The Leadership Advantage: Managing Diversity 2.0,” “Introduction to Employment Equity and Diversity,” and “Understanding Workplace Diversity.”
Enhancing the Ability to Contribute to the Continuing Evolution of Canada
In 2015, Agriculture and Agri Food Canada (AAFC)’s Women in Science Network launched an initiative to use Wikipedia as a platform to capture and explain the depth and diversity of the role of AAFC women scientists, past and present. Wikipedia, used by students and the general public as a global information source, lacks representation from Canadian female scientists (there are 238 Wikipedia pages tagged as Canadian scientists and only 38 of these are females). By enhancing the information on Wikipedia, AAFC aims to reach, educate and influence youth about possible career paths and inspire the next generation of Canadian female agricultural scientists. To date, eight profiles of AAFC female scientists have been added to Wikipedia with an additional 23 identified and/or in the process of being prepared.
In 2015-16, Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) was particularly active in the regions in an effort to enhance the ability of individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada. While Ontario Region undertook consultation activities with Official Language Minority Community stakeholder organizations and Indigenous service providers across the province in order to better serve those communities, the West Territory Region had considerable success in promoting multiculturalism internally through committees on diversity and employment equity, and the Atlantic Region engaged in activities that led to increased service for immigrant youth and better information sharing with immigrant-serving organizations.
Through ongoing engagement with organizations, the Public Service Commission (PSC) identified recruitment of Indigenous Peoples as a top priority, specifically targeting post-secondary graduates. As a result, as part of the 2015 Post-Secondary Recruitment campaign, the PSC launched an Aboriginal Persons Inventory pilot project in September 2015. The inventory accepted 669 applications over a six-month period. The post-mortem exercise will determine what improvements are needed and whether the Inventory is the appropriate mechanism to meet the needs of hiring managers and the Indigenous community.
Enhancing Cross-cultural Understanding and Respect for Diversity
Believing that diverse and inclusive workplaces do not just happen, but need to be developed and nurtured through dedicated programs, Export Development Canada (EDC) regularly holds diversity conversations sparked by the department’s “Diversity 2020 Diversité Blog”. Led by a committed group of employee volunteers, this grass-roots initiative is raising awareness of diversity and inclusion and changing EDC’s culture through blogs on a range of topics. The bloggers are champions of specific stakeholders including women, visible minorities, LGBT, new Canadians, introverts and Generation Y. The goals of the Diversity 2020 Diversité Blog include supporting diversity and inclusion in a way that is tangible to employees; starting conversations where there are none on a wide variety of diversity topics; being a voice for those with a message; and providing a network where all employees can see themselves at EDC. Between its inception in March of 2015 and the summer of 2016 and with an employee population of almost 1,300, 32 blog posts have resulted in over 135 comments, over 7,400 page views and almost 770 unique visitors.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) organized, in partnership with Manifesto, content development workshops for creators of diverse backgrounds. The workshops seek to help make these creators’ talents emerge through workshops, networking events and unique learning experiences. The five participants in the 2015 workshops presented their ideas to a panel of CBC executives, and by the end of March 2016, all had remained in contact with the CBC. Two of them had the opportunity to work for the CBC.
Hosting activities and events that promote diversity and multiculturalism in the workplace is a sure way to help build understanding between people of diverse backgrounds and to promote respect for diversity. A number of federal institutions celebrated Multiculturalism Day on June 27, 2015, through diverse activities such as disseminating communications marking the day, convening Armchair Discussions on multiculturalism-related issues, and organizing social events designed to build intercultural and interfaith understanding.
Collecting Statistical Data and Conducting Research
The Office of the Correctional Investigator treats Indigenous and women offenders as a priority and continually updates statistics related to these two groups, which are then published in its Annual Report. In May 2015, the Office released a report highlighting the results of a statistical analysis of the use of administrative segregation (solitary confinement) in federal corrections during 2014-15, with particular attention to the frequency of placement in segregation for Aboriginal and Black offenders. The statistics revealed that the overuse of segregation in federal corrections is not uniform; certain incarcerated groups were affected more than others, including Indigenous and Black offenders, as well as women and inmates with mental health issues. These statistics are used by the Office as it continues to call for more significant, meaningful and lasting reforms to the administrative segregation framework.
In continued efforts to promote initiatives that create a talented and inclusive workforce, Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA) conducted an employee culture survey in the fall of 2015. An action plan was developed following the results and three volunteer employee working groups were established to formulate proposals to address issues respectively related to establishing and strengthening a flexible work environment, creating and reinforcing a culture of recognition and promoting a more diverse, inclusive and respectful culture. Each working group is employee-led and has the support of a mentor from the Senior Management Committee.
In 2015-2016, Status of Women Canada collaborated with Statistics Canada in the development of the 7th edition of Women in Canada: a Gender-based Statistical Report. The report includes chapters on immigrant women, First Nations, Inuit and Métis women and Visible Minority women. By using evidence-based information, including accurate and up-to-date data, decision-makers can ensure that gender and diversity factors are taken into consideration in their policies and programs.
In 2015, Public Sector Pension Investment Board (PSP Investments) conducted a thorough employment systems review. Through a survey and targeted interviews, PSP Investments collected data to identify any possible systemic barriers. The people interviewed were representative of the four designated groups. The results and comments received were a great resource as PSP Investments elaborated its Diversity and Employment Equity action plan. The plan focuses specifically on addressing representation gaps identified in each category through recruitment, promotions and development. It also addresses the elimination of potential barriers identified in the systems review, and ensures the continuation of positive initiatives to promote an inclusive work environment and the retention of the members of the identified groups.
In March 2016, following two years of in-depth conversations between the Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC) and various Indigenous women and organizations, the CHRC released its report (PDF Version, 1.2 MB) that highlighted 21 barriers to human rights justice that Indigenous women and girls face every day across Canada. The report focused on the words of many of the participants, shining a light on what these women argue is needed to help improve human rights justice for Indigenous women and girls, particularly those in vulnerable circumstances.
Leveraging Language Skills and Cultural Understanding
In 2015-2016, to facilitate the logistics of processing large numbers of Syrian refugees, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada was able to leverage the linguistic and cultural knowledge of some of its Arabic-speaking employees. The National Call Centre in Montreal, Quebec began a pilot project to support visa offices in the Middle East via Arabic-speaking agents; and four Arabic-speaking employees were stationed at the Toronto Welcome Centre at Pearson International Airport to support the Syrian refugee resettlement initiative.
To produce films reflecting the cultural and linguistic diversity of Canadian citizens of all origins, the National Film Board of Canada (NFB) makes use of the language skills and cultural understanding of its employees and of all external stakeholders participating in the production and dissemination of audiovisual works. Of the 43 NFB productions and co-productions in 2015-2016 (documentaries and animated films), seven were directed by directors who come from ethno-cultural communities (16%), ten by directors from minority language communities (23%) and five by Aboriginal directors (12%). Furthermore, most of the films produced or co-produced by the NFB in 2015-2016 (60%) deal with subjects that explore Canadian diversity. In addition to its audiovisual works, the NFB also taps the linguistic and cultural knowledge of individuals of all origins when it comes to distributing and producing these works. For example, the NFB works with far North communities to promote Inuit audiovisual heritage as part of the project: “Unikkausivut: Sharing Our Stories.”
According to Export Development Canada (EDC), global business is becoming increasingly interconnected. Given the agency’s mandate, namely to support Canadian exporters and develop Canada's trade, having a diverse workforce makes good business sense and is becoming an increasingly important driver of success. Increasing the diversity of its employee population is making EDC a better organization, and allowing it to deliver value and better connect with customers of all sizes in the markets where they do business – traditional international markets as well as fast-growing emerging markets.
In addition to their knowledge and expertise, EDC employees have increasing language abilities. While most are bilingual, many speak a variety of other languages such as Spanish, Arabic and Mandarin. Many of these employees were born outside Canada, many have studied abroad and many have international work experience. For EDC, these employees bring broader cultural understanding and diverse and global perspectives. Being able to leverage this diversity of thought and ideas is broadening EDC perspectives corporately and allowing the agency to become a more representative and inclusive organization.
Promoting Activities that are Responsive to Multicultural Reality of Canada
All federal institutions are committed to inclusion and diversity as demonstrated in many activities that they reported. Here are some examples:
In 2015-2016, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada undertook a number of initiatives to provide culturally sensitive support for the arrival and planned resettlement of 25,000 Syrian refugees. For example,
- a population profile on Syrian refugees that included information on cultural considerations was developed and widely shared with stakeholders including provinces and territories, front-line service provider organizations and refugee sponsors;
- Arabic-speaking employees were leveraged to provide support upon the arrival of the Syrian refugees;
- Regional offices actively engaged and partnered with local ethno-cultural and faith communities as part of addressing resettlement, settlement and long-term integration needs of the Syrian Refugees; and
- The Welcoming Communities Initiative was launched. It expanded the network of communities that offer services to help resettle refugees and included the development of Community Partnership Settlement Plans.
Correctional Services Canada (CSC) held several regional events in 2015-2016 to further enhance the understanding of diversity in the Service. In addition to having role model initiatives that help build intercultural understanding and promote diversity, CSC presents three awards that reflect work with ethno-cultural and diversity populations. The Emerson Douyon Multiculturalism Award formally recognizes the outstanding achievement of an employee or community partner who has demonstrated an exemplary commitment to multiculturalism. The Art Solomon Memorial Award formally recognizes the contributions of Aboriginal employees towards Aboriginal corrections. The Diversity and Employment Equity Award recognizes the efforts of staff towards the diversity group. All three Awards provide the opportunity to acknowledge leadership and highlight culturally proficient practices that benefit CSC's workplaces and the community at large.
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) has seven Senior Officials acting as champions for diversity-related issues in the Department, namely diversity and inclusiveness, young professionals, Canadian women in communications and technologies, mental health and Gender-Based Analysis+. In addition, in 2015-2016 the Employment, Diversity and Inclusiveness (EEDI) program was revised for the next four years, including specific plans, targets and measurements. All Employment Equity groups are represented within the EEDI program and an inclusiveness committee. Each year, the Department will assess its progress against the program plan. Going forward, the Department has many plans in place to continue building a workplace environment open to diversity and inclusiveness, one of which involves partnerships with other departments in order to leverage their expertise in training, in areas such as inclusive recruitment.
Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)’s “Nobody is Perfect Program” is an education and support program offered to parents of children aged from birth to five. The targeted parents are young, single and socially and geographically isolated, and have low income or limited formal education. The program is offered in various settings in every province and territory and can be adapted to meet the needs of diverse communities. In 2015-2016, demographic data were used to revise the parent kits to ensure that their design represents and reflects the diversity of the Canadian population. The kits were also translated into Inuktitut, Spanish, Punjabi, Arabic and Simplified Chinese. In addition, 19 tip sheets were developed to inform parents and caregivers on several topics. The sheets are available online in English, French, Farsi, Hindi, Tamil and Vietnamese. PHAC also partnered with Toronto Public Health to conduct a multi-year evaluation of the effectiveness of the “Nobody’s Perfect Program” with the newcomer population. The partnership includes working with Justice Canada to update the “What’s wrong with spanking?” brochure to reflect recent evidence and best practices. The brochure was translated into Arabic as a resource for new Syrian refugees.
When Canada’s Multiculturalism Policy was first introduced in 1971, the make-up of Canada was profoundly different than it is today. Census data from that year indicate that 96 percent of the Canadian population reported their ethnic origin as European. By 2011, only 63% of Canadians reported the same.
As Canada grows increasingly diverse, federal institutions will continue to play a critical role in supporting equal treatment and full participation of all Canadians in society, and in promoting policies, programs and practices that enhance the ability of individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada.
While some institutions, particularly smaller ones, report challenges in meeting their obligations under the Canadian Multiculturalism Act due to limited resources, they continue to work to find creative solutions by collaborating and pooling their resources. The Department of Canadian Heritage will continue to support these efforts by developing and disseminating information and tools to enable all to play their part in continuing to build an increasingly inclusive society.
Canada’s success as a diverse and inclusive nation didn’t happen by accident, and won’t continue without effort.
The future is never certain. It depends on the choices we make today.
Compassion, acceptance, and trust; diversity and inclusion—these are the things that have made Canada strong and free. Not just in principle, but in practice.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, November 26, 2015
Annex A: Federal Institutions that Provided a Submission
Administrative Tribunals Support Service of Canada
Service canadien d’appui aux tribunaux administratifs
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada
Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency
Agence de promotion économique du Canada Atlantique
Atlantic Pilotage Authority
Administration de pilotage de l’Atlantique
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
Énergie atomique du Canada limitée
Office of the Auditor General of Canada
Bureau du Vérificateur général Canada
Bank of Canada
Banque du Canada
Blue Water Bridge Canada
Pont Blue Water Canada
Business Development Bank of Canada
Banque de développement du Canada
Canada Border Service Agency
Agence des services frontaliers du Canada
Canada Council for the Arts
Conseil des arts du Canada
Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation
Société d’assurance-dépôts du Canada
Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions
Développement économique Canada pour les régions du Québec
Canada Lands Company
Société Immobilière du Canada
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Société canadienne d’hypothèque et de logement
Canada Newfoundland & Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board
Office Canada-Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador des hydrocarbures extracôtiers
Canada Pension Plan Investment Board
L’Office d’investiment du RPC
Canada Research Chairs
Chaires de recherche du Canada
Canada Revenue Agency
Agence du revenu du Canada
Canada School of Public Service
École de la fonction publique du Canada
Canada Science and Technology Museums Corporation
Société des musées de sciences et technologies du Canada
Canada Air Transport Security Authority
Administration canadienne de la sûreté du transport aérien
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
Centre canadien de lutte contre les toxicomanies
Canadian Commercial Corporation
Corporation Commerciale Canadienne
Canadian Dairy Commission
Commission canadienne du lait
Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
Agence canadienne d’évaluation environnementale
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments
Canadian Grain Commission
Commission canadienne des grains
Canadian Human Rights Commission
Commission canadienne des droits de la personne
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Instituts de recherché en santé du Canada
Canadian Intergovernmental Conference Secretariat
Secrétariat des conferences intergouvernementales canadiennes
Canadian Museum of History
Musée canadien de l’histoire
Canadian Museum for Human Rights
Musée canadien des droits de la personne
Canadian Museum of Immigration
Musée canadien de l’immigration
Canadian Museum of Nature
Musée canadien de la nature
Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency
Agence canadienne de développement économique du Nord
Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire
Canadian Race Relations Foundation
Fondation canadienne des relations raciales
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes
Canadian Security Intelligence Service
Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité
Canadian Space Agency
Agence spatial canadienne
Canadian Tourism Commission
Commission canadienne du tourisme
Canadian Transportation Agency
Office des transports du Canada
Communications Security Establishment Canada
Centre de la sécurité des télécommunications
Correctional Service Canada
Service correctionel Canada
Courts Administration Service
Service administrative des tribunaux judiciaires
Construction de Défense Canada
Employment and Social Development Canada
Emploi et Développement social Canada
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Environnement et changement climatique Canada
Export Development Canada
Exportation et développement Canada
Farm Products Council Canada
Conseil des produits agricoles du Canada
Federal Bridge Corporation
La Société des ponts fédéraux Limitée
Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario
Agence fédérale de développement économique pour le sud de l’Ontario
Financial Consumer Agency of Canada
Agence de la consommation en matière financière du Canada
Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada
Centre d’analyse des opérations et déclarations financières du Canada
First Nations Tax Commission
Commission de la fiscalité des Premières Nations
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Pêches et Océans Canada
Fresh Water Fish
Poisson d’eau douce
Global Affairs Canada
Affaires mondiales Canada
Great Lakes Pilot Authority
Administration de pilotage des Grands Lacs
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada
Immigration, refugiés et citoyenneté Canada
Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Commission de l’immigration et du statut de réfugié du Canada
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
Affaires autochtones et du Nord Canada
Innovation, Sciences and Economic Development Canada
Innovation, sciences et développement économique du Canada
Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Incorporated
Les Ponts Jacques Cartier et Champlain Incorporée
Laurentian Pilotage Authority Canada
Administration de pilotage des Laurentides
Library and Archives Canada
Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
Marine Atlantic Canada
Marine Atlantique Canada
Military Grievances External Review Committee
Comité externe d’examen des griefs militaires
Military Police Complaints Commission
Commission d’examen des plaintes concernant la police militaire
National Arts Centre
Centre national des arts
National Capital Commission
Commission de la capitale nationale
National Defence and the Canadian Armes Forces
Défence nationale et les Forces armées canadiennes
National Energy Board
Office national de l’énergie
National Film Board of Canada
Office national du film du Canada
National Gallery of Canada
Musée des beaux-arts du Canada
National Research Council Canada
Conseil national de recherches Canada
Natural Resources Canada
Ressources naturelles Canada
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
Conseil de recherché en sciences naturelles et en genie du Canada
Northern Pipeline Agency
Administration du pipe-line du nord
Office of the Commissioner of Lobbying of Canada
Commissariat au lobbying du Canada
Office of the Correctional Investigator Canada
Bureau de l’enquêteur correctionnel
Office of the Information Commissioner of Canada
Commissariat à l’information du Canada
Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada
Commissariat à la protection de la vie privée du Canada
Office of the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner of Canada
Commissariat à l’intégrité du secteur public du Canada
Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada
Bureau du surintendant des institutions financières
Pacific Pilotage Authority Canada
Administration de Pilotage du Pacifique Canada
Patented Medicine Prices Review Board
Conseil d’examen du prix des médicaments brevetés
Privy Council Office
Bureau du Conseil privé
Polar Knowledge Canada
Savoir polaire Canada
Public Health Agency Canada
Agence de la santé publique du Canada
Public Safety Canada
Sécurité publique Canada
Public Sector Pension Investment Board (PSP Investments)
Conseil d’administration d’investissements (PSP)
Public Service Commission
Commission de la fonction publique
Public Services and Procurement Canada
Services publics et approvisionnement Canada
Royal Canadian Mint
Monaie Royale Canadienne
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Gendarmerie Royale du Canada
Royal Canadian Mounted Police External Review Committee
Comité externe d’examen de la Gendarmerie Royale du Canada
Shared Service Canada
Services partagés Canada
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines du Canada
Status of Women Canada
Condition feminine Canada
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat
Secrétariat du Conseil du Trésor du Canada
Veterans Affairs Canada
Anciens combattants Canada
Veterans Review and Appeal Board
Tribunal des anciens combattants Canada
Western Economic Diversification Canada
Diversification de l’économie de l’Ouest Canada
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