Canada's Black Carbon Inventory Report 2020

Annex B: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter

The fractions used to convert particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) emissions to black carbon emissions are listed in Table B–1 through Table B–7.

Note:

NA: Not applicable

Table B–1: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Ore and Mineral Industries
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Aluminium Industry Alumina (Bauxite Refining) Aluminum Processing, baghouse average (avg) 0.020165 2910110 291012.5 2910130 29101C Average of 4 speciation factors from EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Aluminium Processing, baghouse (avg) 0.020165 2910110 291012.5 2910130 29101C Average of 4 speciation factors from EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Aluminium Reduction Potline 0.0268 2910210 EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Coal Combustion 0.021321 4373 EPA 2014a
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.02043 NA Weighted average (excluding Coal Combustion)
Aluminium Industry Secondary Aluminium (Includes Recycling) Secondary Aluminium—Dross Recovery Furnace 0.01426 2010310
201032.5
2010330
20103C
EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Cement Manufacture Cement Kiln (Coal-Fired) 0.002 2720310 EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Cement Manufacture Cement Kiln 0.027801 4331 EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Concrete Batching and Products Sector Specific Speciation Factor—Concrete Batching & Products 0.001704 NA EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Lime Manufacturing Lime Kiln 0.01467 NA EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Lime Manufacturing Cement Kiln 0.00464 23202C EPA 2014a
Cement and Concrete Industry Gypsum Product Manufacturing Sector Specific Speciation Factor—Gypsum Product Manufacturing 0.027801 4331 EPA 2014a
Foundries Die Casting Cast Iron Cupola—Composite 0.0091 91157 EPA 2014a
Foundries Ferrous Foundries Cast Iron Cupola—Composite 0.0091 91157 EPA 2014a
Foundries Non-ferrous Foundries Primary Metal Production—Average 0.01002 9000730 EPA 2014a
Iron and Steel Industry Primary (Blast Furnace and DRI) Iron and Steel facility - Coke Making 0.137466 8945 EPA 2014a
Iron and Steel Industry Primary (Blast Furnace and DRI) Blast Furnace Charging 0.024 NA EMEP/EEA (2016) 2.C.1 Iron and Steel Production, Table 3.9
Iron and Steel Industry Secondary (Electric Arc Furnace) Electric Arc Furnace / Basic Oxygen Furnace - Composite 0.00363 283052.5
3989
3997
Average of 3 speciation factors EPA (2011) Speciate 4.3
Iron and Steel Industry Secondary (Electric Arc Furnace) Iron and Steel facility - Hot forming 0.023967 8948 EPA 2014a
Iron Ore Indusrtry Iron Ore Pelletization Iron and steel facility - sintering 0.008653 8946 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Coal Mining Industry Mineral Products—Avg—Simplified 0.01467 92120 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Incinerator (avg) 0.06658 3286
3287
3288
3290
EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.06658 3286
3287
3288
3290
EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Potash Phosphate Manufacturing—Composite 0.0274 91165 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Potash Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.0274 91165 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Rock, Sand and Gravel Sand 0.00265 3665 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Silica Production Mineral Products—Avg—Simplified 0.01467 92120 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Limestone Mineral Products—Avg—Simplified 0.01467 92120 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Mineral Products—Average 0.01537 9001310
900132.5
9001330
90013C
EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Natural Gas Combustion—Simplified 0.384 92112 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Oil Combustion 0.42997 3864 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 EPA 2014a
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.13074 NA Weighted average
Table B–2: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Upstream Oil and Gas Industry
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Disposal and Waste Treatment
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage
Natural Gas Distribution
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Petroleum Liquids Storage
Petroleum Liquids Transportation
Well Drilling/Servicing
Flaring 0.24 NA McEwen (2013)
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Well Testing
Flaring NA NA Emission Factors: Quadram (2019)
Activity Data: AER (2019); BCOGC (2019);
CNLOPB (2019); SKMER (2019)
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing
Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 EPA 2014a
Disposal and Waste Treatment
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage
Natural Gas Distribution
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Petroleum Liquids Storage
Petroleum Liquids Transportation
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing
Natural Gas Combustion—Simplified 0.384 92112 EPA 2014a
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading Petroleum Coke Combustion 0.0428 91110 EPA 2014a
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading Biomass Combustion 0.05579138 92105 EPA 2014a
Table B–3: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Electric Power Generation (Utilities)
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Coal Bituminous Coal Combustion—Simplified 0.01696 92104 EPA 2014a
Diesel Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 92106 EPA 2014a
Natural Gas Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Diesel Exhaust1 0.77124 92106 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Distillate Oil Combustion 0.1 4736 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Flare Gas 0.24 NA McEwen 2013
Other Electric Power Generation Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Landfill Gas 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Oil Combustion 0.429969 3864 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Residual Oil Combustion 0.01 4737 EPA 2014a
Other Electric Power Generation Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.037088024 92114 EPA 2014a

Note:

1. This diesel is included as part of other electric power generation since it is the diesel combustion occuring at hydroelectric power plants.

Table B–4: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Manufacturing
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Kraft Recovery Furnace—Simplified 0.0153 92119 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.03709 92114 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Residual Oil Combustion 0.01 4737 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Hog fuel and bunker crude use 0.03167 92114 (80%)
4737 (20%)
EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Natural Gas 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Distillate Oil 0.1 92115 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Sludge 0.01522 92177 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Lime Kiln 0.00464 23202C EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Oil-Fired Boilers 0.071 5672 EPA 2014a
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.07447 NA Weighted average
Pulp and Paper Industry Converted Paper Product Manufacturing Pulp & Paper Mills—Simplified 0.001 92144 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.03709 92114 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Wood Products—Drying—Composite 0.08 91128 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Composite wood and natural gas boilers 0.21054 91114
91112
EPA 2014a
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.1573 NA Weighted average
Wood Products Sawmills Wood Products—Drying—Composite 0.08 91128 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Sawmills Wood Products—Sawing—Simplified 0.038 92131 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Other (Wood Products) Wood Fired Boiler—Simplified 0.03709 92114 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Other (Wood Products) Wood Products—Drying—Composite 0.08 91128 EPA 2014a
Wood Products Other (Wood Products) Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.06547 NA Weighted average
Table B–5: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Transportation and Mobile Equipment
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Air Transportation Aviation Turbo Fuel
(Jet A or B)
0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Air Transportation Aviation Gasoline 0.12178 92113 EPA 2014a
Marine Transportation Diesel 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Marine Transportation Heavy Fuel Oil 0.12 NA EMEP/EEA (2016). Table A2
On-Road Transport Diesel EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class NA EPA 2014b
On-Road Transport Gasoline EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class NA EPA 2014b
On-Road Transport Liquid Petroleum Gas EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class NA EPA 2014b
On-Road Transport Natural Gas EC data extracted from MOVES model; values are variable according to model input and vehicle class NA EPA 2014b
Off-Road Transport Diesel 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Off-Road Transport Gasoline 0.12178 92113 EPA 2014a
Off-Road Transport Natural Gas 0.384 92112 EPA 2014a
Rail Transportation Diesel 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a
Rail Transportation Biodiesel 0.771241 92106 EPA 2014a

Note:

For modelling purposes, liquid petroleum gas and compressed natural gas vehicles are assumed to have similar PM and BC emissions characteristics as gasoline vehicles.

Table B–6: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Agriculture
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value (w/w) Profile Reference
Fuel Use Coal 0.239526 91155 EPA 2014a
Fuel Use Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Fuel Use Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Fuel Use Natural Gas 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
Fuel Use Natural Gas Liquids 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
Table B–7: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Commercial/Residential/Institutional
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions—description BC/PM2.5 fractions—value(w/w) Profile Reference
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Coal 0.01696 92104 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Heavy Fuel Oil 0.01 91117 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas Liquids 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Heavy Fuel Oil 0.01 91117 EPA 2014a
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas 0.384 91112 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Advanced Technology Fireplace Non-Catalytic 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Conventional Fireplace With Glass Doors 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Conventional Fireplace Without Glass Doors 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Fireplace Insert Advanced Technology 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Fireplace Insert Conventional 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Pellet Stove All 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Wood Furnace All 0.138 4704 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Wood Stove Conventional 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Home Firewood Burning Wood Stove EPA Certified 0.055791381 92105 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Coal 0.239526 91155 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Heavy Fuel Oil 0.01 91117 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas Liquids 0.067 91156 EPA 2014a
Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: