Operation MARITIME GUARD
International Operation Name: Operation MARITIME GUARD
International Mission Name: Operation MARITIME GUARD
Mandating Organization: United Nations
Region Name: Europe
Location: Former Yugoslavia
Mission Date: 22 November 1992 - 15 June 1993
Mission Mandate: To enforce the United Nations embargo against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Mission/Operation Notes: In late 1991 and early 1992, The UN Security Council imposed sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) through resolutions 713 and 757, but these resolutions and the resultant embargoes had little effect in halting the violence in the former Yugoslavia, and more especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Following up these Chapter VII actions, the Security Council passed Resolution 787 on 16 November 1992, which further tightened the embargo.
On 20 November, the North Atlantic Council (NAC) approved the commitment of NATO forces in support of the resolution, and in coordination with Western European Union (WEU) forces in the Adriatic. At 1600 hours, 22 November, those NATO forces participating in Operation MARITIME MONITOR were directed to start the new operation - Operation MARITIME GUARD. These forces included the Standing Naval Force Mediterranean and NATO Airborne Early Warning Force (NAEWF) aircraft flying from Geilenkirchen, Germany. WEU forces included maritime patrol aircraft and war ships conducted under the name Operation SHARP FENCE.
On 17 April 1993, the United Nations passed Resolution 820 that further tightened the embargo. This resolution authorized the use of force if required when enforcing the sanctions, even into the territorial waters of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). NATO forces began enforcing this resolution on 29 April.
Operations Maritime Guard and Sharp Fence ended on 15 June 1993 when NATO began Operation SHARP GUARD, the joint NATO - WEU enforcement operation. During Op Maritime Guard, 12,367 merchant vessels were contacted, 1,032 were inspected and nine found to be in violation of the UN embargo.
Canadian Forces (CF) Information (MARITIME GUARD)
CF Mission/Operation Notes: With NATO and WEU forces operating in different patrol areas, hailing vessels and determining their status, some coordination was required between the aircraft and ships of the two forces. NAEWF aircraft provided this coordination. Canadian Forces participation in Op Maritime Guard and Op Sharp Fence was through the Canadian Contingent NATO Airborne Early Warning Force, located at Geilenkirchen, Germany. These personnel were integrated into the various aircrews flying the E3A aircraft.
Additionally, in 1992 Canada began sending maritime patrol aircraft (MPA - CP 140 Aurora) to the Mediterranean to familiarize the air and ground crews with the different working environments in the eventuality that they may deploy to this region. These MPA flew from Nimes-Garon, France and Sigonella, Italy. 415 Squadron had five such deployments in 1993, and 405 Squadron one. Of these, one deployment from 415 Squadron was in support of Op Maritime Guard.
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