Ready Forces


Field combat ready forces able to succeed in an unpredictable and complex security environment in the conduct of concurrent operations associated with all mandated missions.


The Joint Managed Readiness Program continued to ensure different elements of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) are ready to conduct complex operations in contested, degraded and operationally limited environments through participation in, and execution of, Canadian and international exercises and training events.

FY 2022-23 saw the start of a significant change to how the CAF conducts force generation and training. Individual training and leadership production were prioritized to increase intake of CAF personnel to support readiness and operations.

To test responses, systems, and equipment, North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) regularly conducts exercises and readiness inspections that cover a range of scenarios to ensure the CAF is ready to respond to a full spectrum of threats. In FY 2022-23, the CAF participated in a series of Operation NOBLE DEFENDER events that demonstrated agile and dynamic force employment along the northern approaches to North America. Additionally, the CAF also participated in Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD, an annual homeland defence exercise demonstrating readiness and ability to defend Canada and the United States.


HMCS Winnipeg and HMCS Regina (not pictured) sail past the Greater Victoria Shoreline on route to Hawaii with their embarked Royal Canadian Air force CH-148 Cyclone Helicopters for the Rim of the Pacific exercise (RIMPAC) 6 August 2020.

Photo: MS Dan Bard, Canadian Forces Combat Camera, CAF photo.

The DND/CAF continued to improve Command, Control, Communications, Computers Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) readiness, in FY 2022-23 areas of focus for the CAF included:

  • Command and Control (C2) and cooperation with Arctic nations, including the United States through United States Northern Command, in the conduct of Arctic missions or operations;
  • Assessed technology trends, threats, and opportunities, and by exploited emerging technologies to include virtual Air, Maritime, Space, Cyber, and Information warfare environments. This was done to understand and enable the CAF, NORAD, and coalition combat training, testing, and experimentation towards Multi-Domain C2/Operations;
  • Participated in several cyber training activities to support Canadian and Continental Defence and to protect international interests from cyber threats, such as NORAD’s Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD, United Kingdom Ministry of Defence-led Exercise CYBER WARRIOR, and NATO’s Exercise CYBER COALITION;
  • Supported command and control intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance force developers with engineering support and project management; and
  • Continued improvements to allied interoperability of Unified Communications as guided by NORAD’s Combined Defence Information Management Panel and the Combined Communications Electronics Board.


Members of multiple nations conduct a firepower demonstration for media and special guests during Operation REASSURANCE at Camp Adazi, Latvia on 29 March 2023.

Photo: CAF photo.

Gender-Based Analysis plus

The Defence Team continued reviewing employment and training requirements with the purpose of striving to adopt a more targeted approach during the nomination process for all deployed positions to enable the deployment and employment of a more diverse force. This includes progress towards meeting the Government of Canada National Action Plan for Women Peace and Security objectives which aim to ensure that women participate in peace and security efforts, women and girls are empowered, and their human rights are upheld in fragile and conflict-affected states. In FY 2022-23, there was a focus on developing the Defence Team Implementation Plan under Canada’s upcoming Third National Action Plan for Women Peace and Security. Internal consultations took place to better understand the work being done in the Defence Team on issues within the Women Peace and Security agenda that can inform the upcoming Action Plan. Targeted consultations also took place with key civil society stakeholders on specific issues of relevance to the Defence Team’s work and aspirations for the upcoming National Action Plan. In addition, a Gender-Based Analysis plus (GBA Plus)/Women Peace and Security tool was co-developed by Canadian Forces Intelligence Command and Chief Professional Conduct and Culture to strengthen the integration of gender perspectives and Women Peace and Security issues within the intelligence production cycle. The tool has been disseminated to the Five Eyes community.

In FY 2022-23 as part of Canada’s commitment to the Elsie Initiative for Women in Peace Operations, the Defence Team released its Elsie Initiative Barrier Assessment - Results of the Measuring Opportunities for Women in Peace Operations Assessment for the Canadian Armed Forces. The Report identified barriers and opportunities to improve CAF women’s meaningful participation in United Nations peace support operations. The CAF has already started to address barriers directly related to the deployment of women on operations in recent years and is committed to doing more. It has implemented initiatives designed to recruit and retain women such as the expansion of parental leave, the creation of the Integrated Women’s Mentorship Network and Women in Force program, the modernization of dress instructions, and the introduction of an improved suite of operational clothing and equipment designed for diverse body types. The report highlighted the CAF’s progress on meeting United Nations targets for CAF women deployed to United Nations Peace support operations. In 2022, 20.2 percent of the CAF’s deployed Regular Force officers were women which met United Nations targets. So far in 2023, women in the CAF have also deployed at a similar rate as men to United Nations Peace support operations - 2.3 percent of women serving, 2.7 percent of men serving.

The Defence Team continued in FY 2022-23 to pursue the institutionalization of GBA Plus within the Canadian Army (CA) by increasing capacity and accountability for the development and implementation of policies, directives, and programs to better support One Army Team members. The GBA Plus tool assisted with establishing a psychological and physically safe work environment free of harmful behaviours. During FY 2022-23, some notable accomplishments were:

  • The CA established and staffed a Gender Focal Point position at the headquarters level to assist and guide Army leaders on gender issues. The Gender Focal Point advisor has commenced their training in the subject area;
  • The human dimensions advisor position was created and staffed in FY 2022-23 to act as specialist advisor within CA Doctrine and Training Center Headquarters with a focus on diversity, inclusivity, and gender perspectives to provide advice as it relates to CA Doctrine and Training policies, guidance documents and orders; and
  • The CA reinforced the various advisory groups throughout the FY 2022-23 that have been established to allow members to provide their views and advise leaders on challenges and solutions, providing another voice to One Army Team members. An example of such a group is 5th Division Inclusive Action Committee that works closely with Defence Advisory Groups to provide recommendations to the Army leadership within 5th Canadian Division.

More information on GBA Plus can be found in the “GBA Plus Supplementary Information Table” in the Supplementary Information Tables section of this report.

United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

RCAF continued to respond to The Defence Energy and Environment Strategy , specifically Targets 7 and 11:

  • Target 7 – Developed the RCAF Path to Net Zero Strategy, published at the end of 2023; and
  • Target 11 – Assessed the impacts of climate change on RCAF activities and communicated its findings and recommendations in the white paper titled “Assessing Climate Change Impacts on RCAF Operations.” which will guide subsequent initiatives and actions.


In FY 2022-23, DND/CAF continued experimentation in the development of Joint Ready Forces through the five following initiatives:

  • Joint Arctic Experiment 22: Experiments were conducted in the focus areas of Satellite Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JISR), Integrated Energy and Shelter Systems, and Detecting Risk of Cold Weather Injuries. The results of these experiments are still being tabulated and analyzed by DND/CAF scientists and should be available by the end of FY 2023-24;
  • BOLD QUEST 22: The Canadian Joint Warfare Centre provided the coordination for different DND organizations participating in BOLD QUEST 22, a United States led coalition capability demonstration and assessment series in which nations, services and programs pool their resources. CAF Joint capabilities were tested and proven interoperable within the parameters of the test;
  • Agile Pan-Domain Command and Control Experimentation Endeavour (APDCCXe) (Formerly known as the Multi Domain Command and Control Concept Development and Experimentation): The APDCCXe experimented with visualization, simulation, and decision support tools to create collaborative multi-domain situational awareness within the context of pan-domain operations;
  • Responsive Limited eXperiment (RLX): RLX initiatives, are designed to address short-term problems across all domains. In 2022 a RLX demonstrated a virtual collaboration visualization capability during the Coalition Warrior Interoperability Experiment in Poland; and
  • Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Data Fusion Experimentation: The Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Data Fusion Experimentation differs from the Responsive Limited eXperiment in investigation of longer timeframe problems specifically to learn, adapt and exploit new capabilities for data fusion in support to the National Defence Operation Intelligence Centre and various CAF Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance projects.

Combined, these initiatives assisted with meeting the responsibility for the development of concepts, organizational designs, and doctrine for assigned joint challenges.

Additional defence-related experimentation activities are outlined in this report under Core Responsibility 4 – Future Force Design.

Key Risks

There are many risks associated with the Ready Forces Core Responsibility. Three of the Key Corporate Risks is articulated below:

Military Strength – There is a risk that DND/CAF will not have the right military personnel, in the right numbers, at the right place, and at the right time.

Military Competencies – There is a risk that DND/CAF will not have the right military personnel, with the right competencies, in the right place and at the right time.

Materiel Maintenance – There is a risk that DND/CAF may have difficulty maintaining its materiel capabilities at the right level to support operations.

The risk above can affect the department’s ability to achieve the Departmental Results of the Ready Forces Core Responsibility.

As the Defence Departmental Results Framework reflects a chain of delivery from conceiving of the required armed forces, to developing them and then executing operations, the activities to mitigate the risks to the Ready Forces Core Responsibility can also be found in other Core Responsibilities which deliver building blocks that enable the results of Ready Forces.

Many of the preventative and mitigating controls for this risk are articulated as activities of each Departmental Result below.

Departmental Result 2.1 – Canadian Armed Forces are ready to conduct concurrent operations

During FY 2022-23, the CAF continued to force generate personnel, while mitigating the negative effects of the pandemic using evidence based public health measures. CAF medical personnel played an important role in safeguarding personnel during exercises and operations; ensuring that the CAF maintained the ability to generate ready forces.  

The CAF conducted and participated in training scenarios in domestic, continental and international contexts with Other Government Departments and agencies, allies, and partner nations to enhance integration, interoperability and joint readiness. In FY 2022-23 the following planned exercises took place:

  • Exercise BOLD QUEST: A United States led collaborative joint and multinational capability demonstration and assessment in which nations, services, and programs pool resources facilitating the interoperability of joint capabilities in their final stages of development,, with an overarching objective to improve interoperability and information-sharing across a range of coalition war-fighting capabilities;
  • Exercise JOINTEX, Joint Operations Symposium: Capability development and professional military education activities concluded in February 2023 related to how the CAF, and the broader Canadian National Security Team, must adapt to more effectively meet the Government of Canada’s security demands and defend Canadian national interests in the pan-domain environment. The main theme was reshaping and reinvesting in deterrence to better defend against threats to Canada and North America in a time of resurgent strategic competition;
  • Exercise VIGILANT SHIELD: An annual exercise between NORAD, United States Northern Command and the CAF, focused on the defence and security of North America;
  • Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC): The world’s largest international maritime exercise. Canada, as a founding nation, is one of only three nations to have participated in every exercise since 1971. This major CAF engagement activity provided an opportunity to work directly with the United States and regional defence partners in coalition operations and demonstrates Canada’s ongoing commitment to safeguarding the Indo-Pacific Region;
    • RIMPAC 22, the 28th iteration, took place in and around the Hawaiian Islands, from 29 June to 4 August 2022. Canada contributed approximately 800 Canadian sailors, aviators, and soldiers. The CAF’s contribution to RIMPAC 2022 included His Majesty's Canadian Ships (HMCS) Vancouver and Winnipeg, two CP-140 Aurora aircraft, and two CH-148 Cyclone helicopters. Canada also occupied key leadership positions, including Deputy Command of Combined Task Force RIMPAC, Command of the Combined Force Air Component Command, and Deputy Command of the Combined Force Maritime Component Command.
  • ENTERPRISE STORM: Is the premier Defense Intelligence Enterprise demonstration series to promote joint interoperability and integration between the Military Services, Defence Intelligence Agencies, Five Eyes allies and select coalition partners. ENTERPRISE STORM is sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defence for Intelligence and Security and it is managed by the United States National Geospatial Agency and the National Security Agency. ENTERPRISE STORM consists of an iterative approach to demonstrating and assessing intelligence capabilities that have the best potential to transition to real world operations in the near term. ENTERPRISE STORM is a series of demonstration and assessment events specifically tailored to help achieve the following two objectives:
    • Build a modern and resilient intelligence infrastructure and architecture; and
    • Leverage international partnerships as a combined and interdependent community.
  • Battlefield Information, Collection, and Exploitation System (BICES) BLACKJACK: Renamed with new iterations of BICES CATCH in 2022 and BICES ACE in March 2023, were hosted by NATO as an operational test initiative aimed at facilitating the execution of the JISR task, collect, process, exploit, and disseminate cycle among the BICES ISR nations. Due to resourcing constraints, the Defence team was unable to participate in both events. Personnel shortfalls are limiting CAF’s ability to fulfill commitments, including for North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) events; and
  • Ensured that the Information Technology infrastructure enables efficient and effective JISR integration, testing and evaluation of capabilities as well as training of JISR professionals with Five Eyes and NATO partners through already established mechanisms.


CAF members Captain James Locke, Captain Aaron Leblanc, Lieutenant (Navy) Kristopher Hicks, Sailor 1st Class Michael Raco (left to right), stand on parade during Exercise TRADEWINDS closing ceremony in Belize City, Belize, on 20 May 2022.

Photo: Cpl Alevtina Ostanin – Visual Communications Support (VCS), CAF photo.

  • Operation NANOOK – The operation was a successful cooperation of maritime, land and air forces which demonstrated Canada’s continued ability to operate in the High-Arctic. The focus was to deploy forces to the High Arctic to rehearse and enhance CAF capability and operate in austere and remote environments, while allowing for the integration of relevant science and technology. International partners and Other Government Departments were invited and integrated in each of the operation’s activity. Participating groups also contributed towards interoperability and reinforced partnerships between other Canadian Federal Departments and Agencies, Territorial and Indigenous Governments, and local organizations. In FY 2022-23, the following 4 activities were conducted under Operation NANOOK in support of Canada’s sovereignty over its northernmost regions:
    • Operation NANOOK-NUNAKPUT 22: The CAF conducted several patrols in the vicinity of Cambridge Bay and deployed observation teams along the Northwest Passage (NWP) to monitor maritime traffic. The operation was conducted with 400 CAF personnel and civilian partners. CAF personnel included assets from the RCAF, CA, RCN and Canadian Rangers;
    • Operation NANOOK-NUNALIVUT 23: 164 CAF members deployed in the Rankin Inlet region to conduct patrols and dive operations. In addition, civilians, and international participants were included in the activities;
    • Operation NANOOK-TATIGIIT 22: The CAF and regional partners conducted a planning exercise for disaster response, with participation from federal, territorial and municipal partners and agencies; and
    • Operation NANOOK-TUUGAALIK 22: RCN conducted a multinational exercise with allied partners from the United States, Denmark, and France in conjunction with Operation NUNAKPUT 22.
  • Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE 22 (EX MR22): This exercise validated named and contingency readiness elements using live simulation in a twelve-day force-on-force exercise, focused on the NATO Response Force remit. Validation was concentrated on Level 6 combined arms units within a Level 7 Brigade context. During the exercise, over 2,500 CA soldiers, joined and supported by multi-national forces, tested their abilities to integrate with joint capabilities from other CAF commands. The allied military participating on EX MR22 were from the United States and United Kingdom, with 750 and 180 members respectively. The exercise provided CA leaders, soldiers, other CAF personnel and allies with a unique opportunity to validate their combat readiness within a NATO construct using DATE EUROPE scenario. The requirement for flexible responses across a spectrum of scenarios challenged commanders at all levels. EX MR22 provided CA with its final certification for land and air element to accomplish forces contribution to NATO’s mandate;
  • Exercise UNIFIED RESOLVE 23: The largest computer-assisted simulation exercise, validated numerous levels of headquarters within a Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in all aspects of command and control, and planning in a joint and combined environment scenario. Using simulation, a challenging computer-assisted exercise tested planning and decision-making at multiple levels of the CA, supported by other CAF elements to work in a whole-of-government context. An enduring exercise, Exercise UNIFIED RESOLVE is a precursor to the CA’s Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE. Exercise UNIFIED RESOLVE is internationally recognized and seen by allies and partners as an opportunity to practice interoperability. The exercise provides participants an opportunity to enhance collective competence across a spectrum of scenarios. For this reason, the exercise also serves as a key training event for the Canadian Joint Operation Command’s high-readiness deployable 1 Canadian Division Headquarters;
  • Joint Readiness Training Centre: This venue, located at Fort Johnson, United States, is the premier collective field training exercise designed to train Battle Groups, Battalion Groups, and a Brigade Group. This training is conducted in a Large-Scale Combat Operation environment on a decisive action battlefield against a near-peer threat with multi-domain capabilities. The force-on-force training event includes full-time Opposing Forces, Observer Controller Trainers, and the Exercise Control Groups that ensure the most realistic, demanding, and rigorous battlefield environment. It is the culminating validation training exercise that support of the CA’s requirement to provide a Light Infantry Battalion Group as part of the Ready Land Forces necessary to meet Government of Canada’s requirements to be ready to conduct Domestic Support Operations and Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations. It also enhances interoperability by allowing a Canadian Battalion Groups to operate under a United States hosted Brigade;
  • Exercise TRADEWINDS: The CAF participated in this annual United States Southern Command exercise aimed at promoting regional security cooperation in Belize and Mexico from 7 to 21 May 2022. This exercise was conducted in the maritime, land, air, and cyber-space domains which provided participating nations opportunities to conduct joint, combined, and interagency training focused on increasing regional cooperation in complex multinational security operations. This exercise improved CAF skills in interdiction, security, and interagency cooperation while fostering strong relationships throughout the Caribbean region in areas of regional security and prosperity.
  • Exercise ARDENT DEFENDER: an international and inter-agency exercise planned and executed by the CA’s Joint Counter Explosive Threat Task Force that enables capability development, science and technology engagement, and exchange of best practices.
  • Exercise PRECISE RESPONSE 22: Occurred in July 2022 and was hosted at Canadian Forces Base Suffield and involved 390 participants from 12 nations (Canadian Army, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), NATO allies, and key partners). This premiere NATO exercise involved small teams of specialists and support personnel working together as a Combined Joint Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defence Task Force in support of NATO Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defence policy and plans.
  • COALITION SPACE FLAG 23-1: An annual Five Eyes exercise led by the United States Space Force. It is designed to provide space-focused training in synthetic, theatre-level, joint combat operations in contested and degraded combat environments. This exercise also provides an opportunity to interact with land, maritime, air, special operations, cyber, and space elements from multiple nations;
  • “DYNAMIC” SERIES (DYNAMIC MANTA, DYNAMIC MONGOOSE): DYNAMIC MANTA facilitates joint and combined training with NATO partners to further CAF capabilities. It is the second-largest joint/combined Anti-Submarine Warfare exercise (with RIMPAC as the largest) reflecting real world Anti-Submarine Warfare operations. DYNAMIC MONGOOSE is similar, with a focus on key NATO partners involved in real world Anti-Submarine Warfare operations;
  • GLOBAL ENGAGEMENT 22: GLOBAL ENGAGEMENT 21 was originally set to hold its capstone event in Germany in December 21. Due to the Omicron variant of COVID-19, it was pushed until March 22 in Washington, DC. RCAF had excellent representation throughout the entire planning and execution phases. GLOBAL ENGAGEMENT was determined to be an overall excellent Table-top exercise (TTX), well-attended by senior US Air Force (USAF) leadership, all the Five Eyes partners, as well as Nordic nations. It influenced the RCAF’s concepts work for 2022 and highlighted the need for additional investment in Canada's North. The RCAF determined that the event was very valuable and will endeavor to participate in its next iteration.
  • GLOBAL SENTINEL 22: The RCAF participated in GLOBAL SENTINEL 22, which took place in Vandenberg Space Force Base (VSFB), California from 25 July to 3 August 2022. The Capstone event brought together 25 multinational partners committed to cooperating and collaborating on issues for Space Situational Awareness. This collaboration and cooperation came in many forms to include space data sharing and analysis exchange. The 3 main training objectives were met: 1) Analyze threats to Canadian or Coalition assets and provide risk assessment; 2) Analyze space events and provide risk/impact assessments to support the Commander; 3) Build Canadian partnerships and evaluate the potential for future interoperability opportunities for Space Domain Awareness.
  • JOINT WARRIOR 22-2: JOINT WARRIOR 22-2 took place from 9 September to 15 October 2022. Force generation goals for this exercise were met despite overcoming weather issues due to a tropical storm that caused various delays.
  • NORTHERN VIKING 22: RCAF did not participate to NORTHERN VIKING 22. The Maritime Patrol fleet could not support the demands of the exercise due to other Force Generation commitments within the same timeframe. These commitments included the NATO-led exercise Dynamic Mongoose, an Anti-Submarine and Anti-Surface warfare exercise, and bringing together NATO's thirteen submarine nations: Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Poland, Portugal, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States of America.
  • Schriever Wargame: The RCAF participated in SCHRIEVER WARGAME 23, which took place at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama from 19 to 30 March 2023. It was the first in-person iteration since the start of COVID-19. The Capstone event brought together eight nations during the two-week event, designed to support concept development and inform decisions about future space mission responsibilities and operational architectures. The Wargame met expectations by exercising both Space and Cyber scenarios during an epoch that was ten years in the future.
  • The RCAF increased its participation in exercises in the Indo-Pacific region in line with Canada's Indo-Pacific Strategy and is expected to continue to do so in FY 2023-24. Notable exercises for FY 2022-23 included Exercise PITCH BLACK, a Royal Australian Air Force-led biennial 3-week multi-national large force employment exercise, and Exercise SEA DRAGON, a United States-led exercise designed to practice and discuss anti-submarine warfare tactics.


A Leopard 2A6 advances to support soldiers from 1st Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment as they hold a defensive line at Canadian Forces Base Wainwright Training Area during Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE 22 on 13 May 2022.

Photo: Corporal Jonathan King, Canadian Forces Support Group (Ottawa/Gatineau) Imaging Services, CAF photo.

In addition to the noted readiness exercises, Defence delivered on SEVERAL efforts that focused on the readiness of the CAF, including the following items:

  • The Canadian Army Modernization Strategy (CAMS), published December 2020, was ‘operationalized’ in FY 2021-22 to enable the implementation of the strategy. The four Lines of Effort and 19 initiatives in CAMS were subdivided into 105 sub-initiatives to focus, refine, and assign responsibility as well as track progress of each activity. In FY 2022-23, two sub-initiatives within the priority investments domain have been discontinued as they are nested within larger efforts. Progress has been made on 85 of the remaining 103 sub-initiatives;
  • Modernization efforts have focused on embracing forward thinking concepts such as digitalization, doctrine, and organizational structure that are more inclusive and modernized. CAMS activities have been aligned with ongoing culture change and reconstitution initiatives at the L0 level. Key results from the highest priority initiatives are presented below:
    • Human Dimension – The CA has established a Professional Conduct and Culture section to progress and align organizational efforts with Chief of Professional Conduct and Culture (CPCC). CA has taken concrete steps to implement culture change including 1) mandatory annual harassment training, 2) Indigenous culture awareness training, 3) workshops on sexual trauma and inappropriate conduct, 4) release of revised policies on hateful conduct, and 5) awareness training on hateful conduct. The CA worked with Chief of Military Personnel towards streamlining and improving recruiting, retention, component transfers, and modernizing administrative policies;
    • Posture for Concurrency – A new model to manage the readiness cycle has been developed, called the enhanced Managed Readiness Cycle, which assigns specific tasks to Divisions/units throughout the cycle. This will focus the CA Force Generation efforts. The analysis to develop the concept of a Global Reaction Task Force based on the Light Infantry Battalion has been initiated to deliver a new capacity by the CA. The Armoured Corps realignment has been endorsed to include the heavy capability to be centralized out West and the realignment of personnel and equipment to enable the Light Squadron;
    • One Army Integration –To date, the Army Reserve Mission Tasks have been reviewed to align with the Force Generation capacity of the units. Work has begun and is continuing to define the Reserve integration model as part of the enhanced Managed Readiness Plan; and
    • Priority Investments – Force 2025 serves as the first waypoint towards modernization of the CA. To seek to improve efficiency, the CA Intelligence Rebalancing Master Implementation Plan has been published to fully assess the feasibility to centralize Intelligence assets to improve the force generation capacity. New capability in Air Defence will be provided as part of the Master Implementation Directive for the Royal Canadian Artillery.
  • During FY 2022-23, Force 2025 conducted detailed analysis to: better define the required readiness levels of each unit; assess the required staffing realignment necessary to bolster its institutional and field support, and; modernize the CA structure to better manage its resources and to integrate new capabilities;
  • During FY 2022-23, an enhanced Managed Readiness Plan has been developed to ensure the proper structure and readiness are in place to support CA operational requirements. This will better define the required readiness levels of each unit and assess the required staffing realignment necessary to bolster CA institutional and field support; and
  • Another supporting initiative of the 2025 plan related to the Canadian Army Sustainment trial, which is analyzing authorities, responsibilities, and accountabilities from a Support perspective. The Sustainment modernization efforts are also including equipment reallocation trials to determine future Canadian Army equipment entitlements based on potential new organizational structures.

During FY 2022-23, as part of reconstitution efforts, the CA has reinvigorated governance processes placing a renewed focus on personnel generation. The CA Personnel Generation Committee and the Reserve Annual Military Occupational Review has synchronized strategic direction with the tactical outcomes of growth, training, and retention. The most notable change during FY 2022-23 is that the CA entered into a Service Level Agreement with Director General Military Careers that resulted in reducing Army Reserve (ARes) to Regular Force (Reg F) component transfer timelines from 365+ days down to around 100 days.

The CA is conducting a comprehensive review of the Canadian Rangers as part of Strong, Secure, Engaged (SSE): Canada's Defence Policy initiative 108 that extends beyond mere growth. In June 2022, the CA stood up a team under the Director Canadian Rangers to formulate a comprehensive CR Enhancement design, including a revised Force employment concept.

The review on the processes and mechanisms that govern the provision and employment of the equipment necessary for the CR to execute their mission was completed in collaboration with Director of Compensation and Benefits Administration in FY 2021-22. The CA with Director of Compensation and Benefits Administration took action to streamline the processes and mechanisms that govern compensation for loss or damage of CR personal equipment. A review of these processes and mechanisms is underway to find additional efficiencies to further expedite compensation.


Two members of the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) perform close quarter battle engagement during a training at Canadian Forces Base Petawawa, Ontario, September 2022.

Photo: CANSOFCOM Imaging.

The Canadian Special Operations Forces Command remained postured at a very high readiness level to respond to emerging crisis situations or threats to Canadians and Canadian interests. Further, the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command contributed to the CAF’s ability to anticipate threats.

In FY 2022-23, the Defence Team continued to improve the CAF’s Command, Control, Communications, Computers Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance C4ISR readiness, in particular:

  • Integrated CAF C4ISR within the NATO and Five Eyes environment to enhance communication and information exchange capabilities while directly supporting the warfighter and senior decision makers; and
  • Sustained C2 and cooperation with Arctic nations, including the United States through United States Northern Command, in the conduct of Arctic missions, operations and exercises.


Members of multiple nations conduct a firepower demonstration for media and special guests during Operation REASSURANCE at Camp Adazi, Latvia on 29 March 2023.

Photo: CAF photo.

Results achieved

The following table shows, for the Department of National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces, the results achieved, the performance indicators, the targets and target dates for FY 2022–23, and the actual results for the three most recent fiscal years for which actual results are available.

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2020–21 Actual results 2021–22 Actual results 2022-23 Actual results
2.1 Canadian Armed Forces are ready to conduct concurrent operations % of operations that are capable of being conducted concurrently 100% 31 March 2025 100% 100% 40%Footnote *
% of force elements that are ready for operations in accordance with established targets 100% 31 March 2025 71.7% 71% 61%Footnote **

Financial, human resources, and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

Departmental Result 2.2 – Military equipment is ready for training and operations

Equipment is made available to support CAF training and operational requirements through the Equipment Support Program, which is primarily funded through the National Procurement corporate accounts. National Procurement (NP) is the term given to DND Corporate accounts aligned to the in-service equipment sustainment (maintenance, engineering support, engineering changes and inventory replenishment) and disposal of aerospace, land, maritime, as well as ammunition and common use materiel such as uniforms and test equipment.

In FY 2022-23, NP spending increased to approximately $3.6 billion which is close to pre-pandemic spending. Despite this marked increase in the NP spending trend however; the National Procurement Program will continue to see a decline in capabilities it provides to the CAF aging fleets, the expansion of mandated activities, increased contract costs, inflation and supply chain challenges are continuing to exert additional pressure on the equipment support program, and are contributing to the reduction in equipment availability and serviceability.

In FY 2022-23, the RCAF strived to address many operational and training deficiencies by leveraging its minor capital project program. It continued to advance enhancements to its processes and governance to accelerate capability delivery and improve return on investments. Numerous new projects leveraging those processes were approved to work towards the elimination of RCAF operational capability deficiencies. An example which contributed to the $54 million in capital expended on minor projects was the CH-147 Extended Range Fueling System. This project was developed to replace and increase capacity of the add-on fuel tanks for the CH-147 Chinook, which will effectively double its operational range, as well as allow it to refuel other deployed aircraft. This year, the contract for the project was signed, equipment was delivered, and its preparation for upgrade is nearly complete. The full capability is expected to be delivered in early in FY 2024-25.

The introduction and operationalizing of the Arctic and Offshore Patrol Vessel (AOPV) continued throughout FY 2022-23, continuing the work of enhancing the DND and CAF’s ability to assert Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic, integrate with a range of government and international partners, and support international operations.

In April 2022, His Majesty’s Canadian Ship (HMCS) Harry DeWolf sailed south to the Caribbean and successfully conducted Operation CARIBBE. HMCS Margaret Brooke, the second ship of the class, continued sailing for post-acceptance trials during this period, namely warm weather trials in the vicinity of the Bahamas. Though incomplete due to some technical and environmental issues, this trial largely proved the AOPV’s ability to operate in a tropical environment. Building on the momentum gained in FY 2021-22, the CAF continued to progress integration of the CH-148 Cyclone helicopter, conducting the first-of-class Air Readiness Inspection which highlighted what rectifications are required to fully integrate an embarked helicopter.

Both HMCS Harry DeWolf and Margaret Brooke were to deploy, in consort, to the Arctic for Operation NANOOK TUUGAALIK and NUNAKPUT from 2 August 2022 to 29 September 2022, but due to unforeseen technical issues, only HMCS Margaret Brooke participated in the operation in consort with HMCS Goose Bay. Their presence in the Arctic contributed to the surveillance activities of the Northern maritime approaches of Canada – a NORAD mission, and the development of meaningful and longstanding relationships between the ship and its affiliated region. HMCS Margaret Brooke conducted a visit to Hopedale, Newfoundland and Labrador, during which they conducted an affiliation ceremony with the Nunatsiavut Government. This ceremony was of great importance as it strengthened the relationships between the community, the ship, and the CAF. Upon returning from their first operational deployment, HMCS Margaret Brooke was commissioned on 28 October 2022.

2 September 2022, saw the operational status transfer of the class’s third ship, HMCS Max Bernays, from Irving Shipyards to DND. The same technical issues with both HMCS Harry DeWolf and Margaret Brooke were identified in Max Bernays which led to a delay in their program. The ship commenced its post-delivery work period but did not transfer from Assistant Deputy Minister (Materiel) ADM(Mat) to DND, delaying their scheduled fleet activities (Basic Single Ship Readiness Training, post acceptance trials) beyond the reporting period.

The CA continues to work towards serviceability targets outlined in the Equipment Readiness Plan. Current CA initiatives to assist with meeting Force Posture and Readiness targets include:

  • A review of preventive maintenance cycles for certain fleets in accordance with federal and provincial standards;
  • A simplification of time accounting processes for technicians to ensure standardized and accurate data;
  • A review of fleet-specific serviceability targets based on updated force posture and readiness commitments; and
  • A review of potential infrastructure and technological improvements (Wi-Fi, additional computers and tablets, etc.) to assist technicians in meeting the demands of increasingly complex equipment.


Members of the Canadian Armed Forces prepare to disembark Light Armoured Vehicles (LAV 6) during a simulated assault in the Wainwright training area during Exercise MAPLE RESOLVE on 11 May 2022.

Photo: S1 Zach Barr, CAF photo.

Results achieved

The following table shows, for the Department of National Defence and Canadian Armed Forces, the results achieved, the performance indicators, the targets and the target dates for FY 2022–23, and the actual results for the three most recent fiscal years for which actual results are available.

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2020–21 Actual results 2021–22 Actual results 2022-23 Actual results
2.2 Military equipment is ready for training and operations % of maritime key fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements in support of concurrent operations At least 60%Footnote * 31 March 2023 94.1% 54% 51.2%Footnote **
% of land fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements in support of concurrent operations At least 70% 31 March 2023 62.7% 65.8% 56%Footnote ***
% of aerospace fleets that are serviceable to meet training and readiness requirements in support of concurrent operations At least 85% 31 March 2023 55% 43% 43.88%Footnote ****

Financial, human resources, and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

The following table shows, for Ready Forces, budgetary spending for FY 2022-23, as well as actual spending for that year.

2022–23 Main Estimates 2022–23 Planned spending 2022–23 Total authorities available for use 2022–23 Actual spending (authorities used) 2022–23 Difference (actual spending minus planned spending)
10,453,990,709 10,453,990,709 10,920,133,852 10,796,359,609 342,368,900

Financial, human resources and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces’ Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

Human resources (full-time equivalents)

The following table shows, in full‑time equivalents, the human resources the department needed to fulfill this core responsibility for FY 2022-23.

2022-23 Planned full-time equivalents 2022-23 Actual full-time equivalents 2022-23 Difference (actual full-time equivalents minus planned full-time equivalents)
46,143 43,777 (2.366)

Financial, human resources, and performance information for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces Program Inventory is available in the GC InfoBase.

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