Employment Equity Act: Annual report 2017

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Message from the Minister

2017

When Canadian workplaces are diverse and equitable, our middle class is stronger and our economy thrives. Workplaces that make diversity and equity a priority know that it is not only the right thing to do, it is also the smart thing to do.

Our government knows that increasing the number of women, Canadians from underrepresented groups, Canadians with disabilities and Indigenous people in the workforce will help grow our economy in a way that benefits everyone.

But we cannot foster more diverse and equitable workplaces alone, which is why our partnerships with employers and the labour movement will be essential as we work to implement pay equity, pay transparency and flexible work arrangements, and as we continue to promote good-quality jobs, modernize federal employment standards and eliminate workplace harassment and violence.

Through our shared commitment to creating equitable, diverse and inclusive workplaces, we will help grow our middle class, help those working hard to join it and build a country where every Canadian has a real chance to succeed.

With this in mind, I’m pleased to present the Employment Equity Act: Annual Report 2017. This year marks the 30th edition of the report, which outlines the progress made by federally regulated private-sector employers towards achieving equality and fairness in workplaces across Canada.

While progress has been made, there is still work to be done. A more diverse, equitable and inclusive workforce is key to ensuring all Canadians can benefit from our economic growth. I encourage all employers to continue their efforts to create equitable workplaces that are truly inclusive and representative of the diversity of our country.

The Honourable Patty A. Hajdu, P.C., M.P.

Minister of Employment, Workforce Development and Labour

Introduction

The purpose of the Act is to achieve equality in the workplace so that no person shall be denied employment opportunities or benefits for reasons unrelated to ability. In the fulfilment of that goal, the Act seeks to correct the conditions of disadvantage in employment experienced by women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities.

The Act gives effect to the principle that employment equity means more than treating persons in the same way but also requires special measures and the accommodation of differences. 

Under the Employment Equity Act (the Act), it is the duty of the Minister responsible for Labour to submit an annual report to Parliament on the status of employment equity in the federally regulated private sector.Footnote 1 This document consolidates and highlights the statistical results achieved by employers subject to the Legislated Employment Equity ProgramFootnote 2 during the 2016 calendar year for the four designated groups: women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. While qualitative data from employers is not consolidated in this report, it is used in program and policy development to support employers in achieving employment equity.

Data from 2015 is included throughout the report to allow for year-to-year comparisons.

Federally regulated private sectors

Employers are organized by sector, based on the classification of the majority of their workforce using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The federally regulated private-sector workforce comprises four sectors:

  • Banking and Financial Services: Includes all major Canadian banks and other establishments primarily engaged in financial transactions or in facilitating transactions.
  • Communications: Comprises businesses that operate radio and television broadcasting studios and facilities, as well as telecommunications services providers.
  • Transportation: Consists of employers in the air, rail, bus, water and pipeline transportation industries; inter-provincial trucking; postal service; couriers; as well as warehousing and storage.
  • ‘Other’: Encompasses a diverse group of employers working in industries such as nuclear power generation; metal ore mining; professional, scientific and technical services; investigation and security services; construction; food and wood manufacturing; wholesale trade; arts, entertainment and recreation; and public administration.

About the data

Employment equity encourages the establishment of working conditions that are free of barriers, corrects the conditions of disadvantage in employment and promotes the principle that equality requires special measures and the accommodation of differences.

The most common quantitative measure of employment equity is the extent to which the representation of members of designated groups in the employers’ workforce meets their representation in the Canadian workforce. The representation of each of the four designated groups is compared to their availability in the Canadian labour market—referred to as labour market availability (LMA). A workforce is considered fully representative when the representation of designated group members is equal to their LMA.

The extent to which the representation of a particular designated group approaches, meets or surpasses LMA is referred to as the attainment rate of LMA. This indicator allows for the identification of gaps between the representation of a particular designated group and its LMA. For example, if a designated group’s representation is below the LMA, the attainment rate of LMA will be less than 100% and further analysis may be required to understand if barriers to employment exist and where appropriate measures would need to be implemented.

Progress has been made when the gap between a designated group’s representation and LMA narrows (in other words the attainment rate approaches 100%) or when a group’s representation equals or exceeds LMA (in other words the attainment rate equals or surpasses 100%).

Other quantitative indicators of equality include salary ranges, as well as shares of hires, promotions and terminations. This report provides details on each of these indicators for the four designated groups.

The current LMA data for women, Aboriginal peoples and members of visible minorities is obtained from Statistics Canada’s 2011 National Household Survey. Data for persons with disabilities is obtained from the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability, also conducted by Statistics Canada. Additional information regarding data used for employment equity purposes can be found in Appendix B.

Representation is the share of designated groups in a given labour force (for example the entire federally regulated private-sector workforce, the banking and financial services sector or an individual bank).

Labour market availability refers to the share of designated group members in the workforce from which the employers could hire.

Attainment rate of labour market availability refers to the extent to which representation approaches, meets or exceeds labour market availability by dividing the representation rate by the LMA rate.

Note for the 2017 Annual Report: To better align the employment equity sector data with the NAICS code structure, some employers were reclassified in 2017. The new sector classification methodology has been applied to the 2015 data presented in this report to allow for year-to-year comparisons. A table summarizing the changes is provided in Appendix B.

Section 1 - The federally regulated private sector

Overview

For the 2016 calendar year, 477 employers submitted a report to the Minister responsible for Labour. Together, these employers had a total of 720,092 employees across Canada, which represents approximately 3.7%Footnote 3 of the Canadian workforce.

Table 1 indicates that overall, members of visible minorities made the most progress from 2015 to 2016, increasing their overall representation by one full percentage point. Members of visible minorities were the only designated group whose representation continued to surpass Canadian LMA, with an overall attainment rate of LMA increasing from 119.1% in 2015 to 124.7% in 2016.

Table 1: Designated Group Representation and Attainment Rate of Canadian LMA* for the Federally Regulated Private Sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Federally regulated private sector (Overall) Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
% % % %
2015 Representation 41.0 2.2 3.0 21.2
2016 Representation 40.7 2.3 3.3 22.2
Change in representation -0.3 +0.1 +0.3 +1.0
2015 Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 85.1 62.9 61.2 119.1
2016 Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 84.4 65.7 67.3 124.7
Canadian LMA 48.2 3.5 4.9 17.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Chart 1 provides an overview of the extent to which representation approaches, meets or exceeds LMA for the four groups covered by the Act. The chart shows that Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities have made progress towards LMA since 1987 and members of visible minorities have surpassed LMA. However, the attainment rate of Canadian LMA for women has been declining since reaching its highest attainment rate in 1990 (99.4%). In addition, 2016 marked the lowest attainment rate of Canadian LMA (84.5%) for women. The attainment rate of Canadian LMA for Aboriginal peoples reached 65.1% in 2016, its highest level in the last 11 years. The attainment rate of Canadian LMA for Aboriginal peoples, while still below full representation in the federally regulated private sector, has more than doubled since the Act came into force. However, it remains the lowest attainment rate of Canadian LMA of all designated groups. The attainment rate of Canadian LMA for persons with disabilities continued on an upward trend, reaching its highest level in 2016 (67.0%). The only group whose representation has continued to surpass LMA is members of visible minorities, making additional progress from 2015 (119.0%) to 2016 (124.4%).

Chart 1: Designated Groups Attainment Rate of Canadian LMA* from 1987 to 2016 (%)
Chart 1: Designated Groups Attainment Rate of Canadian  LMA* from 1987 to 2016 (%)
Show data tablefor Chart 1: Designated Groups Attainment Rate of Canadian LMA* from 1987 to 2016 (%)
Year Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
1987 93.0 31.4 29.4 79.3
1988 95.3 34.0 31.2 90.0
1989 96.6 37.7 43.3 105.9
1990 99.4 40.6 44.3 112.5
1991 96.3 32.1 38.6 83.1
1992 97.3 33.7 39.1 86.9
1993 99.1 34.8 39.5 88.5
1994 96.7 36.7 40.4 90.4
1995 96.9 39.1 42.0 97.1
1996 96.6 57.9 40.9 89.3
1997 96.0 61.3 35.6 93.9
1998 95.2 62.7 34.8 95.7
1999 96.1 69.4 36.8 101.2
2000 94.3 70.3 35.7 103.6
2001 94.8 59.8 43.2 92.6
2002 93.9 63.9 44.3 97.0
2003 93.0 63.6 43.8 101.0
2004 91.8 64.7 48.0 105.5
2005 91.5 67.8 50.9 111.6
2006 89.9 57.1 54.5 97.5
2007 89.2 61.2 55.0 103.8
2008 88.9 60.5 54.3 108.3
2009 88.2 60.8 54.2 111.9
2010 87.0 62.7 53.1 116.1
2011 85.5 56.4 52.2 102.1
2012 84.9 58.4 53.5 104.7
2013 86.2 60.7 55.4 110.0
2014 85.8 60.9 56.6 114.7
2015 85.1 63.1 60.4 119.0
2016 84.5 65.1 67.0 124.4

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2006 Census; 1986 and 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey; 2001 and 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey; 2011 National Household Survey; and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Note: In 1996, the Census methodology for calculating LMA of Aboriginal peoples changed, causing a drop in LMA.

In 2001, Statistics Canada began using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to define disability rather than the 1980 International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps; this resulted in a drop in LMA for persons with disabilities

Table 2 shows that 44.0% of employees in the federally regulated private sector earned less than $60,000 in 2016. Women were less likely to make salaries of $50,000 or more than any other designated group or employees.

Table 2: Salaries by designated groups of federally regulated private-sector employees in permanent full-time employment as of December 31, 2016 (%)
Salary range All employees Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
Cumulative* Representation Cumulative* Representation Cumulative* Representation Cumulative* Representation Cumulative*
Under $15,000 0.6 30.2 0.5 4.5 1.2 2.1 0.4 21.7 0.6
$15,000 to $19,999 0.8 37.8 0.6 3.3 1.4 3.7 0.6 18.6 0.7
$20,000 to $24,999 1.3 48.6 1.4 2.6 2.1 2.6 1.0 19.3 1.2
$25,000 to $29,999 2.9 52.6 3.5 3.3 4.4 3.1 2.5 24.0 2.9
$30,000 to $34,999 6.2 52.7 8.1 3.0 8.8 4.1 6.6 25.1 6.7
$35,000 to $39,999 12.0 50.5 15.8 2.5 15.3 4.0 13.6 26.2 13.6
$40,000 to $44,999 19.4 49.5 25.4 2.2 22.6 3.5 21.6 25.4 22.1
$45,000 to $49,999 26.7 47.0 34.3 2.1 29.3 3.6 29.4 25.3 30.3
$50,000 to $59,999 44.0 43.1 53.8 2.3 47.4 3.7 48.9 21.7 47.3
$60,000 to $69,999 57.8 35.6 66.7 2.3 61.8 3.2 62.5 20.5 60.1
$70,000 to $84,999 72.1 32.9 78.9 2.2 75.9 3.2 76.2 22.0 74.3
$85,000 to $99,999 81.5 32.5 87.0 2.1 84.8 3.0 84.7 22.8 84.0
$100,000 and over 100.0 27.0 100.0 1.8 100.0 2.7 100.0 19.2 100.0
Total 100.0 38.2 100.0 2.2 100.0 3.3 100.0 22.2 100.0

* Each figure in the Cumulative % columns represents the cumulative total percentage of each designated group in the identified salary range or lower.

Federally regulated private sectors

This section provides an analysis of the composition of the federally regulated private sector by each of the sectors that comprise it.

Table 3 shows that overall, the number of employers and of employees decreased by -1.9% and -1.4% respectively from 2015 to 2016. While the banking and financial services sector accounts for less than 10% of employers in the federally regulated private sector, it employs about a third of all federally regulated employees. The transportation sector saw the largest decline in the number of employers (-2.4%), while the communications sector was most impacted by a reduction in the number of employees (-5.0%). The majority of employers in the transportation sector operated in the ground transportation subsector. The number of employers in the ‘other’ sector remained stable between 2015 and 2016, but this sector was the only one to experience an increase in the number of employees (+2.8%). The service industries subsector had the most significant increase in the number of employees (+6.2%).

Table 3: Federally regulated private-sector employers and employees in 2015 and 2016
Sector Employers* Employees
2015 2016 Change (%) 2015 2016 Change (%)
# % # % # % # %
Banking and financial services 36 7.4 36 7.5 0.0 238,575 32.7 237,225 32.9 -0.6
Communications 54 11.1 53 11.1 -1.9 140,445 19.2 133,492 18.5 -5.0
Transportation 334 68.7 326 68.3 -2.4 296,715 40.6 293,113 40.7 -1.2
Air transportation 83 24.9 84 25.8 +1.2 82,452 27.8 83,751 28.6 +1.6
Ground transportation 215 64.4 207 63.5 -3.7 196,980 66.4 191,601 65.4 -2.7
Water transportation 36 10.8 35 10.7 -2.8 17,283 5.8 17,761 6.1 +2.8
'Other' 62 12.8 62 13.0 0.0 54,750 7.5 56,262 7.8 +2.8
Production industries 29 46.8 28 45.2 -3.4 30,229 55.2 30,229 53.7 0.0
Service industries 33 53.2 34 54.8 +3.0 24,521 44.8 26,033 46.3 +6.2
All sectors 486 100% 477 100% -1.9 730,485 100% 720,092 100% -1.4

* The number of employers in the federally regulated private sector can change from year to year as a result of mergers, acquisitions, closures, start-ups or organizations fluctuating above or below the 100-employee threshold.

Table 4A shows that in the banking and financial services sector, the representation of women and members of visible minorities continued to surpass Canadian LMA in 2016. This sector also made gains for persons with disabilities, bringing their Canadian LMA attainment rate from 81.6% in 2015 to 91.8% in 2016. The representation of persons with disabilities and of members of visible minorities both surpassed sector LMA, with an attainment rate above 100%.

Table 4A: Representation and attainment rate of Canadian and sector LMA* of designated group members in the banking and financial sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Banking and financial services sector Women Aboriginalpeoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
2015 representation 59.9 1.3 4.0 30.2
2016 representation 58.8 1.3 4.5 31.3
Change in representation -1.1 0.0 +0.5 +1.1
2015 attainment rate of sector LMA 96.8 81.3 121.2 114.0
2016 attainment rate of sector LMA 95.0 81.3 136.4 118.1
Banking and financial services sector 61.9 1.6 3.3 26.5
2015 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 124.3 37.1 81.6 169.7
2016 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 122.0 37.1 91.8 175.8
Canadian LMA 48.2 3.5 4.9 17.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 4B indicates that in the communications sector, the representation of members of visible minorities continued to surpass Canadian LMA (attainment level of 127% in 2016), with representation increasing by 2.8 percentage points from 2015 to 2016, an increase well above the other designated groups. When compared to sector LMA, Aboriginal peoples reached full representation in 2016 and members of visible minorities continued to exceed sector LMA. Overall, while the attainment rate of women remained stable for both Canadian and sector LMA, the other groups experienced increases of approximately 20 percentage points in the attainment rate of sector LMA and of at least 10 percentage points in the attainment rate of Canadian LMA.

Table 4B: Representation and attainment rate of Canadian and sector LMA* of designated group members in the communications sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Communications sector Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
2015 representation 36.3 1.8 2.5 19.8
2016 representation 35.7 2.3 3.4 22.6
Change in representation -0.6 +0.5 +0.9 +2.8
2015 attainment rate of sector LMA 80.7 78.3 49.0 143.5
2016 attainment rate of sector LMA 79.3 100.0 66.7 163.8
Communication sector LMA 45.0 2.3 5.1 13.8
2015 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 75.3 51.4 51.0 111.2
2016 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 74.1 65.7 69.4 127.0
Canadian LMA 48.2 3.5 4.9 17.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 4C indicates that in the transportation sector, representation remained generally stable from 2015 to 2016. While none of the designated groups reached or surpassed Canadian LMA, the representation of women exceeded sector LMA with an attainment rate of almost 120% in 2016. The representation of persons with disabilities remained low in 2016 compared to both sector and Canadian LMA.

Table 4C: Representation and attainment rate of Canadian and sector LMA* of designated group members in the transportation sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Transportation sector Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
2015 representation 30.3 2.8 2.5 15.9
2016 representation 30.7 2.8 2.5 16.0
Change in representation +0.4 0.0 0.0 +0.1
2015 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 117.9 84.8 42.4 81.5
2016 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 119.5 84.8 42.4 82.1
Transportation sector LMA 25.7 3.3 5.9 19.5
2015 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 62.9 80.0 51.0 89.3
2016 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 63.7 80.0 51.0 89.9
Canadian LMA 48.2 3.5 4.9 17.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 4D indicates that the representation of women increased and continued to surpass the transportation sector LMA in the air and ground transportation subsectors. The representation of Aboriginal peoples continued to surpass the transportation sector LMA in the water transportation subsector. The representation of persons with disabilities remained well below LMA across all subsectors, with the highest level of attainment reaching 45.8% in the ground transportation subsector in 2016. Representation of members of visible minorities remained below the transportation sector LMA across the three subsectors, but remained closest to full LMA attainment in the air transportation subsector.

Table 4D: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the subsectors of the transportation sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Transportation subsectors Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
Air transportation subsector
2015 representation 37.3 2.9 1.7 18.6
2016 representation 38.0 2.9 1.8 17.9
Change in representation +0.7 0.0 +0.1 -0.7
2015 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 145.1 87.9 28.8 95.4
2016 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 147.9 87.9 30.5 91.8
Ground transportation subsector
2015 representation 28.7 2.6 2.8 15.1
2016 representation 28.9 2.6 2.7 15.4
Change in representation +0.2 0.0 -0.1 +0.3
2015 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 111.7 78.8 47.5 77.4
2016 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 112.5 78.8 45.8 79.0
Water transportation subsector
2015 representation 15.6 4.2 2.6 13.6
2016 representation 15.7 3.9 2.6 13.8
Change in representation +0.1 -0.3 0.0 +0.2
2015 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 60.7 127.3 44.1 69.7
2016 attainment rate of transportation sector LMA 61.1 118.2 44.1 70.8
Transportation sector LMA 25.7 3.3 5.9 19.5

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 4E shows that in the ‘other’ sector, the representation of Aboriginal peoples decreased slightly (-0.2%), but remained above Canadian LMA, the only designated group for whom this is the case, with an attainment rate of 117.1% in 2016. When compared to sector LMA, the representation of members of visible minorities continued to exceed LMA in 2016, with an attainment rate of 104.3%.

Table 4E: Representation and attainment rate of Canadian and sector LMA* of designated group members in the 'Other' sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
'Other' sector Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
2015 representation 28.8 4.3 2.2 13.8
2016 representation 28.9 4.1 2.1 14.4
Change in representation +0.1 -0.2 -0.1 +0.6
2015 attainment rate of 'Other' sector LMA 81.6 100.0 57.9 100.0
2016 attainment rate of 'Other' sector LMA 81.9 95.3 55.3 104.3
'Other' sector LMA 35.3 4.3 3.8 13.8
2015 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 59.8 122.9 44.9 77.5
2016 attainment rate of Canadian LMA 60.0 117.1 42.9 80.9
Canadian LMA 48.2 3.5 4.9 17.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 4F shows that the representation of women and members of visible minorities continued to exceed the sector LMA in the service industries. Aboriginal peoples also continued to surpass the sector LMA in the production industries. The attainment rate of sector LMA was the lowest for persons with disabilities across both subsectors of the ‘other’ sector in 2015 and 2016.

Table 4F: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the subsectors of the 'Other' sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
'Other' sector subsectors Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
Production industries
2015 representation 23.1 5.6 2.4 11.4
2016 representation 23.1 5.3 2.3 11.6
Change in representation 0.0 -0.3 -0.1 +0.2
2015 attainment rate of 'Other' sector LMA 65.4 130.2 63.2 82.6
2016 attainment rate of 'Other' sector LMA 65.4 123.3 60.5 84.1
Service industries
2015 Representation 35.9 2.8 2.0 16.7
2016 Representation 35.6 2.8 1.9 17.7
Change in representation -0.3 0.0 -0.1 +1.0
2015 attainment rate of 'Other' sector LMA 101.7 65.1 52.6 121.0
2016 attainment rate of 'Other' sector LMA 100.8 65.1 50.0 128.3
'Other' sector LMA 35.3 4.3 3.8 13.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Additional data on the representation of employees by designated group and sector is provided in Appendix A.

Section 2 - Designated groups profiles

Women

In 2016, the representation rate of women decreased by 0.3 percentage point compared to 2015 (from 41.0% in 2015 to 40.7% in 2016), the only designated group to have experienced a decrease. All sectors combined, the share of terminations of women exceeded their share of hires, meaning that women left the workforce at a higher rate than they entered it. This trend has been noted since 2008 and contributes to the ongoing decline in representation levels. However, progress can be observed in some areas; for instance, the representation of women in the middle and other managers occupational group surpassed LMA and progress was also noted in the senior managers occupational group.

Chart 2 shows that since 1987, the representation of women increased and peaked in 1993; however, it has been on a mostly downward trend since the early 2000s. The representation of women in 2016 (40.7%) was 0.2 percentage point below what it was in 1987 (40.9%).

Chart 2: Representation and Canadian LMA* of women in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Chart 2: Representation and Canadian LMA* of women in  the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2006 Census and 2011 National Household Survey.

Show data tablefor Chart 2: Representation and Canadian LMA* of women in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Year All employees Women
Total Representation Availability Attainment rate
# % % %
1987 595,417 243,744 40.9 44.0 93.0
1988 613,688 257,417 41.9 44.0 95.3
1989 631,015 268,340 42.5 44.0 96.6
1990 631,423 276,161 43.7 44.0 99.4
1991 615,135 271,927 44.2 45.9 96.3
1992 602,265 269,089 44.7 45.9 97.3
1993 582,363 264,804 45.5 45.9 99.1
1994 599,311 265,950 44.4 45.9 96.7
1995 588,047 261,437 44.5 45.9 96.9
1996 571,883 256,250 44.8 46.4 96.6
1997 571,138 254,325 44.5 46.4 96.0
1998 589,218 260,204 44.2 46.4 95.2
1999 588,759 262,629 44.6 46.4 96.1
2000 600,220 262,602 43.8 46.4 94.3
2001 634,759 284,720 44.9 47.3 94.8
2002 629,916 279,817 44.4 47.3 93.9
2003 621,457 273,496 44.0 47.3 93.0
2004 651,048 282,747 43.4 47.3 91.8
2005 672,652 291,198 43.3 47.3 91.5
2006 698,210 300,747 43.1 47.9 89.9
2007 733,789 313,385 42.7 47.9 89.2
2008 744,011 316,937 42.6 47.9 88.9
2009 743,837 314,430 42.3 47.9 88.2
2010 755,966 315,109 41.7 47.9 87.0
2011 768,547 316,755 41.2 48.2 85.5
2012 772,480 315,930 40.9 48.2 84.9
2013 738,053 306,763 41.6 48.2 86.2
2014 740,740 306,397 41.4 48.2 85.8
2015 730,485 299,789 41.0 48.2 85.1
2016 720,092 293,262 40.7 48.2 84.5

Chart 3 illustrates that the attainment rate of Canadian LMA of women is particularly low for the following two occupational groups: semi-professionals and technicians and other manual workers. However, the LMA attainment rates of women in management categories approached or exceeded the overall Canadian LMA (senior managers, middle and other managers, and supervisors). Women have the highest attainment rate of Canadian LMA of all four designated groups in the senior managers occupational group. Of all occupational groups, the attainment rate is highest for women in the skilled crafts and trades workers group.

Chart 3: Attainment Rate of Canadian LMA* of women by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Chart 3: Attainment Rate of Canadian LMA* of women by occupational  groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey.

Show data tablefor Chart 3: Attainment Rate of Canadian LMA* of women by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Occupational group Women
Representation Availability* Change Attainment rate of Canadian LMA
2015 2016 2011 2015 2016
Senior managers 25.5 26.4 27.4 0.9 93.1 96.4
Middle and other managers 42.1 42.1 38.9 0.0 108.2 108.2
Professionals 44.5 44.6 55.0 0.1 80.9 81.1
Semi-professionals and technicians 19.4 19.0 52.0 -0.4 37.3 36.5
Supervisors 61.9 60.6 56.5 -1.3 109.6 107.3
Supervisors: crafts and trades 8.3 8.5 11.2 0.2 74.1 75.9
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 77.4 76.9 82.6 -0.5 93.7 93.1
Skilled sales and service personnel 55.0 53.1 49.9 -1.9 110.2 106.4
Skilled crafts and trades workers 4.8 4.7 3.9 -0.1 123.1 120.5
Clerical personnel 58.3 57.5 68.4 -0.8 85.2 84.1
Intermediate sales and service personnel 63.9 63.2 66.8 -0.7 95.7 94.6
Semi-skilled manual workers 13.3 13.3 17.9 0.0 74.3 74.3
Other sales and service personnel 41.5 41.9 57.5 0.4 72.2 72.9
Other manual workers 10.9 11.2 22.7 0.4 47.8 49.3
Total 41.0 40.7 48.2 -0.3 85.1 84.4

Table 5 provides a more in-depth analysis of occupational group representation as compared to their respective sector LMA. The representation of women in the senior managers occupational group surpassed sector occupational LMA in all four sectors, the only occupational group for which this is the case.

Table 5: Attainment rate of Sector LMA* of women in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group and sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Occupational Group Banking and Financial Services Communications Transportation 'Other'
Attainment Rate of Sector LMA Change** Attainment Rate of Sector LMA Change** Attainment Rate of Sector LMA Change** Attainment Rate of Sector LMA Change**
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
Senior managers 109.1 113.3 +4.2 108.1 110.2 +2.0 105.2 109.9 +4.7 105.0 105.4 +0.4
Middle and other managers 90.3 89.7 -0.5 94.6 92.1 -2.5 104.6 106.4 +1.8 82.1 85.5 +3.4
Professionals 107.9 107.1 -0.9 83.8 85.6 +1.8 104.4 104.2 -0.3 91.1 92.0 +1.0
Semi-professionals and technicians 91.7 88.2 -3.5 85.4 82.8 -2.5 85.5 87.9 +2.4 59.4 61.9 +2.5
Supervisors 98.5 96.3 -2.3 78.6 75.0 -3.6 116.0 115.8 -0.2 90.4 91.9 +1.5
Supervisors: crafts and trades 44.4 41.7 -2.8 53.5 54.7 +1.2 74.0 77.1 +3.1 68.6 65.7 -2.9
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 100.8 99.7 -1.0 99.1 99.5 +0.4 92.1 91.2 -0.9 101.2 101.2 0.0
Skilled sales and service personnel 99.2 97.8 -1.4 86.4 82.1 -4.4 64.4 71.6 +7.3 36.5 31.0 -5.5
Skilled crafts and trades workers 84.5 91.7 +7.1 67.1 65.9 -1.2 119.4 119.4 0.0 197.0 187.9 -9.1
Clerical personnel 88.2 86.9 -1.3 88.9 87.4 -1.5 103.9 103.3 -0.6 105.4 105.2 -0.1
Intermediate sales and service personnel 97.3 96.4 -0.9 89.2 87.0 -2.2 111.7 111.9 +0.2 75.3 74.9 -0.5
Semi-skilled manual workers 111.7 106.8 -4.9 125.3 108.4 -16.9 115.8 115.8 0.0 54.3 56.4 +2.1
Other sales and service personnel 39.7 42.4 +2.7 101.1 107.2 +6.1 124.9 128.0 +3.1 109.6 107.4 -2.3
Other manual workers 46.0 80.4 +34.4 152.1 274.0 +121.9 42.7 43.9 +1.3 57.9 57.9 0.0

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey.

** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Banking and financial services sector

Women increased their rate of attainment of sector occupational LMA from 2015 to 2016 in the Senior Managers, Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers, Other Sales and Service Personnel and Other Manual Workers occupational groups. The increase for this last occupational group is particularly noticeable, at +34.4%. In 2016, the representation of women was above sector occupational LMA in the Senior Managers, Professionals and Semi-Skilled Manual Workers groups. However, the representation of women was well below sector occupational LMA in the Supervisors: Crafts and Trades and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups.

Communications sector

Women significantly increased their rate of attainment of sector occupational LMA from 2015 to 2016 in the Other Manual Workers occupational group, and improved but much less significantly in other occupational groups (Senior Managers, Professionals, Supervisors: Crafts and Trades, Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel and Other Sales and Service Personnel). In 2016, the representation of women was above sector occupational LMA in the Senior Managers, Semi-Skilled Manual Workers, Other Sales and Service Personnel and Other Manual Workers occupational groups. However, women in this sector have the lowest level of attainment of sector occupational LMA in the Supervisors, Supervisors: Crafts and Trades, and Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers occupational groups.

Transportation sector

Women increased their rate of attainment of sector occupational LMA in eight of the 14 occupational groups from 2015 to 2016. In 2016, women were also above sector occupational LMA in nine out of 14 occupational groups, making this sector the most successful at reaching full representation at the occupational level, compared to sector-specific occupational level LMA.

‘Other’ sector

Women increased their rate of attainment of sector occupational LMA in all management and supervisory occupational groups between 2015 and 2016, with the exception of Supervisors: Crafts and Trades. In 2016, women’s representation surpassed sector occupational LMA in the Senior Managers, Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel, Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers, Clerical Personnel and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups.

Additional data on the representation of employees by designated group and sector, including data on hiring, promotions and terminations is provided in Appendix A.

Aboriginal peoples

From 2015 to 2016, the representation of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector increased by 0.1 percentage point. Overall, as well as in every sector, Aboriginal employees left the workforce at a higher rate than they entered it.

Chart 4 shows that the representation of Aboriginal peoples increased from 2.2% in 2015 to 2.3% in 2016 and remained short of the 3.5% Canadian LMA; however, the representation of Aboriginal peoples has been increasing steadily since its initial low of 0.7% in 1987.

Chart 4: Representation and Canadian LMA of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Chart 4: Representation and Canadian LMA of Aboriginal  peoples in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)

* Source: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2006 Census and 2011 National Household Survey.

Note: In 1996, the Census methodology for calculating LMA of Aboriginal peoples changed, causing a drop in LMA.

Show data tablefor Chart 4: Representation and Canadian LMA of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Representation and availability of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector
Year All employees Aboriginal peoples
Total Representation Availability Attainment rate
# % % %
1987 595,417 3,921 0.7 2.1 31.4
1988 613,688 4,386 0.7 2.1 34.0
1989 631,015 4,993 0.8 2.1 37.7
1990 631,423 5,387 0.9 2.1 40.6
1991 615,135 5,923 1.0 3.0 32.1
1992 602,265 6,092 1.0 3.0 33.7
1993 582,363 6,079 1.0 3.0 34.8
1994 599,311 6,600 1.1 3.0 36.7
1995 588,047 6,895 1.2 3.0 39.1
1996 571,883 6,955 1.2 2.1 57.9
1997 571,138 7,354 1.3 2.1 61.3
1998 589,218 7,764 1.3 2.1 62.7
1999 588,759 8,581 1.5 2.1 69.4
2000 600,220 8,867 1.5 2.1 70.3
2001 634,759 9,865 1.6 2.6 59.8
2002 629,916 10,468 1.7 2.6 63.9
2003 621,457 10,276 1.7 2.6 63.6
2004 651,048 10,956 1.7 2.6 64.7
2005 672,652 11,854 1.8 2.6 67.8
2006 698,210 12,364 1.8 3.1 57.1
2007 733,789 13,920 1.9 3.1 61.2
2008 744,011 13,958 1.9 3.1 60.5
2009 743,837 14,013 1.9 3.1 60.8
2010 755,966 14,686 1.9 3.1 62.7
2011 768,547 15,166 2.0 3.5 56.4
2012 772,480 15,778 2.0 3.5 58.4
2013 738,053 15,669 2.1 3.5 60.7
2014 740,740 15,786 2.1 3.5 60.9
2015 730,485 16,145 2.2 3.5 63.1
2016 720,092 16,406 2.3 3.5 65.1

Chart 5 shows that the representation of Aboriginal peoples fell significantly short of reaching full representation at the senior managers occupational group level. Other supervisory and management occupations also fell short but to a lesser extent, with the exception of Supervisors: crafts and trades which is the only occupational group in which Aboriginal peoples were fully represented in 2016.

Chart 5: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of Aboriginal peoples by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Chart 5: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of  Aboriginal peoples by occupational groups in the federally regulated private  sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey.

Show data tablefor Chart 5: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of Aboriginal peoples by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Representation, availability and attainment rate of Canadian LMA of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group (%)
Occupational group Aboriginal peoples
Representation Availability* Change Attainment Rate of Canadian LMA
2015 2016 2011 2015 2016
Senior Managers 1.0 1.0 2.9 0.0 34.5 34.5
Middle and Other Managers 1.2 1.3 2.2 0.1 54.5 59.1
Professionals 1.1 1.3 2.1 0.2 52.4 61.9
Semi-Professionals and Technicians 2.4 2.5 3.7 0.1 64.9 67.6
Supervisors 2.3 2.4 3.6 0.1 63.9 66.7
Supervisors: Crafts and Trades 3.5 3.7 3.7 0.2 94.6 100.0
Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel 1.9 1.9 3.0 0.0 63.3 63.3
Skilled Sales and Service Personnel 1.6 1.8 3.2 0.2 50.0 56.3
Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers 3.6 3.8 4.5 0.2 80.0 84.4
Clerical Personnel 2.1 2.1 3.4 0.0 61.8 61.8
Intermediate Sales and Service Personnel 2.3 2.5 3.7 0.2 62.2 67.6
Semi-Skilled Manual Workers 3.3 3.3 4.1 0.0 80.5 80.5
Other Sales and Service Personnel 4.3 3.9 5.1 -0.4 84.3 76.5
Other Manual Workers 6.2 5.9 6.0 -0.3 103.3 98.3
Total 2.2 2.3 3.5 0.1 62.9 65.7

Table 6 provides a more in-depth analysis of occupational group representation as compared to their respective sector LMA.

Table 6: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group and sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Occupational group Banking and financial services Communications Transportation 'Other'
Attainment rate of sector LMA Change** Attainment Rate of Sector LMA Change** Attainment Rate of Sector LMA Change** Attainment Rate of Sector LMA Change**
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
Senior Managers 100.0 87.5 -12.5 40.0 30.0 -10.0 171.4 171.4 0.0 20.7 24.1 +3.4
Middle and other managers 84.6 84.6 0.0 80.0 106.7 +26.7 89.5 89.5 0.0 70.8 62.5 -8.3
Professionals 90.0 90.0 0.0 86.7 126.7 +40.0 136.4 127.3 -9.1 76.0 80.0 +4.0
Semi-professionals and technicians 54.5 54.5 0.0 65.5 79.3 +13.8 92.3 92.3 0.0 109.8 107.3 -2.4
Supervisors 93.3 100.0 +6.7 169.2 192.3 +23.1 88.6 88.6 0.0 103.0 90.9 -12.1
Supervisors: crafts and trades n/a n/a n/a 50.0 61.1 +11.1 133.3 140.7 +7.4 95.5 102.3 +6.8
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 82.4 88.2 +5.9 70.8 79.2 +8.3 92.3 84.6 -7.7 72.3 76.6 +4.3
Skilled sales and service personnel 107.1 121.4 +14.3 106.7 140.0 +33.3 207.7 207.7 0.0 63.4 53.7 -9.8
Skilled crafts and trades workers 476.7 256.7 -220.0 108.7 130.4 +21.7 103.0 103.0 0.0 165.3 155.1 -10.2
Clerical personnel 83.3 77.8 -5.6 80.0 108.0 +28.0 82.1 78.6 -3.6 98.0 100.0 +2.0
Intermediate sales and service personnel 79.2 79.2 0.0 82.6 108.7 +26.1 118.5 118.5 0.0 48.9 48.9 0.0
Semi-skilled manual workers 54.5 54.5 0.0 337.5 325.0 -12.5 83.3 83.3 0.0 214.0 210.0 -4.0
Other sales and service personnel n/a n/a n/a 39.5 31.6 -7.9 96.0 96.0 0.0 46.1 33.7 -12.4
Other manual workers n/a n/a n/a 264.3 476.2 +211.9 61.7 58.0 -3.7 110.1 98.9 -11.2

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey.

** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

“n/a” No employees were reported for that occupational group.

Banking and financial services sector

The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of Aboriginal peoples increased in the Supervisors, Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel and Skilled Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups. Overall, there was also little movement in the attainment rate of occupational LMA between 2015 and 2016, with no changes observed in over half of the 14 occupational groups. However, the representation of Aboriginal peoples was at or above LMA in three of the 14 occupational groups in this sector in 2016.

Communications sector

The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA increased in all but three occupational groups between 2015 and 2016. The representation rate of Aboriginal peoples was above sector occupational LMA in nine out of the 14 occupational groups in 2016. The attainment rate of sector LMA in the Senior Managers occupational group decreased from 2015 to 2016 and remained below full representation. However, the attainment rate in the following occupational groups increased to above sector occupational LMA between 2015 and 2016: Middle and Other Managers, Professionals, Clerical Personnel and Intermediate Sales and Service Personnel.

Transportation sector

The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the transportation sector remained unchanged between 2015 and 2016 in all but five occupational groups. The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA was well above 100% in six occupational groups, including in the Senior Managers and Professionals occupational groups.

‘Other’ sector

The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA for Aboriginal peoples in the Senior Managers occupational group remained low in 2016. This sector decreased their attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the Middle and Other Managers and Supervisors occupational groups, but increased their attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the Supervisors: Crafts and Trades, bringing it above sector occupational LMA in 2016.

Additional data on the representation of employees by designated group and sector, including data on hiring, promotions and terminations, is provided in Appendix A.

Persons with disabilities

The representation of persons with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector increased by 0.3 percentage point between 2015 and 2016. Overall and in all four sectors, more persons with disabilities left than entered the workforce.

Chart 6 illustrates that the representation of persons with disabilities reached its highest level in 2016 (3.3%), a significant increase from the initial low of 1.6% in 1987. The 2016 representation rate remained 1.6 percentage points below the 4.9% LMA.

Chart 6: Representation and Canadian LMA* of persons with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Chart 6: Representation and Canadian LMA* of persons  with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 and 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey, 2001 and 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Note: In 2001, Statistics Canada began using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to define disability rather than the 1980 International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps; this resulted in a drop in LMA.

Show data tablefor Chart 6: Representation and Canadian LMA* of persons with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Representation and availability of persons with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector
Year All employees Persons with disabilities
Total Representation Availability Attainment rate
# % % %
1987 595,417 9,440 1.6 5.4 29.4
1988 613,688 10,343 1.7 5.4 31.2
1989 631,015 14,746 2.3 5.4 43.3
1990 631,423 15,119 2.4 5.4 44.3
1991 615,135 15,438 2.5 6.5 38.6
1992 602,265 15,318 2.5 6.5 39.1
1993 582,363 14,937 2.6 6.5 39.5
1994 599,311 15,736 2.6 6.5 40.4
1995 588,047 16,063 2.7 6.5 42.0
1996 571,883 15,207 2.7 6.5 40.9
1997 571,138 13,228 2.3 6.5 35.6
1998 589,218 13,319 2.3 6.5 34.8
1999 588,759 14,068 2.4 6.5 36.8
2000 600,220 13,929 2.3 6.5 35.7
2001 634,759 14,519 2.3 5.3 43.2
2002 629,916 14,793 2.3 5.3 44.3
2003 621,457 14,425 2.3 5.3 43.8
2004 651,048 16,558 2.5 5.3 48.0
2005 672,652 18,163 2.7 5.3 50.9
2006 698,210 18,662 2.7 4.9 54.5
2007 733,789 19,777 2.7 4.9 55.0
2008 744,011 19,786 2.7 4.9 54.3
2009 743,837 19,758 2.7 4.9 54.2
2010 755,966 19,658 2.6 4.9 53.1
2011 768,547 19,649 2.6 4.9 52.2
2012 772,480 20,232 2.6 4.9 53.5
2013 738,053 20,053 2.7 4.9 55.4
2014 740,740 20,556 2.8 4.9 56.6
2015 730,485 21,627 3.0 4.9 60.4
2016 720,092 23,636 3.3 4.9 67.0

Chart 7 shows that the LMA attainment rate of persons with disabilities is relatively low in all occupational groups, with the exceptions of administrative and senior clerical personnel and skilled sales and service personnel, where the attainment rate of Canadian LMA has increased from 2015 to 2016 beyond the 100% threshold. The attainment rate of persons with disabilities is particularly low in the supervisors and supervisors: crafts and trades occupational groups.

Chart 7: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of persons with disabilities by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Chart 7: Representation and Canadian LMA* of persons  with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Show data tablefor Chart 7: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of persons with disabilities by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Representation, availability and attainment rate of Canadian LMA of persons with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group (%)
Occupational group Persons with disabilities
Representation Availability* Change Attainment rate of Canadian LMA
2015 2016 2011 2015 2016
Senior managers 2.9 3.1 4.3 0.2 67.4 72.1
Middle and other managers 3.1 3.5 4.3 0.4 72.1 81.4
Professionals 2.9 3.3 3.8 0.4 76.3 86.8
Semi-professionals and technicians 2.3 2.7 4.6 0.4 50.0 58.7
Supervisors 3.3 3.6 13.9 0.3 23.7 25.9
Supervisors: crafts and trades 2.1 2.2 7.8 0.1 26.9 28.2
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 3.4 3.6 3.4 0.2 100.0 105.9
Skilled sales and service personnel 3.0 3.9 3.5 0.9 85.7 111.4
Skilled crafts and trades workers 2.4 2.5 3.8 0.1 63.2 65.8
Clerical personnel 4.0 4.2 7.0 0.2 57.1 60.0
Intermediate sales and service personnel 2.8 3.3 5.6 0.5 50.0 58.9
Semi-skilled manual workers 2.6 2.7 4.8 0.1 54.2 56.3
Other sales and service personnel 3.8 3.9 6.3 0.1 60.3 61.9
Other manual workers 3.1 2.7 5.3 -0.4 58.5 50.9
Total all employees 3.0 3.3 4.9 0.3 61.2 67.3

Data on the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of persons with disabilities is not available as numbers are negligible.

Additional data on the representation of employees by designated group and sector, including data on hiring, promotions and terminations, is provided in Appendix A.

Members of visible minorities

The representation of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector increased by 1 percentage point between 2015 and 2016. All sectors combined, members of visible minorities received a share of promotions that is higher than their representation level. Only in the ‘other’ sector did more members of visible minorities enter the workforce than left it.

Chart 8 illustrates that since 1987, the representation of members of visible minorities has been increasing steadily; this designated group has made the most progress in overall representation since 1987.

Chart 8: Representation and Canadian LMA* of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Chart 8: Representation and Canadian LMA* of members  of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2006 Census and 2011 National Household Survey

Show data tablefor Chart 8: Representation and Canadian LMA* of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector, 1987 to 2016 (%)
Representation and availability of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector
Year All employees Members of visible minorities
Total Representation Availability Attainment rate
# % % %
1987 595,417 29,760 5.0 6.3 79.3
1988 613,688 34,785 5.7 6.3 90.0
1989 631,015 42,092 6.7 6.3 105.9
1990 631,423 44,768 7.1 6.3 112.5
1991 615,135 46,542 7.6 9.1 83.1
1992 602,265 47,618 7.9 9.1 86.9
1993 582,363 46,895 8.1 9.1 88.5
1994 599,311 49,324 8.2 9.1 90.4
1995 588,047 51,967 8.8 9.1 97.1
1996 571,883 52,600 9.2 10.3 89.3
1997 571,138 55,236 9.7 10.3 93.9
1998 589,218 58,078 9.9 10.3 95.7
1999 588,759 61,379 10.4 10.3 101.2
2000 600,220 64,072 10.7 10.3 103.6
2001 634,759 74,049 11.7 12.6 92.6
2002 629,916 76,952 12.2 12.6 97.0
2003 621,457 79,119 12.7 12.6 101.0
2004 651,048 86,572 13.3 12.6 105.5
2005 672,652 94,573 14.1 12.6 111.6
2006 698,210 104,114 14.9 15.3 97.5
2007 733,789 116,491 15.9 15.3 103.8
2008 744,011 123,262 16.6 15.3 108.3
2009 743,837 127,302 17.1 15.3 111.9
2010 755,966 134,256 17.8 15.3 116.1
2011 768,547 139,665 18.2 17.8 102.1
2012 772,480 143,968 18.6 17.8 104.7
2013 738,053 144,488 19.6 17.8 110.0
2014 740,740 151,185 20.4 17.8 114.7
2015 730,485 154,732 21.2 17.8 119.0
2016 720,092 159,514 22.2 17.8 124.4

Chart 9 shows that members of visible minorities had attainment rates of Canadian LMA that are above the 100% threshold in eight of the 14 occupational groups. Members of visible minorities had overall higher attainment rates of Canadian LMA than the other designated groups. This designated group’s representation continued to surpass Canadian LMA in important feeder groups to the senior managers occupational group; however, their representation level in this occupational group remains below LMA despite a small increase between 2015 and 2016.

Chart 9: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of members of visible minorities by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Chart 9: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of members  of visible minorities by occupational groups in the federally regulated private  sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey.

Show data tablefor Chart 9: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of members of visible minorities by occupational groups in the federally regulated private sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Representation, availability and attainment rate of Canadian LMA of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group (%)
Occupational group Members of visible minorities
Representation Availability* Change Attainment rate of Canadian LMA
2015 2016 2011 2015 2016
Senior managers 8.8 9.1 10.1 0.3 87.1 90.1
Middle and other managers 21.5 23.1 15.0 1.6 143.3 154.0
Professionals 28.8 30.7 19.9 1.9 144.7 154.3
Semi-professionals and technicians 12.5 13.3 16.3 0.8 76.7 81.6
Supervisors 20.2 21.0 18.5 0.8 109.2 113.5
Supervisors: crafts and trades 9.0 9.1 9.5 0.1 94.7 95.8
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 24.7 25.4 14.1 0.7 175.2 180.1
Skilled sales and service personnel 26.9 28.9 22.8 2.0 118.0 126.8
Skilled crafts and trades workers 12.6 13.5 10.3 0.9 122.3 131.1
Clerical personnel 22.7 23.6 19.0 0.9 119.5 124.2
Intermediate sales and service personnel 22.9 23.9 20.7 1.0 110.6 115.5
Semi-skilled manual workers 17.3 16.4 18.7 -0.9 92.5 87.7
Other sales and service personnel 13.8 14.5 21.9 0.7 63.0 66.2
Other manual workers 15.9 14.2 17.3 -1.7 91.9 82.1
Total 21.2 22.2 17.8 1.0 119.1 124.7

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 NHS.

Table 7 provides a more in-depth analysis of occupational group representation as compared to their respective sector LMA.

Table 7: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group and sector, 2015 and 2016 (%)
Occupational group Banking and financial services Communications Transportation 'Other'
Attainment rate of sector LMA Change** Attainment rate of sector LMA Change** Attainment rate of sector LMA Change** Attainment rate of sector LMA Change**
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
Senior managers 100.7 104.5 +3.7 58.0 61.8 +3.8 60.4 64.8 +4.4 68.8 66.7 -2.2
Middle and other managers 112.8 119.7 +6.8 98.4 111.4 +13.0 81.9 86.1 +4.2 133.7 130.1 -3.6
Professionals 110.1 113.4 +3.3 84.3 101.6 +17.3 89.6 92.3 +2.7 102.9 103.4 +0.5
Semi-professionals and technicians 114.5 116.5 +1.9 79.5 87.0 +7.5 66.4 70.6 +4.2 55.3 58.2 +2.8
Supervisors 134.1 141.2 +7.1 110.1 119.1 +9.0 73.9 77.6 +3.7 71.0 84.0 +13.0
Supervisors: crafts and trades - - - 56.1 62.6 +6.5 95.9 95.9 0.0 92.2 93.8 +1.6
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 143.9 144.3 +0.4 106.6 113.8 +7.2 115.5 125.7 +10.1 85.4 87.7 +2.3
Skilled sales and service personnel 118.4 130.5 +12.1 75.3 80.1 +4.8 66.7 64.8 -1.9 44.1 42.1 -2.1
Skilled crafts and trades workers 71.7 0.0 -71.7 88.6 100.0 +11.4 94.5 96.9 +2.4 112.8 124.4 +11.5
Clerical personnel 121.9 120.9 -1.0 89.5 102.4 +12.9 79.9 86.1 +6.2 88.6 85.9 -2.7
Intermediate sales and service personnel 89.8 91.8 +2.0 80.3 90.9 +10.7 90.5 88.8 -1.7 101.9 109.2 +7.3
Semi-skilled manual workers 298.0 280.6 -17.4 125.7 121.2 -4.6 82.9 78.7 -4.3 63.0 63.0 0.0
Other sales and service personnel 203.0 200.0 -3.0 45.2 33.6 -11.5 44.7 43.9 -0.8 132.5 155.3 +22.8
Other manual workers 176.5 0.0 -176.5 118.1 212.8 +94.7 116.2 100.7 -15.5 106.9 106.9 0.0

* Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey.

** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

“_” Amount is negligible.

Banking and financial services sector

Despite a decrease in attainment rate for a number of occupational groups, members of visible minorities still either exceeded or approached sector occupational LMA in all occupational groups where the sector reported representation in 2016.

Communications sector

The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA increased in all but two of the 14 occupational groups. In this sector, the representation of members of visible minorities continued to surpass or moved to surpassing sector occupational LMA in more than half of the occupational groups in 2016 when compared to 2015.

Transportation sector

The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA increased in all management or supervisory occupational groups, with the exception of the Supervisors: crafts and trades occupational group, where it remained at the same level.

‘Other’ sector

The representation of members of visible minorities exceeded sector occupational LMA in six of the 14 occupational groups, including the middle and other managers and professionals occupational groups. This sector also significantly increased its rate of attainment of sector occupational LMA in 2016 in the supervisors, skilled crafts and trades workers and other sales and service personnel occupational groups.

Additional data on the representation of employees by designated group and sector, including data on hiring, promotions and terminations, is provided in Appendix A.

Section 3 - Employment Equity Programs highlights

In addition to ensuring compliance with the annual reporting requirements for federally regulated private-sector employers, the Act mandates a number of responsibilities to the Minister of Labour, including:

  • administrating the Federal Contractors Program;
  • undertaking research and developing information programs that foster understanding and promote the purpose of employment equity; and
  • recognizing private-sector employers that demonstrate outstanding achievement and efforts in implementing employment equity.

This section provides an overview of the Labour Program’s activities as they relate to the Federal Contractors Program, the Workplace Opportunities: removing barriers to equity grants and contributions program and the Employment Equity Achievement Awards.

Federal Contractors Program

The Federal Contractors Program (FCP) seeks to generate positive social change by ensuring that organizations that do business with the Government of Canada implement employment equity in their workplace. It applies to provincially regulated organizations that have a workforce of 100 or more employees located in Canada and that received a federal goods and services contract valued at $1 million or more (including applicable taxes).

As part of their obligations, contractors must collect and analyze data about their workforce and, where gaps in representation exist, establish goals to increase representation for the four designated groups: women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. Contractors are required to make reasonable efforts to ensure that reasonable progress is made towards meeting their goals and achieving an equitable workforce.

As of December 31, 2016, the FCP comprised 257 employers. A total of 75 contractors were added during the 2016 calendar year.

Contractors are subject to compliance assessments to ensure that they fulfill their commitment to implement employment equity. A first compliance assessment is conducted one year after an employer has been awarded a contract. Subsequent assessments may be conducted four years after the contract award date and every three years thereafter to verify that progress is being made. In 2016, the Labour Program completed 142 first-year compliance assessments, with all contractors being found in compliance.

Additional information on the FCP, including the requirements of the program, can be found on the Canada.ca website.

Workplace opportunities: removing barriers to equity

Workplace opportunities: removing barriers to equity is a grant and contribution program created in 2014 and designed to support employers subject to the Act in their efforts to improve the representation of designated groups in areas of low representation through partnerships, sharing of information and implementing of industry-tailored strategies. In total, $500,000 per fiscal year is available through Workplace opportunities.

Four grant projects were funded through Workplace opportunities in 2015. Five contribution agreements were subsequently funded in the same year, focusing on the transportation sector, given that it was identified in 2014 as having greater gaps in representation than the other federally regulated sectors (banking, communications and ‘other’ sectors.).

Two of the four grant projects concluded in 2015 (see Box 1) and two were completed in 2016 (see Box 2).

Box 1: Highlights of the workplace opportunities projects completed in 2015

Van Horne Institute

Funding: $125,000 (March 2015 to October 2015)

The project involved creating a call to action, raising awareness and communicating the benefits of building inclusive workplaces by exploring issues related to workplace equity from all four designated groups’ point of view, and benchmarking Canada’s corporate cultures, policies and human resources practices. The Van Horne Institute (PDF version only) created a corporate change model that enhances Canadian workplace diversity policies and practices to increase representation within the transportation sector. It also made available a library of research on diversity and inclusion that includes best practices and information on barrier reduction and elimination. Finally, it developed an education communication strategy and a content communication strategy to continue to promote diversity and inclusion through blog posts from project leaders to inspire and educate the community and its partners.

Trucking Human Resources Canada

Funding: $125,000 (March 2015 to November 2015)

The project involved developing a business case to support industry action on workplace diversity, and the identification of challenges faced by employers in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. Overall barriers for employers were identified, such as the lack of skilled/certified employees, including heavy duty journeypersons, qualified apprentices and people with mid-level experience; turnover for trucking employees, especially in the first year of hire; and the belief that as long as employers treat everyone the same, that they are being fair and inclusive.

The business case is available on Trucking Human Resources Canada’s website.

Box 2: Highlights of the workplace opportunities projects completed in 2016

Maritime Employers Association (MEA)

Funding: $71,500 (March 2015 to September 2016)

The project involved developing a bilingual promotional video to raise awareness, dispel longshoring-related stereotypes and attract a greater number of women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities, and members of visible minorities into the industry. The video involved collaboration and partnerships between unions, federally regulated private-sector member employers, and current/future employees to ensure support for employment equity in the longshoring workforce.

National Institute of Disability Management and Research (NIDMAR)

Funding: $125,000 (March 2015 to March 2016)

The project involved raising awareness and improving employment outcomes for persons with disabilities by encouraging and supporting employers to undertake assessments/audits of their current return to work (RTW)/disability management (DM) practices and programs. Assessments of 11 RTW/DM programs were completed in businesses in the banking, air/railway/road transportation and pipeline sectors, as well as in a Crown corporation. Employers received an analysis of their RTW/DM programs and detailed roadmaps to improve outcomes. NIDMAR also conducted detailed research and analysis of key challenges facing Canadian employers in the implementation of optimum RTW/DM policies and programs. It was found that when clear legislation is in place and when the policies were regularly monitored and reviewed (for example health and safety and duty to accommodate), employers did well in implementing optimum RTW/DM policies and programs. However, for newly regulated areas (for example workplace culture, policy development, case management procedures and tracking of injury, disability and lost time patterns), employers were less likely to implement optimum policies or programs.

Of the five contribution agreements, two concluded in 2017 and the remaining will be completed in 2018:

  • National Educational Association of Disabled Students (NEADS)
    $161,010 (June 2015 to August 2017)

    The project involved using a reverse mentoring approach between post-secondary students and employers to identify sector-specific barriers and solutions to hiring persons with disabilities.

  • BC Centre for Ability Association
    $449,367 (June 2015 to November 2017)

    The project aimed to strengthen the transportation sector’s capacity to recruit and retain persons with disabilities.

  • Canadian Apprenticeship Forum
    $210,000 (June 2015 to March 2018)

    The project aims to identify and disseminate successful workplace practices on hiring and retaining Aboriginal apprentices.

  • Paqtnkek Mi’kmaw Nation
    $269,950 (June 2015 to March 2018)

    The project seeks to create partnerships between federally regulated employers and Aboriginal organizations, to identify barriers to employment faced by Aboriginal peoples.

  • Trucking HR Canada
    $409,440 (December 2015 to March 2018)

    The project seeks to improve the understanding of barriers faced by Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities in trucking and road transportation occupations.

2017 Employment Equity Achievement Awards

On October 5, 2017, the second annual Employment Equity Achievement Awards (EEAA) were held in Ottawa. These awards recognized federally regulated private-sector employers and federal contractors for their commitment to creating diverse and inclusive workplaces. The 2017 EEAA also provided a forum for showcasing and sharing best practices in implementing employment equity. The EEAA featured the following:

  • an award ceremony with the Minister of Employment, Workforce Development and Labour;
  • a panel of employers presenting their experience in equity, diversity and inclusion;
  • a presentation on behavioural insight and nudging from Policy Horizons Canada; and
  • small group discussions on workforce trends.

Through an application process, 18 employers were selected to receive an award (see Box 3) in one of the following categories:

  • Sector distinction: the Sector distinction award recognizes employers who are inspirational role models in their sector. In addition to demonstrating a strong commitment and achieving success in implementing employment equity in their own organization, these employers also champion employment equity for the sector.
  • Outstanding commitment: the Outstanding commitment to employment equity award recognizes employers who have demonstrated outstanding commitment in implementing their employment equity plans by instituting measures to remove barriers, adopting special measures and/or establishing positive policies and practices to achieve tangible results.
  • Innovation: the Innovation award recognizes employers who have been innovative in the implementation of employment equity. This can include creativity in the design and implementation of measures to remove barriers, adoption of special measures, establishment of positive policies or practices, forward-thinking in human resources practices and/or development of new or unique initiatives.

The awards highlight the Labour Program’s commitment to continue to work with employers to make further progress on equity and inclusion for under-represented groups in the Canadian workforce.

Box 3: 2017 Employment Equity Achievement Awards Recipients

Sector distinction

  • Enbridge
  • Jazz Aviation
  • Royal Bank of Canada

Outstanding commitment

  • ATCO Structures & Logistics Ltd.
  • Bell Canada
  • Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC)
  • Canadian National Railway (CN)
  • Capital One Bank (Canada)
  • Cogeco Connexion Inc.
  • Defence Construction (1951) Ltd.
  • Hemmera Envirochem Inc.
  • HSBC Bank Canada
  • Kindersley Transport Ltd.
  • Shaw Communications Inc.

Innovation

  • Export Development Canada
  • Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Inc.
  • Queen’s University
  • Rogers Communications Inc.

Conclusion

The data reported for the 2016 calendar year demonstrates that progress was made for designated groups in several underrepresented sectors or occupational groups. Overall, women’s representation continued to decrease in 2016; however, this group increased its representation in sectors and occupational groups where women were historically underrepresented. Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities continued to make progress as well, but as was the case in previous years, they continue to struggle with representation in supervisory and management occupations. Members of visible minorities are the most successful designated group from an employment equity standpoint, both overall and in terms of sector and occupational representation.

While this report contains a brief analysis of the consolidated statistical information provided by employers, it is clear from their narrative reports, and from the successes and accomplishments recognized during the 2017 Employment Equity Achievement Awards, that they have a strong commitment to employment equity and broader diversity and inclusion goals. The findings of this report support the need to implement innovative measures to remove systemic barriers that persist in employment systems and to create workplaces that are welcoming, respectful and inclusive of all Canadians. To that end, employers are encouraged to improve their workplaces using the many resources available, including tools created by organizations that receive funding under the Workplace Opportunities: Removing Barriers to Equity program.

The Labour Program will continue to work with employers towards ensuring that every Canadian has equal access to employment and every opportunity to realize their potential.

Appendix A

Tables – Federally regulated private-sector employers

The following tables consolidate data from the annual reports submitted by federally regulated private-sector employers. To allow for comparative analysis, some of the data from 1987 (the year data was first collected) is included with 2015 and 2016 data.

Tables 1 to 3 in this appendix present data aggregated to include permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. Table 4 summarizes information for the four industrial sectors, including: number, representation, hires, promotions, terminations and the net effect of hires less terminations. Tables 5 and 6 present salary data for permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees respectively.

List of tables

Table 1: Representation (1987, 2015 and 2016) and availability (2011/2012) of Federally regulated private-sector employees by designated group, Census Metropolitan Area, Province and Territory (%)
Census metropolitan area and Province/Territory Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
Representation Availability* Representation Availability* Representation Availability* Representation Availability*
1987 2015 2016 2011 1987 2015 2016 2011 1987 2015 2016 2012 1987 2015 2016 2011
Halifax 41.2 42.8 41.7 49.6 0.5 2.2 2.4 2.6 1.6 5 5.3 n/a 1.9 7.6 8.4 7.6
Montréal 39 40.9 40.9 48.4 0.3 0.8 0.9 0.7 1.1 2 2.2 n/a 3 15.8 16.6 18
Toronto 47.1 44.4 44.5 48.7 0.6 1 1 0.6 1.5 3 3.4 n/a 12 36.6 37.5 44.1
Winnipeg 32.7 33.3 33.3 48.8 0.8 6.8 6.8 9 1.8 3.4 3.2 n/a 2.9 17.5 18.9 18.9
Regina 42.9 46.8 47.6 48.6 0.4 3 3.2 7.2 2.4 3.6 4 n/a 1.6 13.2 15.8 9.8
Calgary 47.6 43.9 44 47.1 0.5 2 2 2.5 1.9 2.6 3.2 n/a 5.6 21.4 22.9 25.7
Edmonton 44.5 40.1 39.6 47.1 0.7 2.7 3 4.5 2 2.7 3.2 n/a 4.4 19.5 21.9 21
Vancouver 40.4 38.5 37.9 48.6 0.5 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.5 2.9 3.4 n/a 7.9 34.7 35.7 41.8
Newfoundland and Labrador 38.4 46.1 44.4 48.2 0.6 5.7 5.5 6.7 1 3.2 3.1 5.6 0.7 2.2 2.4 1.3
Prince Edward Island 38 34.4 37.1 49.5 0.2 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.2 2 2.8 5.7 1 2.7 3 2.4
Nova Scotia 34.4 44.6 43.6 49.2 0.4 2.3 2.4 3.4 3.5 5 5.2 7.2 1.3 6.7 7.3 4.5
New Brunswick 32.2 48.8 48.2 48.3 0.4 1.3 1.3 2.6 1.8 3.3 3.7 5.3 1.1 3.2 3.4 2.2
Quebec 39.8 40.2 39.7 47.9 0.4 1 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.8 2.1 3 2.6 13.1 13.9 9.8
Ontario 44.2 43.1 42.9 48.7 0.7 1.5 1.5 2.1 1.6 3.3 3.6 5.5 7.3 27 27.9 24.4
Manitoba 30.5 33 32.6 48 1 7.9 7.8 12.1 1.7 3.4 3.3 5.9 2.6 14.8 15.8 13.2
Saskatchewan 35.1 36.4 37.1 47.3 1.4 8.1 7.9 10.4 1.8 2.9 3.2 5.6 1.2 8.7 9.7 6.3
Alberta 45.3 41.7 41.7 46.6 0.7 2.5 2.7 4.7 1.9 2.7 3.3 4.9 4 18.5 20 17.3
British Columbia 41.5 38.6 37.8 48.5 0.7 2.7 3.1 4.6 1.7 3 3.6 5.8 6.2 27.2 28.3 25.8
Yukon 31.4 41.8 41.4 49.5 3.8 9.4 8.5 19 0.8 3.8 3.1 6.9 1.4 11.5 11.4 5.9
Northwest Territories 21.9 22.5 25.7 47.8 9.6 10.9 8.2 40.3 1.4 1.7 1.9 3.6 2.5 9.3 10.8 7.8
Nunavut n/a 24.9 26.1 46.9 n/a 36.1 38.4 75.1 n/a 2.2 1.9 2.6 n/a 7.9 8 2.6
Canada 40.9 41 40.7 48.2 0.7 2.2 2.3 3.5 1.6 3 3.3 4.9 5 21.2 22.2 17.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 2: Representation (2015 and 2016) and availability (2011/2012) of Federally regulated private-sector employees by designated group and occupational group (%)
Occupational group Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
Representation Availability* Representation Availability* Representation Availability* Representation Availability*
2015 2016 2011 2015 2016 2011 2015 2016 2012 2015 2016 2011
Senior managers 25.5 26.4 27.4 1 1 2.9 2.9 3.1 4.3 8.8 9.1 10.1
Middle and other managers 42.1 42.1 38.9 1.2 1.3 2.2 3.1 3.5 4.3 21.5 23.1 15
Professionals 44.5 44.6 55 1.1 1.3 2.1 2.9 3.3 3.8 28.8 30.7 19.9
Semi-professionals and technicians 19.4 19 52 2.4 2.5 3.7 2.3 2.7 4.6 12.5 13.3 16.3
Supervisors 61.9 60.6 56.5 2.3 2.4 3.6 3.3 3.6 **13.9 20.2 21 18.5
Supervisors: crafts and trades 8.3 8.5 11.2 3.5 3.7 3.7 2.1 2.2 **7.8 9 9.1 9.5
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 77.4 76.9 82.6 1.9 1.9 3 3.4 3.6 3.4 24.7 25.4 14.1
Skilled sales and service personnel 55 53.1 49.9 1.6 1.8 3.2 3 3.9 3.5 26.9 28.9 22.8
Skilled crafts and trades workers 4.8 4.7 3.9 3.6 3.8 4.5 2.4 2.5 3.8 12.6 13.5 10.3
Clerical personnel 58.3 57.5 68.4 2.1 2.1 3.4 4 4.2 7 22.7 23.6 19
Intermediate sales and service personnel 63.9 63.2 66.8 2.3 2.5 3.7 2.8 3.3 5.6 22.9 23.9 20.7
Semi-skilled manual workers 13.3 13.3 17.9 3.3 3.3 4.1 2.6 2.7 4.8 17.3 16.4 18.7
Other sales and service personnel 41.5 41.9 57.5 4.3 3.9 5.1 3.8 3.9 6.3 13.8 14.5 21.9
Other manual workers 10.9 11.2 22.7 6.2 5.9 6 3.1 2.7 **5.3 15.9 14.2 17.3
Total 41 40.7 48.2 2.2 2.3 3.5 3 3.3 4.9 21.2 22.2 17.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability.

** Use with caution. The coefficient of variation of the estimate is between 16.5% and 33.3%.

Table 3: Distribution (2015 and 2016) of federally regulated private-sector employees by designated group and occupational group (%)
Administrative and senior clerical personnel Women Men Aboriginal peoples Non-aboriginal peoples
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
Senior managers 0.5 0.6 1.1 1.1 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.9
Middle and other managers 10.9 11.2 10.5 10.6 6.0 6.3 10.8 11.0
Professionals 19.8 20.7 17.2 17.7 9.1 10.5 18.5 19.1
Semi-professionals and technicians 3.2 3.1 9.2 9.1 7.2 7.4 6.7 6.7
Supervisors 5.1 5.0 2.2 2.2 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.4
Supervisors: crafts and trades 0.3 0.3 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.5 1.5 1.5
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 5.4 5.4 1.1 1.1 2.5 2.4 2.9 2.9
Skilled sales and service personnel 4.3 4.2 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.6 3.3 3.2
Skilled crafts and trades workers 0.9 0.9 13.2 13.0 13.4 13.3 8.0 7.9
Clerical personnel 19.0 18.8 9.5 9.5 12.6 12.1 13.4 13.3
Intermediate sales and service personnel 25.4 24.8 10.0 9.9 17.0 17.2 16.3 15.9
Semi-skilled manual workers 4.3 4.3 19.5 19.3 19.9 19.0 13.1 13.1
Other sales and service personnel 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.4
Other manual workers 0.2 0.2 1.4 1.1 2.6 1.9 0.9 0.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Distribution (2015 and 2016) of federally regulated private-sector employees by designated group and occupational group – continued (%)
Occupational group Persons with disabilities Persons without disabilities Members of visible minorities Non-visible minority members
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
Senior managers 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.4 0.4 1.0 1.0
Middle and other managers 11.2 11.6 10.6 10.8 10.8 11.3 10.6 10.7
Professionals 17.6 19.2 18.3 18.9 24.8 26.3 16.5 16.9
Semi-professionals and technicians 5.3 5.4 6.8 6.7 4.0 4.0 7.5 7.4
Supervisors 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.4
Supervisors: crafts and trades 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.5 0.6 0.6 1.7 1.8
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.4 3.3 2.8 2.8
Skilled sales and service personnel 3.3 3.8 3.2 3.2 4.1 4.2 3.0 2.9
Skilled crafts and trades workers 6.5 6.2 8.2 8.1 4.9 4.9 9.0 8.9
Clerical personnel 18.3 17.1 13.2 13.2 14.4 14.2 13.1 13.1
Intermediate sales and service personnel 15.6 16.1 16.4 16.0 17.7 17.2 16.0 15.6
Semi-skilled manual workers 11.6 10.9 13.3 13.3 10.8 9.8 13.9 14.2
Other sales and service personnel 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5
Other manual workers 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.8
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 4: Federally regulated private-sector employees by designated group and sector: number, representation, hires, promotions, terminations and net effect (2015 and 2016)*
All employees Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
Banking and financial services (number)
Employees 238,575 237,225 142,945 139,466 3,020 3,004 9,532 10,654 72,039 74,223
Hires 33,883 34,740 17,146 17,284 367 347 767 1,000 8,365 9,226
Promotions 29,069 29,015 16,498 15,926 388 364 846 938 9,612 10,037
Terminations 33,919 37,281 19,630 21,230 525 565 1,387 1,569 9,122 10,415
Net effect** -36 -2,541 -2,484 -3,946 -158 -218 -620 -569 -757 -1,189
Banking and financial services (percent)
Representation 100.0 100.0 59.9 58.8 1.3 1.3 4.0 4.5 30.2 31.3
Share of hires 100.0 100.0 50.6 49.8 1.1 1.0 2.3 2.9 24.7 26.6
Share of promotions 100.0 100.0 56.8 54.9 1.3 1.3 2.9 3.2 33.1 34.6
Share of terminations 100.0 100.0 57.9 56.9 1.5 1.5 4.1 4.2 26.9 27.9
Communications (number)
Employees 140,445 133,492 51,011 47,625 2,482 3,009 3,531 4,588 27,829 30,194
Hires 18,016 16,198 6,985 6,079 360 298 428 462 4,564 4,397
Promotions 6,261 5,369 2,422 2,109 142 158 128 193 1,346 1,431
Terminations 22,147 23,389 9,178 9,495 381 440 508 668 4,707 5,245
Net effect -4,131 -7,191 -2,193 -3,416 -21 -142 -80 -206 -143 -848
Communications (percent)
Representation 100.0 100.0 36.3 35.7 1.8 2.3 2.5 3.4 19.8 22.6
Share of hires 100.0 100.0 38.8 37.5 2.0 1.8 2.4 2.9 25.3 27.1
Share of promotions 100.0 100.0 38.7 39.3 2.3 2.9 2.0 3.6 21.5 26.7
Share of terminations 100.0 100.0 41.4 40.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.9 21.3 22.4
Transportation (number)
Employees 296,715 293,113 90,048 89,918 8,282 8,069 7 336 7,198 47,323 46,981
Hires 46,670 42,644 11,678 11,357 1,629 1,360 783 696 10,258 8,346
Promotions 9,161 9,588 2,944 3,033 261 259 174 178 1,523 1,727
Terminations 52,068 49,888 13,226 13,443 1,752 1,633 1 263 1,197 9,560 8,498
Net effect -5,398 -7,244 -1,548 -2,086 -123 -273 -480 -501 698 -152
Transportation (percent)
Representation 100.0 100.0 30.3 30.7 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.5 15.9 16.0
Share of hires 100.0 100.0 25.0 26.6 3.5 3.2 1.7 1.6 22.0 19.6
Share of promotions 100.0 100.0 32.1 31.6 2.8 2.7 1.9 1.9 16.6 18.0
Share of terminations 100.0 100.0 25.4 26.9 3.4 3.3 2.4 2.4 18.4 17.0
'Other' (number)
Employees 54,750 56,262 15,785 16,253 2,361 2,324 1,228 1,196 7,541 8,116
Hires 7,794 8,094 2,125 2,190 340 226 115 91 1,706 1,860
Promotions 3,065 2,637 1,051 850 134 103 52 30 391 364
Terminations 8,197 7,717 2,343 2,118 374 347 178 161 1,239 1,340
Net effect -403 377 -218 72 -34 -121 -63 -70 467 520
'Other' (percent)
Representation 100.0 100.0 28.8 28.9 4.3 4.1 2.2 2.1 13.8 14.4
Share of hires 100.0 100.0 27.3 27.1 4.4 2.8 1.5 1.1 21.9 23.0
Share of promotions 100.0 100.0 34.3 32.2 4.4 3.9 1.7 1.1 12.8 13.8
Share of terminations 100.0 100.0 28.6 27.4 4.6 4.5 2.2 2.1 15.1 17.4
All sectors (number)
Employees 730,485 720,092 299,789 293,262 16,145 16,406 21,627 23,636 154,732 159,514
Hires 106,363 101,676 37,934 36,910 2,696 2,231 2,093 2,249 24,893 23,829
Promotions 47,556 46,609 22,915 21,918 925 884 1,200 1,339 12,872 13,559
Terminations 116,331 118,275 44,377 46,286 3,032 2,985 3,336 3,595 24,628 25,498
Net effect -9,968 -16,599 -6,443 -9,376 -336 -754 -1,243 -1,346 265 -1,669
All sectors (percent)
Representation 100.0 100.0 41.0 40.7 2.2 2.3 3.0 3.3 21.2 22.2
Share of hires 100.0 100.0 35.7 36.3 2.5 2.2 2.0 2.2 23.4 23.4
Share of promotions 100.0 100.0 48.2 47.0 1.9 1.9 2.5 2.9 27.1 29.1
Share of terminations 100.0 100.0 38.1 39.1 2.6 2.5 2.9 3.0 21.2 21.6

* The number of employees and representation of the designated groups cover permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

** The number of employees hired reduced by those terminated.

Table 5: Federally regulated private-sector employees in permanent full-time employment by designated group, gender and salary range as of December 31, 2016
Salary range All employees Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
Total Men Women (%) Total (%) Men Women Total (%) Men Women Total (%) Men Women
Under $15,000 3,508 2,448 1,060 30.2 157 4.5 107 50 74 2.1 51 23 761 21.7 586 175
$15,000 to $19,999 1,090 678 412 37.8 36 3.3 23 13 40 3.7 19 21 203 18.6 143 60
$20,000 to $24,999 3,606 1,852 1,754 48.6 92 2.6 54 38 92 2.6 49 43 696 19.3 354 342
$25,000 to $29,999 9,520 4,517 5,003 52.6 318 3.3 164 154 295 3.1 133 162 2,287 24.0 1,138 1,149
$30,000 to $34,999 20,130 9,515 10,615 52.7 596 3.0 276 320 824 4.1 327 497 5,062 25.1 2,452 2,610
$35,000 to $37,499 16,193 7,889 8,304 51.3 411 2.5 205 206 655 4.0 268 387 4,159 25.7 2,025 2,134
$37,500 to $39,999 19,280 9 677 9,603 49.8 477 2.5 246 231 757 3.9 345 412 5,148 26.7 2,540 2,608
$40,000 to $44,999 45,184 22,802 22,382 49.5 989 2.2 490 499 1,591 3.5 743 848 11,463 25.4 5,718 5,745
$45,000 to $49,999 44,123 23,381 20,742 47.0 925 2.1 502 423 1,573 3.6 715 858 11,165 25.3 5 590 5,575
$50,000 to $59,999 105,704 60,093 45,611 43.1 2,464 2.3 1,380 1,084 3,917 3.7 2,004 1,913 22,965 21.7 12,598 10,367
$60,000 to $69,999 84,223 54,262 29,961 35.6 1,970 2.3 1,367 603 2,725 3.2 1,572 1,153 17,283 20.5 10,584 6,699
$70,000 to $84,999 86,813 58,220 28,593 32.9 1,916 2.2 1,383 533 2,752 3.2 1,720 1,032 19,100 22.0 12,117 6,983
$85,000 to $99,999 57,518 38,817 18,701 32.5 1,215 2.1 875 340 1,720 3.0 1,029 691 13,108 22.8 8,361 4,747
$100,000 and over 112,655 82,270 30,385 27.0 2,074 1.8 1,678 396 3,066 2.7 2,096 970 21,638 19.2 14,708 6,930
Total 609,547 376,421 233,126 38.2 13,640 2.2 8,750 4,890 20,081 3.3 11,071 9,010 135,038 22.2 78,914 56,124
Table 6: Federally regulated private-sector employees in permanent part-time employment by designated group, gender and salary range as of December 31, 2016
Salary range All employees Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
Total Men Women % Total % Men Women Total % Men Women Total % Men Women
Under $5,000 2,930 1,567 1,363 46.5 72 2.5 24 48 85 2.9 51 34 621 21.2 412 209
$5,000 to $7,499 2,044 867 1,177 57.6 58 2.8 20 38 59 2.9 26 33 319 15.6 171 148
$7,500 to $9,999 2,847 1,265 1,582 55.6 87 3.1 38 49 101 3.5 40 61 422 14.8 238 184
$10,000 to $12,499 8,381 4,119 4,262 50.9 206 2.5 93 113 258 3.1 132 126 1,712 20.4 947 765
$12,500 to $14,999 7,904 3,872 4,032 51.0 170 2.2 81 89 227 2.9 101 126 2,020 25.6 1,178 842
$15,000 to $17,499 8,023 3,790 4,233 52.8 260 3.2 120 140 260 3.2 96 164 2,055 25.6 1,101 954
$17,500 to $19,999 8,452 3,980 4,472 52.9 251 3.0 109 142 268 3.2 98 170 2,111 25.0 1,164 947
$20,000 to $22,499 7 731 3,322 4,409 57.0 183 2.4 68 115 262 3.4 99 163 1,903 24.6 995 908
$22,500 to $24,999 10,023 5,130 4,893 48.8 282 2.8 146 136 327 3.3 136 191 2,910 29.0 1,821 1,089
$25,000 to $29,999 14,367 5,188 9,179 63.9 358 2.5 124 234 537 3.7 149 388 3,198 22.3 1,513 1,685
$30,000 to $34,999 11,238 4,286 6,952 61.9 270 2.4 104 166 441 3.9 126 315 2,476 22.0 1,158 1,318
$35,000 to $39,999 7,711 3,178 4,533 58.8 159 2.1 59 100 248 3.2 90 158 1,409 18.3 717 692
$40,000 to $49,999 8,680 4,023 4,657 53.7 162 1.9 70 92 245 2.8 100 145 1,799 20.7 1,066 733
$50,000 and over 4,530 2,068 2,462 54.3 101 2.2 53 48 158 3.5 67 91 703 15.5 365 338
Total 104,861 46,655 58,206 55.5 2,619 2.5 1,109 1,510 3,476 3.3 1,311 2,165 23,658 22.6 12,846 10,812

Appendix B

Technical notes

Employers covered under the Employment Equity Act

The Act covers:

  • federally regulated private-sector employers, federal Crown corporations and other federal government business enterprises with 100 or more employees;
  • core public administration organizations listed under Schedule I or IV of the Financial Administration Act (FAA) (federal government departments and agencies);
  • separate employer organizations in the federal public sector with 100 or more employees, listed in Schedule V of the FAA (separate agencies);
  • other public-sector employer organizations with 100 or more employees, including the Canadian Forces (officers and non-commissioned members in the Regular and Reserve Forces) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (regular and civilian members, excluding federal public service employees); and
  • federal contractor organizations that are provincially regulated suppliers of goods and services with at least 100 permanent full-time and/or permanent part-time employees in Canada that receive contracts of $1 million or more from the federal government.

Limitations of the employment equity data

While this report provides the most recent information on employment equity data, it has the following limitations:

  • To measure progress of the designated groups covered by the Act, their representation (i.e. the number of designated group employees divided by the number of all employees) in the federally regulated private sector is compared to their availability in the workforce population. Availability data is obtained from censuses or surveys conducted every five years by Statistics Canada. As a result, there is a time lag in measuring representation gaps. The current labour market availability (LMA) is based on the 2011 National Household Survey and the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability. More information on LMA can be found in the 2011 Employment Equity Data Report.
  • Data is received annually from employers; however, the number of employers can differ from one year to the next.
  • The Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat is responsible for reporting on employment equity in the federal departments, agencies and commissions that make up the core public administration. This information is available on the Canada.ca website. Other areas of the federal public sector are responsible for preparing their own reports on employment equity, which can be found on their respective websites or obtained upon request. Federal contractors are not required to report annually.

Sector and subsector data

Commencing with this annual report, the four sectors (banking, communications, transportation and ‘other’) were reorganized to better align the employment equity data with the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code structure, which resulted in some employers being reclassified to a different sector than was previously reported. This methodology has been applied to the 2015 data presented in this report to allow for year-to-year comparisons. The following table provides a summary of the changes.

Subsector From To
Postal service, couriers and messengers Communications Transportation – Ground
Investigation and security Services Transportation ‘Other’ – Service industries
Finance and insurance ‘Other’ Banking and financial services
Warehousing and storage ‘Other’ Transportation – Ground
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