United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP)
International Operation Name: United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka
International Mission Name: United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP)
Mandating Organization: United Nations
Region Name: Europe
Location: Prevlaka Peninsula, Croatia
Mission Date: 1 February 1996 - 15 December 2002
Mission Mandate: To monitor the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula and of the neighbouring areas in Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and hold regular meetings with the local authorities in order to strengthen liaison, reduce tensions, improve safety and security and promote confidence between the parties.
Mission/Operation Notes: The Prevlaka peninsula dominates the entrance to Kotor Bay (Boka Kotorska) where the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's military maintains its main naval base. It is a strategically important area about 45 kilometers south east of the Croatian coastal city of Dubrovnik.
With the outbreak of war in 1991 and the capturing of territory south of Dubrovnik by FRY forces, dispute over ownership of the peninsula led to increased tensions between Croatia and the FRY. This resulted in the United Nations intervening and negotiating an agreement to demilitarize the region. In October 1992 the first military observers from the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) were deployed to the area to monitor the agreement. At the end of UNPROFOR's mandate in March of 1995, this responsibility was passed to the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), which carried on the monitoring until the completion of its mandate in January of 1996. This led to the passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1038(1996), by which the United Nations established the United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) to carry on the work started by the two previous missions.
UNMOP's area of responsibility was a demilitarized zone (DMZ) stretching from the tip of the Prevlaka peninsula up to the tripartite border between Croatia, Montenegro, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Divided into Blue and Yellow zones, the Blue zones were free of military, police and civilians while police, carrying small arms only, could occupy positions in the Yellow. Except when restrictions of movement were imposed by either party, observers conducted regular vehicle, foot and standing patrols throughout both areas.
Though Canada's participation in UNMOP ended in September 2001, it was not until 10 December 2002 that the governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia signed an agreement establishing a provisional cross-border regime on the Prevlaka peninsula. On 15 December 2002, the handover to the regime started and by the end of December it was complete, thus ending UNMOP's presence in the area.
Canadian Forces (CF) Information (CHAPERON)
Date: 1 January 1996 - 1 September 2001
CF Mission/Operation Notes: UNMOP consisted of twenty-eight military observers from 25 countries, to which Canada contributed one observer at any one time under the operation name Op CHAPERON. The Canadian deployment was for one year, with team members being rotated among the various Team and HQ appointments according to their individual abilities and suitability approximately every four months.
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