Ready Forces

Description

Field combat ready forces able to succeed in an unpredictable and complex security environment in the conduct of concurrent operations associated with all mandated missions.

Results

Determining the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) ability to support the missions assigned by the Government of Canada in Strong, Secure, Engaged (SSE) requires the continuous monitoring of key capabilities (Personnel, Equipment, Training, Supplies). To achieve this goal, Strategic Joint Staff’s Force Posture and Readiness launched the Strategic Management and Readiness Tool (SMaRT) in the spring of 2018. The Force Posture and Readiness Directive defines the requirements needed to support multi-mission concurrency capabilities and tasks described in SSE. As a system of record, SMaRT provides decision makers with the ability to quickly and accurately determine the CAF operational capability and capacity to support current and future missions.

The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) generated and sustained relevant, responsive and effective air and space power throughout FY 2018-19. With agile and scalable ready air and space forces, the RCAF supported Search and Rescue (SAR) missions, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) missions, and assisted civil authorities and other government departments on domestic operations and disaster relief efforts. Abroad, RCAF forces participated in the full spectrum of CAF operations; strengthening partnerships with allied nations and supporting Canada’s international commitments to NATO, United Nations, and coalition operations.

As Canada’s naval force, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) remained a rapidly deployable, highly flexible and versatile instrument of national power that provided the Government of Canada with maritime defence options in support of national objectives. To meet these demands, the RCN participated in numerous joint and interoperability deployments such as Operation PROJECTIONFootnote lvi, and delivered combat effective naval forces ready to support Canadian interests at home and abroad, supported by its team of Regular, Reserve, and Civilian personnel. Of note during FY 2018-19, Canada assumed command of Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150), the international maritime task force whose mission is to disrupt terrorist organizations and their related illegal activities as part of Operation ARTEMISFootnote lvii.

The Canadian Army (CA) is made up of Regular and Reserve Forces, Canadian Rangers, and civilian personnel who work together to provide Canada with a reliable and responsive range of military capabilities that deliver decisive land power in the achievement of Canadian defence objectives across the full continuum of operations. Throughout FY 2018-19, the CA remained ready to defend Canada and North America and to contribute to international peace and security.

The Joint Managed Readiness Program provides guidance for the conduct of joint readiness training in the CAF. It also provides direction on what needs to be achieved to maintain and further increase the level of joint readiness of the CAF. Most joint training exercises favour the three operational functions of Command, Sense and Sustain with only slight variations. Overall, 51 of 54 CAF Joint Tasks were reported to have been completed at least once during 2018-19.

Departmental Result 2.1 – Canadian Armed Forces are ready to conduct concurrent operations
  • The CAF generated and sustained high readiness naval, land, air, and special operations forces and joint capabilities to meet Force Posture and Readiness levels directed by the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) and the concurrent mission requirements of Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy. Throughout 2018-19, we progressed a number of initiatives to improve readiness, including:
    • The interim Auxiliary Oil Replenishment ship, M/V Asterix, began operating with the RCN, mitigating a capability gap related to naval supply vessels. During this reporting period, M/V Asterix provided support to the RCN Fleet, as well as partner navies, during Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2018 and Operation PROJECTION. The first Arctic and Offshore Patrol Ship, the future HMCS Harry DeWolf was launched in fall 2018 and is expected to be delivered to the RCN in winter 2020;
    • Through its Managed Readiness Plan, the CA continued to demonstrate its ability to respond to the ever-changing operational environment by force generating and deploying capabilities, for concurrent operations, in response to domestic crises (e.g. floods, fires, and winter storms) and international operations (e.g. enhanced Forward Presence (eFP) Battlegroup Latvia). During 2018-19, over 3,000 CA personnel deployed on domestic operations and over 3,800 on international operations;
    • In advance of the arrival of fighter aircraft to replace the entire CF-18 fleet, Canada is procuring 18 fighter aircraft spares and equipment from the Government of Australia to rapidly increase availability of the CF-18 fleet in order to ensure the RCAF can meet domestic and international obligations simultaneously*;
    • The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) marked the arrival of the first two interim fighter aircraft this year, an important investment in sustaining mission ready aircraft in our current CF-18 Hornet fleet*;
    • The first Fixed Wing Search and Rescue aircraft began completing contractor testing in Spain, and is expected to arrive at 19 Wing Comox, British Columbia in spring 2020. Initial training for RCAF aircrew and technicians has begun in Spain in September 2019, and the new Training Centre is expected to be completed at 19 Wing Comox in mid-2020; and
    • CH-124 Sea King was retired in December 2018 at a joint RCN/RCAF ceremony. Its replacement, the Sikorsy built CH-148 Cyclone, was deployed on three operational shipborne detachments over FY 2018-19. The first on HMCS Ville de Québec from July 2018 to January 2019, followed by HMCS Toronto in January 2019 to support Operation REASSURANCE in Europe. Concurrently, a third deployment commenced in January 2019 on HMCS Regina to support Operation PROJECTION and Operation ARTEMIS in Asia-Pacific.

*Note: The CF-18, which was adapted from the American F/A-18, is also known as the officially designated CF-188 in Canadian use.

  • The launch of the next generation of Canadian Earth-observation satellites, known as the RADARSAT Constellation Mission was delayed in 2018 due to unforeseen technical and contractual issues beyond the control of the Department of National Defence (DND). The RCAF continued to work with our partners toward the scheduled launch date in summer 2019. Once online (*was launched on 12 June 2019), the RADARSAT Constellation Mission will support whole-of-government surveillance needs including critical defence and security related coverage of Canada’s ocean approaches as well as global maritime domain awareness.
  • DND/CAF continued to meet its commitment to conduct joint exercises and to maintain joint capabilities to ensure the CAF is able to meet the government’s defence expectations through advancements of our mission preparedness. Regarding priorities directed for FY 2018-19:
    • Two exercises are held each year to support maritime interoperability under the North American Maritime Security Initiative (NAMSI) protocols between Canada, the United States, and Mexico. NAMSI has normally focused primarily on narcotic interdiction efforts. Therefore the two exercises that occurred in FY 2018-19 are significant in that they involved expanding cooperation and lessons learned to Search and Rescue and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief efforts. The two exercises are:
      • GOMEX: (NAMSI Gulf Of Mexico Exercise) In 2018-19 it was a tabletop exercise involving a scenario of a large cruise ship on fire, and exercising the three nations responses related to communications, rescue, and processing of international passengers. This exercise improved understanding of the three nations’ responses and standard operating procedures related to maritime search and rescue; and
      • PACEX: (NAMSI Pacific Exercise) This was a Command-Post exercise with the scenario being a large fishing vessel that had suffered an explosion and was found to be transporting illegal migrants (and potentially criminal elements). The exercise involved liaison with commands across North America. There were a number of lessons learned on how to coordinate assets, particularly air assets, and reporting between the three nations.
    • TRIDENT JUNCTURE/JOINTEX 18. In 2018-19, the main training effort conducted was Exercise JOINTEX, which was linked to the NATO Exercise TRIDENT JUNCTURE 18. This consisted of a live exercise conducted in Norway and the surrounding seas in late October/early November 2018. It trained NATO and partner nations to work together seamlessly. CAF participation focused on the employment of Canada’s commitment to the Enhanced NATO Response Force 2019:
      • Integration of Command and Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance and strategic and operational targeting processes and theatre staging and support within a Five Eyes environment was practiced under TRIDENT JUNCTURE/JOINTEX 18; and
      • Employment and defence of NATO network segments for a Canadian Joint Task Force within a NATO full spectrum operation was exercised under TRIDENT JUNCTURE/JOINTEX 18.
    • Whole-of-government and non-government agency interoperability in consequence management for a domestic security event was practiced during PALADIN BOREAL (Public Safety led); and
    • Command and Control and cooperation with Arctic nations, including the United States, in the conduct of Arctic search and rescue under Exercise ARCTIC ZEPHYR was postponed until FY 2020-21.

Exercise TRIDENT JUNCTURE 18

This image shows men and women of the Canadian Armed photos putting up modular green tents.

Canadian Armed Forces members set up modular tents during Exercise TRIDENT JUNCTURE 18 on 29 September 2018 in Orkanger, Norway. (Photo: Master Corporal Lisa Fenton, Canadian Forces Support Unit Office (CFSU (O)) Imaging Services).

  • Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD is conducted annually in conjunction with NORAD, United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), and other United States Commands. The purpose of this exercise and the other exercises designed in defence of Canada and the United States is to ensure mission readiness, develop trusted partnerships, and build capacity. The exercise concerns preparedness to work continentally in the Defence of North America and involves the coordination of planning and command and control amongst the involved headquarters. Through this exercise, the CAF advanced joint and combined military cooperation in the planning, preparation, and conduct of North American defence operations for the following missions:
    • Mission 1 – Detect, deter, and defend against threats or attacks on Canada; and
    • Mission 2 – Detect, deter, defence against threats to or attacks on North America in partnership with the United States, including NORAD.
  • Although planning and preparation occurred for Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD, the execution phase was cancelled this year due to NORAD and United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) headquarters support to real-world hurricane relief priorities.

Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2018

An infographic about Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2018. RIMPAC, the world’s largest maritime military exercise, runs every two years in and around the Hawaiian Islands and Southern California. From 27 June to 2 August 2018, about 1,000 Canadian Armed Forces members worked with over 25,000 military personnel from 24 other nations. 4 Royal Canadian Navy ships and 1 oiler Replenishment ship, Motor Vehicle Asterix; 1 Royal Canadian Air Force CP-140 Maritime Patrol Aircraft; 1 Canadian Army dismounted infantry company from 2nd Battalion, Royal 22nd Regiment; 27 successful replenishments at sea by MV Asterix; 13 CP-140 sorties, totalling over 100 flying hours; 1 major Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operation.

  • Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) is the world’s largest maritime military exercise that involves forces from many countries. Nations with an interest in the Pacific Rim region send ships, aircraft, and troops to take part in the exercise every two years. Exercise RIMPAC 2018 took place in late June/early August 2018. The exercise was led by the United States Navy. It took place in and around the Hawaiian Islands and Southern California. The RCN sent over 675 members and five ships to participate in RIMPAC. The ships participated in a wide scope of training scenarios, such as anti-submarine warfare, maritime interdiction operations, and mine sweeping and neutralization, among others. Approximately 170 CA soldiers were part of the combined Marine Air-Ground Task Force. The RCAF deployed approximately 45 members and a CP-140 Maritime Patrol Aircraft. It conducted more than a dozen anti-submarine warfare missions, amassing over 100 hours of flying time.
  • Exercise TRADEWINDS is a multinational maritime interdiction, ground security, and interagency exercise led by the United States Southern Command. CAF members participated in Exercise TRADEWINDS in June 2018. It included participants from 22 nations and key regional organizations. The exercise took place in St. Kitts and Nevis, and the Bahamas. The CAF participated on the land and at sea. In total, the CAF sent approximately 80 soldiers and sailors, including a ship, dive team, mentors from the RCN and the CA, and a joint CAF and Global Affairs Canada (GAC) disaster assessment team which trained in responding to humanitarian crises.
  • The Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) maintained a highly-skilled, multi-purpose special operations force, prepared to operate at home and abroad in situations posing a threat to national interest by conducting individual and collective training with keys allies and Five Eyes partners. CANSOFCOM achieved success through the preparation and maintenance of high-readiness forces and command and control of its operational activities around the globe. All tasks assigned by the CDS or requests for assistance by other government departments, such as capacity building, were achieved, and those that span over multiple years are progressing successfully, which is further enabling and strengthening National Security. CANSOFCOM contributed to National Defence’s priorities of investing in our people and strengthening the organization by implementing Command-wide programs that promotes resilience, enhance performance, and set conditions for optimal rehabilitation across four core human dimension domains: Physical, Psychological, Spiritual, and Family. This is done in order to sustain and support operational readiness and performance excellence.

For more information, refer to the following websites:

Results achieved

Departmental Results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018-19 Actual results 2017-18
Actual results
2016-17
Actual results
2.1 Canadian Armed Forces are ready to conduct concurrent operations % of operations that are capable of being conducted concurrently
100% 31 March 2025
100% Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
% of force elements that are ready for operations in accordance with established targets
To be determined
by 31 March 2019
To be determined
by 31 March 2019
79% Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
For more information about the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces performance indicators, please visit GC InfoBaseFootnote lxvii.
Departmental Result 2.2 – Military equipment is ready for training and operations
  • The department has made progress towards the development and sustainment of capabilities needed to undertake the operations and exercises that take place in Canada and around the world and which depend on having the necessary trained personnel and military equipment — aircraft, ships, vehicles and weapons — in good working condition and at a certain level of readiness. This means that once equipment is made available, it is maintained in serviceable, or reliable, condition for use by the CAF. Equipment maintenance and repair involves civilian and military personnel and private sector firms. Spending in this area makes a significant contribution to the Canadian economy every year.
  • In response to the fall 2016 Reports of the Auditor General of Canada, the availability and serviceability of the various key equipment fleets of the CAF continued to be monitored during FY 2018-19, and we further improved our measurement of the availability and serviceability of equipment and its contribution to ensure the readiness of our forces and the effective delivery of operations. Highlights from 2018-19 include:
    • The availability and serviceability rates of all aircraft fleets continued to be monitored and reported on a monthly basis through a formalized process to ensure the readiness and the effective delivery of operations;
    • RCN vessels were maintained at the planned level of availability; however, serviceability was impacted by schedule changes required by submarines’ Transitional Docking Work Periods; and
    • The CA met its Force Posture and Readiness requirements for FY 2018-19 as well as its equipment readiness requirements related to training and institutional support. Command-driven equipment management programs such as the Canadian Army Equipment Readiness Programme (CAERP) aimed at improving equipment serviceability are in effect and being monitored closely. 

Results achieved

Departmental Results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2018-19 Actual results 2017-18
Actual results
2016-17
Actual results
2.2 Military equipment is ready for training and operations % of maritime key fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements 90% or greater* 31 March 2019 91.40% 95% 89%
% of land fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements 80% or greater* 31 March 2019 72%** Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
% of aerospace fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements 85% or greater* 31 March 2019 79.10%*** Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
Results Not Available
New indicator as of 2018-19
Notes:
 
* A portion of the fleet will normally be subject to repairs due to the use of the fleets and thus not be serviceable. As such, a target of 100% would not reflect a realistic goal. A healthy fleet should however reflect a low proportion of the fleet that is unserviceable in order to ensure that the appropriate level of training and readiness can be provided.
 
** Although the target of 80% was not achieved, the Canadian Army (CA) is on track to achieve it by FY 2023-24. As part of its improvement plan, for FY 2018-19, the CA aimed to increase its serviceability rate from 63 to 68%; the actual result was 72%. While there is an upward trend, aging fleets and the introduction of new equipment continue to remain a risk and will require ongoing mitigation through equipment management programs such as the Canadian Army Equipment Readiness Programme (CAERP).
 
*** The availability and serviceability rates of all aircraft fleets are monitored and reported on a monthly basis through a formalized process to ensure the readiness and the effective delivery of operations. The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) has implemented “Get Well” programs for CF-18 Fighter and CP-140 Long Range Patrol fleets to resolve serviceability and availability issues. The CF-18, which was adapted from the American F/A-18, is also known as the officially designated CF-188 in Canadian use. The CC-144 Challenger and CH-148 Cyclone fleets are also closely managed to maximize flying rates. The CC-144 Challenger and CH-148 Cyclone fleets are also closely managed to maximize flying rates.
 
For more information about the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces performance indicators, please visit GC InfoBaseFootnote lxviii.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

2018–19
Main Estimates

2018–19
Planned spending

2018-19
Total authorities
available for use
2018-19
Actual spending
(authorities used)
2018-19
Difference
(Actual spending
minus Planned
spending)
8,854,401,407 8,854,401,407 9,355,074,160 9,506,982,585 652,581,178

Human resources (full-time equivalents) 

2018–19
Planned full-time equivalents
2018–19
Actual full-time equivalents

2018–19
Difference
(Actual full-time equivalents minus
Planned full-time equivalents)
44,055 45,566 1,511

Financial, human resources, and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBaseFootnote lxix.

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