Shelter Capacity Report 2019

From: Employment and Social Development Canada

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List of figures

List of tables

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank service providers and Community Entities for their collaboration in the development of the National Service Provider List (NSPL) and your support of the advancement of the understanding of homelessness in Canada.

Introduction

The Shelter Capacity Report is a descriptive account of capacity statistics for emergency homeless shelters in Canada. The report provides information on the number of emergency shelter facilities and permanent beds for each province, territory, and community. In addition, the appendices include overviews of transitional housing facilities and violence against women shelters.

Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC) prepares this report annually using information obtained from the National Service Provider List (NSPL). The NSPL is a comprehensive listing of homeless shelters in Canada which ESDC maintains.

ESDC conducted a comprehensive update of the NSPL emergency shelters in 2018. For this process, community entities updated and validated information for the services in their community. This approach set a new baseline for the NSPL, ensuring higher accuracy of findings. Changes in the reported number of shelters and beds between 2017 and 2018 may reflect updated information rather than actual changes in national shelter capacity.

The 2019 update, conducted between June and December 2019, used an approach similar to that used in 2018. Community Entities and Service Canada in the region of Quebec provided current information about shelters.  ESDC obtained additional information from community organizations and publicly available sources. 

The report excludes shelters that cater exclusively to specific subgroups (for example, immigrants/refugees or pregnant women). It also excludes motel and hotel programs.

For emergency and transitional services in the 2019 report, all services offered by an umbrella organization to a specific target population located at the same address were collapsed.

Types of shelters

Emergency shelters

Facilities that provide temporary, short-term accommodation for homeless individuals and families. This may or may not include other services such as food, clothing or counselling. This report excludes motel and hotel programs.

Transitional housing

Facilities that provide longer-term temporary shelter with a greater intensity of support services than emergency shelters. Transitional housing is an intermediate step between emergency shelter and permanent housing. Support services help clients to gain the stability and self-sufficiency needed to maintain permanent housing. Stays are typically between 3 months and 3 years.

Violence against women shelters

Facilities that provide temporary shelter to single women or women with children fleeing domestic abuse. They may function in either a crisis capacity or as transitional or second-stage housing.

Emergency shelters and transitional housing are further characterized according to the clients they serve:

  • men's shelters provide services to adult males. Some also accept youth
  • women's shelters provide services to adult females. Some also accept youth
  • general shelters provide services to adult males and females. Some also accept youth
  • youth shelters provide services to youth. Shelters have varying definitions of youth, often ranging from 12 to 29 years of age
  • family shelters provide services to families and adults with dependents. Some also accept single adult women without dependents

National emergency shelter capacity overview

Figure 1: Total number of emergency shelters and permanent emergency shelter beds in Canada
Figure 1: description follows
Text description of Figure 1

Total number of emergency shelters and permanent emergency shelter beds in Canada.

There are 423 emergency shelters and 16,271 permanent beds in Canada.

Emergency shelter beds by clientele served

Figure 2: Emergency shelter beds in Canada by clientele served
Chart of Figure 2: description follows
Text description of Figure 2
Clientele Percentage (%)
General 37
Men 31
Women 12
Families 11
Youth 9
  • More than a third (37%) of shelter beds are in general shelters that serve both men and women
  • Men's shelters account for a greater percentage of all shelter beds (31%) compared to women's shelters (12%)
  • Family shelters account for 11% of shelter beds
  • Shelters that exclusively serve youth tend to be smaller. Although they make up 22% of all shelters, they account for 9% of all emergency shelter beds

Proportion of shelters and beds by community size

  • A significant proportion of shelters (41%) are located in small communities (populations less than 300,000)
  • However, the majority of shelter beds (80%) are in large communities (populations of greater than 300,000) 
  • The average number of beds per shelter is 19 in small communities compared to 52 in large communities
  • The median number of beds in small communities is 15, while the median number for large communities is 32
Figure 3: Proportion of emergency shelters and beds in large and small communities in Canada
Chart of Figure 3: description follows
Text description of Figure 3
Beds Proportion
small communities (population less than 300,000) 20%
large communities (population more than 300,000) 80%
Shelters Proportion
small communities (population less than 300,000) 41%
large communities (population more 300,000) 59%

Number of emergency shelter beds by province and territory

  • The majority of shelter beds (90%) are in the provinces of Ontario, Alberta, Quebec and British Columbia
  • Almost half of all emergency shelter beds (44%) are located in Ontario
Figure 4: Number of emergency shelter beds by province and territory
Chart of Figure 4: description follows
Text description of Figure 4
Province Number of emergency shelter beds
Ontario 7,175
Alberta 3,258
British Columbia 2,336
Quebec 1,901
Saskatchewan 483
Manitoba 403
Nova Scotia 225
New Brunswick 180
Newfoundland and Labrador 146
Northwest Territories 82
Yukon Territories 39
Nunavut 36
Prince Edward Island 7

Number of emergency shelter beds by population of 10,000

Figure 5: Number of emergency shelters beds by population of 10,000
Chart of Figure 5: description follows
Text description of Figure 5
Province Beds by population of 10,000
Alberta 8.0
British Columbia 5.0
Manitoba 3.2
New Brunswick 2.4
Newfoundland and Labrador 2.8
Northwest Territories 19.6
Nova Scotia 2.4
Nunavut 10.0
Ontario 5.3
Prince Edward Island 0.5
Quebec 2.3
Saskatchewan 4.4
Yukon 10.9
  • Source: Statistics Canada, 2017
  • The northern territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut) have the highest number of shelter beds per population of 10,000
  • The Atlantic provinces and Quebec rank lowest in terms of emergency shelter capacity per population of 10,000

National summary: Emergency shelters (2019)

Table 1: National summary - Emergency shelters (2019)
Province and Territory 20191 Shelters 20191 Beds 2018 Shelters 2018 Beds 2017 Shelters 2017 Beds
Newfoundland and Labrador2 14 146 7 67 6 61
Nova Scotia 11 225 9 220 9 217
New Brunswick 8 180 9 157 9 148
Prince Edward Island 1 7 1 7 1 7
Quebec 76 1,901 65 1,757 75 1,934
Ontario 159 7,175 149 6,898 149 6,764
Manitoba 12 403 13 650 15 661
Saskatchewan 17 483 18 476 21 443
Alberta 38 3,258 35 3,304 36 3,182
British Columbia 79 2,336 78 2,170 77 2,069
Yukon 3 39 3 27 3 27
Northwest Territories 3 82 3 82 3 76
Nunavut 2 36 2 44 2 34
Canada 423 16,271 392 15,859 407 15,623
  • 1 All services offered by an umbrella organization to a specific target population located at the same address were collapsed. As a result, the figures in this report are slightly lower than the counts reported in the 2019 National Service Provider List.
  • 2 In 2019 Newfoundland and Labrador added 7 privately-owned shelters, with a total capacity of 79 beds.
  • Note: Changes in the reported number of shelters and beds from 2017 to 2018 may reflect updated information rather than actual changes in capacity. Subsequent changes reflect changes in capacity.

Emergency shelters by clientele served (2019)

Table 2: Emergency shelters by clientele served (2019)
Province or Territory General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Newfoundland and Labrador 10 111 0 0 0 0 3 20 1 15 14 146
Nova Scotia 4 49 2 101 2 36 2 24 1 15 11 225
New Brunswick 3 100 2 52 2 20 1 8 0 0 8 180
Prince Edward Island 0 0 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7
Quebec 26 469 8 906 13 219 28 300 1 7 76 1,901
Ontario 31 1,197 43 2,682 31 1,107 32 795 22 1,394 159 7,175
Manitoba 8 307 0 0 0 0 2 24 2 72 12 403
Saskatchewan 2 56 6 201 5 187 4 39 0 0 17 483
Alberta 16 2,292 7 473 5 168 8 145 2 180 38 3,258
British Columbia 42 1,438 13 525 10 227 10 91 4 55 79 2,336
Yukon 1 25 1 3 0 0 1 11 0 0 3 39
Northwest Territories 1 18 1 49 0 0 1 15 0 0 3 82
Nunavut 0 0 1 24 1 12 0 0 0 0 2 36
Canada 144 6,062 85 5,023 69 1,976 92 1,472 33 1,738 423 16,271

Emergency shelters and shelter beds by community (2019)

Newfoundland and Labrador

Table 3: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Newfoundland and Labrador
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Happy Valley – Goose Bay 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8
Natuashish 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 3
St. John's 9 103 0 0 0 0 2 17 1 15 12 135
Total 10 111 0 0 0 0 3 20 1 15 14 146

Nova Scotia

Table 4: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Nova Scotia
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Halifax 0 0 2 101 2 36 1 20 1 15 6 172
Kentville 1 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 12
New Glasgow 1 9 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 2 13
Sydney 1 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 12
Truro 1 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 16
Total 4 49 2 101 2 36 2 24 1 15 11 225

New Brunswick

Table 5: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, New Brunswick
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Bathurst 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10
Fredericton 0 0 1 27 1 10 0 0 0 0 2 37
Moncton 2 90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 90
Saint John 0 0 1 25 1 10 1 8 0 0 3 43
Total 3 100 2 52 2 20 1 8 0 0 8 180

Prince Edward Island

Table 6: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Prince Edward Island
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Charlottetown 0 0 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7
Total 0 0 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7

Quebec

Table 7: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Quebec
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Alma 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8
Drummondville 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 18 0 0 2 18
Fermont 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6
Gatineau 1 55 0 0 0 0 2 14 0 0 3 69
Joliette 1 7 0 0 0 0 2 21 0 0 3 28
La Pocatière 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 1 9
Mont-Laurier 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9
Montreal 8 167 6 842 9 177 9 133 1 7 33 1,326
Pointe-à-la-Croix 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7
Quebec City Region 2 52 1 39 3 34 6 49 0 0 12 174
Rimouski 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 0 1 10
Rivière-du-Loup 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9
Rouyn-Noranda 1 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15
Saguenay 1 3 1 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 28
Saint-Georges 1 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 23
Saint-Hyacinthe 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 1 9
Salaberry-de-Valleyfield 1 20 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 2 29
Sept-Îles 1 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 12
Sherbrooke 1 18 0 0 1 8 2 17 0 0 4 43
Trois-Rivières 2 30 0 0 0 0 1 11 0 0 3 41
Val D'or 1 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 28
Total 26 469 8 906 13 219 28 300 1 7 76 1,901

Ontario

Table 8: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Ontario
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Barrie-Simcoe 2 38 2 42 1 18 1 17 1 36 7 151
Brant-Brantford 1 15 1 40 0 0 1 20 0 0 3 75
Chatham 0 0 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10
Cobourg 1 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 22
Cochrane 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6
Dufferin Region 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 20 0 0 1 20
Durham Region 0 0 1 40 1 40 1 13 1 20 4 113
Halton Region 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 32
Hamilton 0 0 3 194 3 56 1 21 1 80 8 351
Kenora 1 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 18
Kingston 1 29 0 0 1 6 1 15 1 19 4 69
Lindsay 1 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 19
London 2 58 2 198 1 10 1 36 1 41 7 343
Niagara Region 1 55 2 35 2 40 2 20 2 33 9 183
Nipissing (North Bay) 1 19 0 0 1 10 0 0 0 0 2 29
Ottawa 2 60 3 467 3 117 1 24 2 201 11 869
Peel Region 1 119 1 86 0 0 2 54 1 225 5 484
Peterborough 0 0 1 30 1 10 0 0 1 30 3 70
Red Lake 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14
Sarnia 1 24 1 21 0 0 1 9 1 3 4 57
Sault Ste. Marie 0 0 1 23 0 0 0 0 1 25 2 48
Sioux Lookout 1 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 26
Sudbury 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 16 1 26 2 42
Thunder Bay 1 42 1 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 75
Timmins 0 0 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14
Toronto 7 398 16 1,314 14 735 11 415 5 519 53 3,381
Waterloo Region 1 78 2 53 0 0 3 57 1 66 7 254
Wellington-Guelph 1 5 1 22 1 16 1 16 0 0 4 59
Windsor 2 108 1 24 1 22 0 0 0 0 4 154
Woodstock 1 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 2 28
York Region 0 0 1 30 1 27 3 42 1 60 6 159
Total 31 1,197 43 2,682 31 1,107 32 795 22 1,394 159 7,175

Manitoba

Table 9: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Manitoba
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Brandon 1 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 2 37
Flin Flon 1 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15
Steinbach 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
Swan River 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9
Thompson 1 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 24
Winnipeg 3 230 0 0 0 0 2 24 1 60 6 314
Total 8 307 0 0 0 0 2 24 2 72 12 403

Saskatchewan

Table 10: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Saskatchewan
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Moose Jaw 0 0 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10
North Battleford 1 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 34
Prince Albert 1 22 0 0 1 50 0 0 0 0 2 72
Regina 0 0 2 70 2 74 1 15 0 0 5 159
Saskatoon 0 0 3 121 2 63 3 24 0 0 8 208
Total 2 56 6 201 5 187 4 39 0 0 17 483

Alberta

Table 11: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Alberta
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Brocket 1 01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Calgary 4 1,606 1 80 3 32 1 18 2 180 11 1,916
Edmonton 2 260 2 320 2 136 3 91 0 0 9 807
Grande Prairie 1 96 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 0 2 106
Lac La Biche 0 0 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9
Lethbridge 1 80 0 0 0 0 1 8 0 0 2 88
Lloydminster 0 0 1 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 27
Medicine Hat 1 30 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 36
Red Deer 2 66 0 0 0 0 1 12 0 0 3 78
Standoff 1 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 25
Strathmore 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10
Whitecourt 0 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5
Wood Buffalo 2 119 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 151
Total 16 2,292 7 473 5 168 8 145 2 180 38 3,258
  • 1The bed count was not available for this shelter. Total bed counts therefore do not include the capacity for this shelter.

British Columbia

Table 12: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, British Columbia
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Abbotsford 1 30 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 36
Campbell River 1 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 22
Chetwynd 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
Chilliwack 3 83 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 4 92
Courtenay 1 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 18
Dawson Creek 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8
Duncan 1 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 30
Fort Nelson 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6
Fort St. John 1 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 24
Kamloops 1 55 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 2 59
Kelowna 0 0 1 60 1 20 1 10 0 0 3 90
Mission 1 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 27
Nanaimo 0 0 1 24 1 14 1 8 0 0 3 46
Nelson 1 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 17
Penticton 1 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 30
Port Alberni 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 23 1 23
Prince George 2 50 1 21 1 30 1 10 0 0 5 111
Quesnel 1 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15
Smithers 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6
Squamish 1 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15
Terrace 1 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 21
Vancouver 18 782 8 393 6 138 4 44 2 30 38 1,387
Vernon 2 86 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 86
Victoria 1 84 1 21 1 25 0 0 1 2 4 132
Williams Lake 1 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 32
Total 42 1,438 13 525 10 227 10 91 4 55 79 2,336

Yukon

Table 13: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Yukon
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Dawson City 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
Whitehorse 1 25 0 0 0 0 1 11 0 0 2 36
Total 1 25 1 3 0 0 1 11 0 0 3 39

Northwest Territories

Table 14: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Northwest Territories
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Yellowknife 1 18 1 49 0 0 1 15 0 0 3 82
Total 1 18 1 49 0 0 1 15 0 0 3 82

Nunavut

Table 15: Emergency shelters and shelter beds, Nunavut
Community General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Iqaluit 0 0 1 24 1 12 0 0 0 0 2 36
Total 0 0 1 24 1 12 0 0 0 0 2 36

Appendix A: Transitional housing by clientele served (2019)1,2

Table 16: Transitional housing by clientele served (2019)
Province or Territory General shelters General beds Men's shelters Men's beds Women's shelters Women's beds Youth shelters Youth beds Family shelters Family beds Total shelters Total beds
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 74 0 0 1 3 2 25 0 0 4 102
Nova Scotia 0 0 1 19 5 61 4 48 0 0 10 128
New Brunswick 2 19 0 0 0 0 2 18 0 0 4 37
Quebec 27 447 16 753 26 639 41 505 4 84 114 2,428
Ontario 23 500 20 579 19 302 38 522 6 231 106 2,134
Manitoba 5 247 3 80 0 0 2 22 0 0 10 349
Saskatchewan 4 72 5 87 5 64 9 86 0 0 23 309
Alberta 8 1143 7 677 5 167 14 169 2 8 36 1,135
British Columbia 21 710 4 124 5 67 3 71 0 0 33 972
Yukon 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Northwest Territories 1 11 1 32 2 42 1 13 0 0 5 98
Canada 92 2,194 58 2,353 68 1,345 116 1,479 12 323 346 7,694
  • 1 All services offered by an umbrella organization to a specific target population located at the same address were collapsed. As a result, the figures in this report are slightly lower than the counts reported in the 2019 National Service Provider List.
  • 2 There were no transitional housing facilities in Prince Edward Island and Nunavut.
  • 36 A specific bed count is not available for 1 shelter. Total bed counts therefore do not include the capacity for this shelter.

Appendix B: Violence against women shelters (2019)1

Table 17: Violence against women shelters (2019)
Province or Territory Shelters Beds
Newfoundland and Labrador 21 176
Nova Scotia 17 211
New Brunswick 18 303
Prince Edward Island 3 45
Quebec 109 1,370
Ontario 136 2,510
Manitoba 23 385
Saskatchewan 15 238
Alberta 54 1,291
British Columbia 132 1,259
Yukon 6 52
Northwest Territories 6 44
Nunavut 5 41
Canada 545 7,925
  • 1A specific bed count is not available for one shelter in each of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec and Nunavut, and 2 shelters in Manitoba. Total bed counts for these provinces/territories therefore do not include the capacities for these shelters.

Appendix C: Glossary

Emergency shelters
Facilities that provide temporary, short-term accommodation for homeless individuals and families. This may or may not include other services such as food, clothing or counselling. This excludes motel and hotel programs.
Family shelters
Facilities that provide temporary, short-term accommodation specifically for families.
General shelters
Facilities that provide services to adult males and females. Some also accept youth.
Homelessness
The living situation of an individual or family who does not have stable, permanent, appropriate housing, or the immediate prospect, means and ability of acquiring a home.
Large communities
Communities with a population greater than 300,000.
Men's shelters
Facilities that provide services to adult males. Some also accept youth.
Service providers
Organizations that provide services to homeless individuals and families and persons at risk of homelessness.
Small communities
Communities with a population of less than 300,000.
Transitional housing
Facilities that provide longer-term temporary shelter with a greater intensity of support services than emergency shelters. Transitional housing is an intermediate step between emergency shelter and permanent housing. Support services help clients to gain the stability and self-sufficiency needed to maintain permanent housing. Stays are typically between 3 months and 3 years.
Youth shelters
Facilities that provide services to youth. Shelters have varying definitions of youth, often ranging from 12 to 29 years of age.
Violence against women shelters
Facilities that provide temporary shelter to single women or women with children fleeing domestic abuse. They may function in either a crisis capacity or as transitional or second-stage housing.
Women's shelters
Facilities that provide services to adult females. Some also accept youth.

References

Statistics Canada. (2017). "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census" Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-402-X2016001. Ottawa, Ontario. February 8.

https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/hlt-fst/pd-pl/Table.cfm?Lang=Eng&T=101&S=50&O=A

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