Canada’s Black Carbon Inventory Report 2019

Annex B: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter

The fractions used to convert particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) emissions to black carbon emissions are listed in Table B–1 through Table B–7.

Table B–1: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter, Ore and Mineral Industries
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Aluminium Industry Alumina (Bauxite Refining) Aluminum Processing, baghouse average (avg) 0.020165 2910110
291012.5
2910130
29101C
Average of 4 speciation factors from EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting & Refining Aluminium Processing, baghouse (avg) 0.020165 2910110
291012.5
2910130
29101C
Average of 4 speciation factors from EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting & Refining Aluminium Reduction Potline 0.0268 2910210 EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting & Refining Coal Combustion 0.021321 4373 EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting & Refining Average of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions 0.02043 not applicable Weighted average (excluding Coal Combustion)
Aluminium Industry Secondary Aluminium (Includes Recycling) Secondary Aluminium—Dross Recovery Furnace 0.01426 2010310
201032.5
2010330
20103C
EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Cement Manufacture Cement Kiln (Coal-Fired) 0.002 2720310 EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Cement Manufacture Cement Kiln 0.027801 4331 EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Concrete Batching & Products Sector Specific Speciation Factor—Concrete Batching & Products 0.001704 not applicable EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Lime Manufacture Lime Kiln 0.00464 23202C EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Lime Manufacture Cement Kiln 0.027801 4331 EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Gypsum Product Manufacturing Sector Specific Speciation Factor—Gypsum Product Manufacturing 0.01467 not applicable EPA 2014a
Foundries Die Casting Cast Iron Cupola—Composite 0.0091 91157 EPA 2014a
Foundries Ferrous Foundries Cast Iron Cupola—Composite 0.0091 91157 EPA 2014a
Foundries Non-ferrous Foundries Primary Metal Production—Average 0.01002 9000730 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Coal Mining Industry Mineral Products—avg—Simplified 0.01467 92120 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Incinerator (avg) 0.06658 3286
3287
3288
3290
EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Average of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions 0.06658 3286
3287
3288
3290
EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Potash Phosphate Manufacturing—Composite 0.0274 91165 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Potash Average of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions 0.0274 91165 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Rock, Sand and Gravel Sand 0.00265 3665 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Silica Production Mineral Products—avg—Simplified 0.01467 92120 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Limestone Mineral Products—avg—Simplified 0.01467 92120 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other Minerals Mineral Products—Average 0.01537 9001310
900132.5
9001330
90013C
EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other Minerals Natural Gas Combustion—Simplified 0.384 92112 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other Minerals Oil Combustion 0.42997 3864 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other Minerals Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other Minerals Average of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions 0.13074 not applicable Weighted average
Table B–2: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter, Upstream Oil and Gas Industry
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
All Upstream Oil and Gas Sectors Flaring 0.24 not applicable McEwen (2013)
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing
Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 EPA 2014a
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Light Medium Crude Oil Production
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Petroleum Liquids Transportation
Petroleum Liquids Storage
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing
Disposal and Waste Treatment
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage
Natural Gas Distribution
Natural Gas Combustion—Simplified 0.384 92112 EPA 2014a
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading Petroleum Coke Combustion 0.0428 91110 EPA 2014a
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading Biomass Combustion 0.05579138 92105 EPA 2014a
Table B–3: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter, Electric Power Generation (Utilities)
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Coal Bituminous Coal Combustion—Simplified 0.01696 92104 EPA 2014a
Diesel Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 92106 EPA 2014a
Natural Gas Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Residual Oil Combustion 0.01 4737 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Bunker C and Natural Gas 0.197 4737
92112
EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Distillate Oil Combustion 0.1 4736 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.037088024 92114 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Oil Combustion 0.429969 3864 EPA 2014a
Table B–4: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter, Manufacturing
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Kraft Recovery Furnace—Simplified 0.0153 92119 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.03709 92114 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Residual Oil Combustion 0.01 4737 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Hog fuel and bunker crude use 0.03167 92114
(80%)
4737
(20%)
EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Natural Gas 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Distillate Oil 0.1 92115 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Sludge 0.01522 92177 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Lime Kiln 0.00464 23202C EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Oil-Fired Boilers 0.071 5672 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Pulp and Paper Industry Average of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions 0.02827 not applicable Weighted average
Pulp and Paper Converted Paper Product Manufacturing Pulp & Paper Mills—Simplified 0.001 92144 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Sawmills Wood Products—Drying—Composite 0.08 91128 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Sawmills Wood Products—Sawing—Simplified 0.038 92131 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.03709 92114 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Wood Products—Drying—Composite 0.08 91128 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Composite wood and natural gas boilers 0.21054 91114
91112
EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Average of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions 0.0897 not applicable Weighted average
Wood Products Other Wood Products Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.03709 92114 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Other Wood Products Wood Products—Drying—Composite 0.08 91128 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Other Wood Products Average of large stack BC/PM2.5fractions 0.03784 not applicable Weighted average
Table B–5: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter, Transportation and Mobile Equipment
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Air Transportation Aviation Turbo Fuel (Jet A or B) 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Air Transportation Aviation Gasoline 0.12178 92113 EPA 2014a
Marine Transportation Heavy Fuel Oil 0.12 not applicable EMEP/EEA
(2016). Table A2
Marine Transportation Marine Diesel Oil 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Marine Transportation Marine Gasoline Oil 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
On-Road Transport Diesel EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class not applicable EPA 2014b
On-Road Transport Gasoline EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class not applicable EPA 2014b
On-Road Transport Liquid Petroleum Gas EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class not applicable EPA 2014b
On-Road Transport Natural Gas EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class not applicable EPA 2014b
Off-Road Transport Diesel 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Off-Road Transport Gasoline 0.12178 92113 EPA 2014a
Off-Road Transport Natural Gas 0.384 92112 EPA 2014a
Rail Transportation Diesel 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Rail Transportation Biodiesel 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a

Note: For modelling purposes, liquid petroleum gas and compressed natural gas vehicles are assumed to have similar PM and BC emissions characteristics as gasoline vehicles.

Table B–6: Fraction of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter, Agriculture
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Fuel Use Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Fuel Use Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Fuel Use Natural Gas 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
Fuel Use Natural Gas Liquids 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
Table B–7: Fraction of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter, Commercial/Residential/Institutional
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value(w/w) Profile Reference
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion not applicable Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion not applicable Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion not applicable Natural Gas 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion not applicable Natural Gas Liquids 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Construction Fuel Combustion not applicable Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Construction Fuel Combustion not applicable Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Construction Fuel Combustion not applicable Natural Gas 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Advanced Technology Fireplace Non-Catalytic 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Conventional Fireplace With Glass Doors 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Conventional Fireplace Without Glass Doors 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Fireplace Insert Advanced Technology 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Fireplace Insert Conventional 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Wood Furnace All 0.138 4704 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Pellet Stove All 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Wood Stove Conventional 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Wood Stove EPA Certified 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion not applicable Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion not applicable Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion not applicable Natural Gas 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion not applicable Natural Gas Liquids 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
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