2016 Occupational Injuries amongst Federal Jurisdiction Employers

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The following data is derived from Employer Annual Hazardous Occurrence Reports (EAHOR) submitted to the Labour Program by federally-regulated employers as stipulated in Section 15.10 of the Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations.

This publication presents information and analysis on the Disabling Injury Frequency Rate (DIFR: Number of disabling and fatal injuries per one million hours worked) and the Fatal Injury Frequency Rate (FIFR: Number of fatal injuries per one billion hours worked) by federal jurisdiction injury sector and by province/territory. Information on injury rates per fulltime equivalent employees (FTEs) can be found on the Government of Canada’s Open Data Portal.

National injury highlights

  • The national Disabling Injury Frequency Rate (DIFR: Number of disabling and fatal injuries per one million hours worked) is 9.13, a decrease of 3.1% from the 2015 DIFR of 9.42. This rate is the second lowest DIFR value since 1982.
  • The national Fatal Injury Frequency Rate (FIFR: Number of fatal injuries per one billion hours worked) is 30.33, an increase of 14.7% from the 2015 FIFR of 26.44. This is the highest FIFR value since 2007 (34.64).
  • There were 54,227 total injuries (disabling, fatal and minor) reported to the Labour Program in 2016, a 3.5% increase from 2015 (52,389). Of this number, 20,097 (37.1%) were disabling injuries, 67 (0.12%) were fatal injuries and 34,063 (62.8%) were minor injuries. Only the proportion of disabling injuries decreased from 2015.
  • Of the seven sectors with the highest 2016 DIFR values, the Postal contractors sector underwent the most noted increase over the last five years.1 The DIFR for this sector increased by 50.1% going from 27.90 in 2012 to 41.88 in 2016. The sector with the most marked decrease was Air transport. The DIFR for this sector decreased by 42.8% from 27.85 in 2012 to 15.92 in 2016. See Chart 1.4 for DIFR values for all sectors.
  • The three sectors with FIFR values above the 2016 national FIFR (30.33) rates were Road transport, Aboriginal and Long shoring. Since 2012, the Road transport and Aboriginal sectors have almost consistently reported FIFR values above the national rates, with the exception of 2013 where the Aboriginal sector reported no fatalities. The Long shoring sector, however, has fluctuated, reporting no fatalities in 2012, 2014, and 2015. Besides Road transport, the only other three sectors which reported fatalities in every year from 2012 and 2016 were the Air and rail transport, and Public Service Departments; however, these sectors were below the 2016 national FIFR. See Chart 1.5 for FIFR values for all sectors.

Important note

More detailed injury data is available through the Government of Canada’s Open Data portal.

Occupational injuries for federal jurisdiction by industry sector, 2016

Disabling injuries:Combined, the Road transportation and Postal contractors industry sectors make up just over half of all reported disabling injuries in the federal jurisdiction in 2016; however, these two sectors only represent a little more than a fifth of total employment in the federal jurisdiction. This distribution is roughly identical to the 2015 figures.

Chart 1.1 Percentage of reported disabling injuries within federal jurisdiction industry sectors, 2016
Chart 1.1: description follows

* All others: COMM, BANK: 5% each; RAIL, WATR: 3% each; LONG, BCAST, CRWN, FEED, ABORIG, GRAIN: 1% each; PIPE, ENER: 0.1% each; BRID: 0.03%

Chart 1.1 - Text version
Industry Percentage of disabling injuries
Road transport 33
Postal contractors 19
Air transport 14
Public service departments 13
All Others 21
Chart 1.2 Percentage of reported employees within federal jurisdiction industry sectors, 2016
Chart 1.2: description follows

* All others: BANK: 21%; COMM: 7%; BCAST, RAIL CRWN: 3% each; ABORIG, WATR: 2% each; FEED, PIPE, LONG, GRAIN: 1% each; ENER: 0.3%; BRID: 0.04%

Chart 1.2 - Text version
Industry Percentage of employees
Road transport 16
Postal contractors 5
Air transport 9
Public service departments 26
All Others* 44

Fatal injuries: The total number of reported fatalities in 2016 has increased by 14% from 59 in 2015 to 67 in 2016. The increase is partly attributable to the fact that the Public Service Departments, Road transport, and Water transport reported a combined 10 more fatalities in 2016 (53) than in 2015 (43).

Chart 1.3 Percentage of reported fatal work injuries in federal jurisdiction industries, 2016
Chart 1.3: description follows

*All others include one fatality in each of the following sectors: Banking, Broadcasting, Crown corporations, Long shoring, Postal contractors, Rail transport

Chart 1.3 - Text version
Industry Percentage of employees
Road transport 60
Public service departments 15
Aboriginal 6
Air transport 6
Water transport 4
All Others* 9

DIFR: Six of the 17 industry sectors under federal jurisdiction reported DIFRs higher than the national rate of 9.13. These industries were: Postal contractors, Long shoring, Road transport, Air transport, Water transport and Feed, Flour and seed. Of these, the Long shoring, Water transport and Feed, Flour and seed sectors were the sectors to report an increased DIFR from 2015 to 2016. The top five sectors in both 2015 and 2016 remained identical.

Chart 1.4 Disabling injury frequency rate (DIFR), by federal jurisdiction industry sector, 2016
Chart 1.4: description follows
Chart 1.4 - Text version
Industry Disabling injury incidence rate
Postal Contractors 41.88
Long-shoring 19.46
Road transport 16.26
Air Transport 15.92
Water Transport 12.39
Grain elevators 10.50
Bridges and Tunnels 8.33
Rail Transport 8.12
Feed, flour and seed 6.07
Public service departments 4.65
Communications 3.92
Federal crown corporations 3.78
Broadcasting 3.69
Aboriginal 3.67
Energy and mining 3.06
Banking 2.05
Pipelines 1.36
National rate 9.13

FIFR: Eleven of the 17 industry sectors under federal jurisdiction reported fatalities in 2016. Four industry sectors (Road transport, Aboriginal, Long shoring, Water transport) all reported FIFR values above the national rate (30.33). When compared to 2015, the Road transport and Aboriginal industry sectors were the only two sectors above the national rate in both years. Along with these sectors, the Air transport, Postal contractors, Water transport, Crown corporations, Rail transport, Public Service Departments, and Banking sectors reported fatalities in both years.

Chart 1.5 Fatal injury frequency rate (FIFR), by federal jurisdiction industry sector, 2016
Chart 1.5: description follows
Chart 1.5 - Text version
Industry Disabling injury frequency rate
Road transport 96.43
Aboriginal 83.95
Long shoring 66.88
Water transport 61.56
Air transport 22.83
Public service departments 17.64
BCAST 16.35
Rail transport 16.11
Federal crown corporations 15.00
Postal contractors 11.32
Banking 2.26
National rate 30.33

Occupational injuries for federal employers by province or territory, 2016

Disabling injuries: In 2016, Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta accounted for 82% of all reported disabling injuries. This is understandable due to their large combined share (84%) of all reported federal jurisdiction employment. These numbers remain largely unchanged from 2015.

Chart 2.1 Percentage of reported disabling injuries by province/territory, 2016
Chart 2.1: description follows

* All others: MB: 7%; NS: 4%; SK: 3%; NB: 2%; NL: 1%; PE: 0.3%; NWT: 0.2%; NU and YT: 0.1% each; Foreign: 0.04%

Chart 2.1 - Text version
Province and territory Percentage of disabling injuries
Ontario 34
Quebec 20
British Columbia 16
Alberta 11
All Others* 18
Chart 2.2 Percentage of reported federal jurisdiction employment by province/ territory, 2016
Chart 2.2: description follows

* MB: 4%; NS, SK: 3% each; NB: 2%; NL, Foreign, PE: 1% each; NWT: 0.3%; YT: 0.2%; NU: 0.1%

Chart 2.2 - Text version
Province and territory Percentage of disabling injuries
Ontario 44
Quebec 19
British Columbia 11
Alberta 10
All Others* 16

Fatal injuries: Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta accounted for just under 80% of all reported fatal injuries in 2016. Of these provinces, only Ontario and Quebec saw their shares of fatal injuries increase from 201 to 2016, from 32% to 33% and 17% to 21% respectively. Even though Quebec and Ontario combined to account for 54% of all fatalities, they both reported relatively low FIFR values due to their large number of reported hours worked. (see charts 2.6 and 2.7).

Chart 2.3 Percentage of fatal work injuries by province/territory, 2016
Chart 2.3: description follows
Chart 2.3 - Text version
Province and territory Percentage of fatal work injuries
Ontario 33
Quebec 21
Alberta 13
British Columbia 12
Manitoba 7
New Brunswick 7
Nova Scotia 3
Saskatchewan 2
Yukon 2

DIIR: Seven provinces or territories reported DIFR values above the national rate of 9.33. Of these seven provinces, only British Columbia reported a higher DIFR value in 2016 than in 2015. Nunavut, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia remain the top three provinces or territories with the highest DIFR values when compared to 2015.

Chart 2.4 Disabling injury Frequency Rate (DIFR) by province/territory, 2016
Chart 2.4: description follows
Chart 2.4 - Text version
Province and territory Disabling injury frequency rate
Nunavut 15.41
Manitoba 13.82
British Columbia 13.67
Nova Scotia 10.45
Saskatchewan 10.42
Newfoundland and Labrador 10.10
Alberta 10.09
Quebec 9.11
New Brunswick 8.58
Ontario 7.28
Yukon 6.59
Northwest Territories 6.40
Prince Edward Island 4.89
Foreign 0.67
National rate 9.33

FIFR: Of the nine provinces to report fatalities in 2016, only Ontario and Saskatchewan were below the national FIFR. Compared to 2015, Manitoba, Alberta, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia remain above the national FIFR. Of these four provinces, Manitoba and Alberta reported an increase in their FIFRs from 2015 to 2016. Of note, the FIFR for the Yukon is so much higher than the other provinces/territories since it reported one fatality for just over 4.1 million hours worked, resulting in a FIFR of 243.90 fatalities per one billion hours worked.

Chart 2.5 Fatal Injury Frequency Rate (FIFR) by province/territory, 2016
Chart 2.5: description follows
Chart 2.5 - Text version
Province and territory Fatal injury incidence rate
Yukon 243.90
New Brunswick 94.89
Manitoba 52.11
Alberta 41.21
British Columbia 33.06
Nova Scotia 31.78
Quebec 30.85
Ontario 23.25
Saskatchewan 13.78

Glossary

The following definitions are provided for the purposes of this publication only.

Disabling injury

Any occupation injury or disease that:

  • prevents an employee from reporting for work, or from effectively performing all the duties connected with the employee’s regular work, on any day subsequent to the day on which the occupational injury occurred, whether or not that subsequent day is a working day for that employee;
  • results in the loss by an employee of a body member or a part thereof, or in a complete loss of the usefulness of a body member or part thereof; or
  • results in the permanent impairment of a bodily function of an employee.
Disabling Injury Frequency Rate (DIFR)
Defined as the total number of disabling and fatal occupational injuries per one million hours worked. It is calculated by taking the sum of the total number of disabling and fatal injuries on the job, dividing that by the total number of hours worked and multiplying by one million.
Employee
Any person who has entered into or is employed under a contract of service or apprenticeship, written or oral, expressed or implied, whether by way of manual labour or otherwise, as well as any other person subject to the provisions of a workers’ compensation board act or any direction or order of a board.
Employment
  • All work or activities performed in carrying out assignments or requests made by the employer. It includes related activities not specifically covered by an assignment or request.
  • Any voluntary work or activities undertaken while on duty for the benefit of the employer.
  • Any activities undertaken while on duty with the consent or approval of the employer.
Fatal injury
An occupational injury or disease resulting in death.
Fatal Injury Frequency Rate (FIFR)
Defined as the total number of fatal occupational injuries per one billion hours worked. It is calculated by taking the total number of fatal injuries on the job, dividing that by the total number of hours worked and multiplying by one billion.
Federal jurisdiction
Federal jurisdiction covers those works, undertakings or businesses that are within the legislative authority of Parliament. It also includes any work declared to be for the general advantage of two or more provinces outside the exclusive authority of the provincial legislatures. Federal jurisdiction defined under the Canada Labour Code covers specific industries and their infrastructures (see page 13 of this publication).
Full-time Equivalent (FTE)
Refers to the employment of one person full time, or more than one person part time, such that the total working time is the equivalent of one person working full time. FTEs are measured in person-years. For instance, 100 people employed full time equals 100 FTEs; 10 people employed half time equals 5 FTEs; and all 110 people combined represent 105 FTEs.
Minor injury
An occupation injury or disease, excluding disabling injuries, for which treatment at a medical facility is provided.
Occupational injury
Any injury, disease or illness incurred by an employee in the performance of, or in connection with, his or her work.

Industries under Federal Jurisdiction

According to the Canada Labour Code, the federal jurisdiction encompasses any work, undertaking or business that is within the legislative authority of the Parliament of Canada. This includes all work deemed to be for the common good of at least two provinces and outside the exclusive authority of provincial legislatures. The industrial sectors included are as follows:

  • Aboriginal (ABORIG)
  • Air Transport (AIRT)
  • Banking (BANK)
  • Bridges and tunnels (BRID)
  • Broadcasting (BROAD)
  • Communications (COMM)
  • Federal crown corporations (CRWN)
  • Public Service Departments (PUBS)
  • Feed, flour and seed mills (FEED)
  • Grain elevators (GRAN)
  • Long shoring (LONG)
  • Energy and mining (ENER)
  • Pipelines (PIPE)
  • Postal contractors (POST)
  • Rail transport (RAIL)
  • Inter-provincial Road transport (ROAD)
  • Water transport (WATR)

Annex: Data charts

Chart 3.1 (a): Federal jurisdiction industry sectors with highest 2016 DIFR values, 2012-2016
Chart 3.1 (a): description follows
Chart 3.1 (a) - Text version
Industry 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Postal contractors 27.90 25.17 42.74 43.65 41.88
Long shoring 29.04 25.52 20.81 19.07 19.46
Road transport 20.02 18.47 18.38 17.59 16.26
National 9.36 8.76 9.25 9.42 9.13
Chart 3.1 (b): Federal jurisdiction industry sectors with highest 2016 DIFR values, 2012-2016
Chart 3.1 (b): description follows
Chart 3.1 (b) - Text version
Industry 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Air transport 27.85 19.05 16.04 16.71 15.92
Water transport 17.07 15.40 12.22 11.32 12.39
Grain elevators 11.64 11.44 9.74 7.65 10.50
Feed, flour and seed mills 9.24 8.46 5.19 9.28 8.33
National 9.36 8.76 9.25 9.42 9.13
Chart 3.2: Federal jurisdiction industry sectors with highest 2016 FIFR values, 2012-2016
Chart 3.2 (a): description follows
Chart 3.2 - Text version
Industry 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Road transport 79.14 85.44 61.33 98.65 96.43
Aboriginal 43.52 0.00 94.68 56.77 83.95
Long shoring 0.00 180.33 0.00 0.00 66.88
National 21.62 26.37 22.45 26.44 30.33
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