Canada's Black Carbon Inventory Report 2020

2 Black carbon emissions and trends in Canada

Approximately 37 kilotonnes (kt) of black carbon were emitted in Canada in 2018 (Table 2–1). Emissions have been grouped according to the following source categories:

Transportation and mobile equipment sources are by far the most important sources of black carbon in Canada, accounting for 21 kt (57%) of total emissions in 2018 (Table 2–1). An important source in this category is mobile diesel engines, which includes on-road and off-road diesel vehicles, and accounted for 41% (15 kt) of total emissions. Estimation methods for these categories are outlined in section 2.5.

Commercial/residential/institutional sources are the second-largest contributor to black carbon emissions in Canada, representing emissions of 13 kt, or 34% of total emissions. Home firewood burning is the largest source in this category, representing 11 kt of emissions, or 31% of total emissions. Wood is an abundant fuel in Canada; it is estimated that 14 million tonnes of wood are burned annually in Canadian homes (TNS Global, 2012). More information on the estimation methods can be found in section 2.7.

Since 2013, emissions of black carbon have overall decreased by 6.5 kt (15%) (Figure 2–1). This overall decrease is attributed to declining emissions from transportation and mobile equipment, consistent with observed downward trends in emissions of fine particulate matter from these sources.

Emissions from Commercial/Residential/Institutional fuel combustion have remained relatively steady since 2013, ranging from 12.6 kt to 12.7 kt (29% to 36% of total black carbon emissions). The Upstream Oil and Gas Industry sector has shown an overall increase in emissions from 2.2 kt in 2013 to 2.3 kt in 2018.

Details on each of the sectors are described in sections 2.1 to 2.7. Improvements applied to this inventory and sources of uncertainty are described in sections 3.3 and 3.4 respectively, while future refinements are discussed in section 3. Provincial and territorial estimates of black carbon emissions are provided in Annex D.

Table 2–1: Black carbon emissions in Canada (2018) (tonnes)
Sector Black carbon Percentage of total
Aluminium Industry 29 0.1%
Cement and Concrete Industry 21 0.1%
Foundries 0.00075 0.0%
Iron and Steel Industry 199 0.5%
Iron Ore Pelletizing 5.7 0.0%
Mining and Rock Quarrying 448 1.2%
Ore and Mineral Industries (total) (total of the 6 preceding rows) 703 1.9%
Disposal and Waste Treatment 0.10 0.0%
Flaring 877 2.4%
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production 101 0.3%
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production 162 0.4%
Natural Gas Production and Processing 537 1.4%
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 36 0.1%
Natural Gas Distribution 0.74 0.0%
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction 249 0.7%
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading 280 0.8%
Petroleum Liquids Storage 4.8 0.0%
Petroleum Liquids Transportation 3.6 0.0%
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing  1.4 0.0%
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry (total) (total of the 12 preceding rows) 2 252 6.0%
Coal 36 0.1%
Diesel 150 0.4%
Natural Gas 8.6 0.0%
Other (Electric Power Generation) 32 0.1%
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (total) (total of the 4 preceding rows) 226 0.6%
Pulp and Paper Industry 167 0.4%
Wood Products 75 0.2%
Manufacturing (total) (total of the 2 preceding rows) 243 0.7%
Air Transportation 222 0.6%
Marine Transportation 2 815 7.6%
On-Road Transport 6 760 18%
On-Road Transport: Diesel
5 927 16%
On-Road Transport: Gasoline
833 2.2%
On-Road Transport: Liquid Petroleum Gas
0.21 0.0%
On-Road Transport: Natural Gas
0.62 0.0%
Off-Road Transport 9 777 26%
Off-Road Transport: Diesel
9 295 25%
Off-Road Transport: Gasoline, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Natural Gas
482 1.3%
Rail Transportation 1 580 4.2%
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (total) (total of the 11 preceding rows) 21 154 57%
Fuel Use 43 0.1%
Agriculture (total) (total of the preceding row) 43 0.1%
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 947 2.5%
Construction Fuel Combustion 47 0.1%
Home Firewood Burning 11 459 31%
Home Firewood Burning: Fireplaces
3 251 8.7%
Home Firewood Burning: Furnaces
4 145 11%
Home Firewood Burning: Wood Stoves
4 062 11%
Residential Fuel Combustion 163 0.4%
Commercial/Residential/Institutional (total) (total of the 7 preceding rows) 12 616 34%
Grand total 37 238 100%

Figure 2–1: Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions (2013 to 2018)

Figure 2-1 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–1

Figure 2–1 is a stacked area graph displaying the trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from four source categories. The four source categories are the following: Transportation and Mobile Equipment, Commercial/Residential/Institutional, Upstream Oil and Gas Industry, and Other. The following table displays the emissions in tonnes (t) for the years 2013 to 2018.

Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Other 1 493 1 376 1 326 1 234 1 321 1 215
Sector 2 - Upstream Oil and Gas Industry 2 174 2 461 2 327 2 082 2 217 2 252
Sector 3 - Commercial/Residential/Institutional 12 707 12 688 12 560 12 638 12 629 12 616
Sector 4 - Transportation and Mobile Equipment 27 317 25 995 21 514 18 787 20 053 21 154

2.1 Ore and Mineral Industries

Ore and mineral industry sources include primary resource extraction and processing (Table 2–2 and Figure 2–2). For the purpose of this inventory, black carbon emissions were considered for the following industries:

Greater sectoral coverage and further refinement of emissions from ore and mineral industries are expected in future editions of the inventory.

Of all ore and mineral industry activities included in this inventory, mining and rock quarrying accounted for the largest proportion (1.2% or 0.4 kt) of total black carbon emissions in 2018 (Figure 2–2). Black carbon emissions from mining and rock quarrying decreased between 2017 and 2018. For northern areas, the use of diesel to generate electricity at remote mines, combined with the relatively high BC/PM2.5 fraction for diesel relative to other fuels is a significant contributor to this sector.

The second largest source of black carbon emissions in ore and mineral industry is the iron and steel industry which accounted for 0.2 kt or 0.5% of total black carbon emissions. Emissions from this sector have increased by 31% since 2013, due to increased production.

Black carbon emissions from the aluminium sector have decreased and stabilized since 2013, which can be attributed to the implementation of the Code of Practice to reduce emissions of PM2.5 from the primary aluminium sector (ECCC 2016). Black carbon emissions from the cement and concrete industry maintained a slight upward trend with a minor increase of 4.7 kt between 2017 and 2018, associated with an increase in production.

The Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (APEI) Report (ECCC 2020) provides more information on the development of PM2.5 emission estimates from ore and mineral industries.

Table 2–2: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Ore and Mineral Industries (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Aluminium Industry 2 335 2 111 1 659 1 632 1 601 1 308 50 46 36 35 35 29
Cement and Concrete Industry 753 801 948 802 790 965 14 15 19 15 16 21
Foundries 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.6 1.8 0.082 0.031 0.027 0.027 0.024 0.016 0.00075
Iron and Steel Industry 1 685 2 081 1 852 1 770 2 158 2 296 152 183 165 147 154 199
Iron Ore Pelletizing 729 759 817 849 726 664 6.3 6.6 7.1 7.3 6.3 5.7
Mining and Rock Quarrying 3 089 2 506 1 868 3 876 6 808 5 978 507 441 396 407 558 448
Total 8 594 8 260 7 148 8 931 12 085 11 210 730 691 624 611 769 703

Figure 2–2: Black carbon emissions from Ore and Mineral Industries (2013 to 2018)

Figure 2-2 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–2

Figure 2–2 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from five sectors in Ore and Mineral Industries. The five sectors are the following: Mining and Rock Quarrying, Iron and Steel Industry, Aluminium Industry, Iron Ore Pelletizing, and Cement and Concrete Industry. The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2018.

Black carbon emissions from Ore and Mineral Industries (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Aluminium Industry 50 46 36 35 35 29
Sector 2 - Cement and Concrete Industry 14 15 19 15 16 21
Sector 3 - Iron and Steel Industry 152 183 165 147 154 199
Sector 4 - Iron Ore Pelletizing 6.3 6.6 7.1 7.3 6.3 5.7
Sector 5 - Mining and Rock Quarrying 507 441 396 407 558 448

2.2 Upstream Oil and Gas Industry

Upstream oil and gas industry sources include combustion activities within the upstream oil and gas industry (Table 2–3 and Figure 2–3). The subsectors presented below are included in this year’s report. While flaring activities occur in many of the upstream oil and gas subsectors, flaring is presented separately since it is a significant source of black carbon emissions.

The Upstream Oil and Gas (UOG) Industry accounted for 2.3 kt or 6.0% of all black carbon emitted in 2018. Of all UOG subsectors included in this inventory, Flaring was the largest source (0.9 kt or 2.4%) of total black carbon emissions in 2018 (Figure 2–3). Emissions from flaring are directly related to volumes of gas flared in the industry. In 2018, the volume of flared gas increased as operators reduced the volumes of vented gas. Flaring is preferential to venting from a greenhouse gas perspective as it reduces emissions of methane. It also reduces non-methane volatile organic compound emissions. It does however increase emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter (and hence black carbon) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).

The next two largest sources of black carbon emissions in this category are Natural Gas Production and Processing, which accounted for 0.54 kt or 1.4% of total black carbon emissions, and Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading, which accounted for 0.28 kt or 0.8% of total black carbon emissions.

Table 2–3: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Disposal and Waste Treatment 0.30 0.34 0.33 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.10
Flaring 4 945 5 696 5 404 4 381 4 933 4 571 967 1 122 1 035 804 871 877
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production 164 168 171 165 167 174 94 96 99 96 97 101
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production 298 296 292 287 290 304 155 156 155 153 154 162
Natural Gas Production and Processing  1 350 1 369 1 362 1 337 1 350 1 366 531 538 535 525 530 537
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 88 83 84 92 93 95 34 32 32 35 36 36
Natural Gas Distribution 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 0.82 0.74 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.74
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction  464 501 533 540 598 638 181 195 208 211 233 249
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading 1 288 2 227 1 574 1 674 1 901 1 871 201 311 254 250 288 280
Petroleum Liquids Storage 9.0 8.1 7.9 6.9 6.1 13 3.4 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.4 4.8
Petroleum Liquids Transportation 9.7 9.9 9.9 10 8.7 9.3 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.4 3.6
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing  3.9 3.8 1.7 1.2 1.9 1.9 3.0 2.9 1.3 0.89 1.4 1.4
Total 8 622 10 364 9 441 8 497 9 351 9 045 2 174 2 461 2 327 2 082 2 217 2 252

Figure 2–3: Black carbon emissions from the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry (2013 to 2018)

Figure 2-3 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–3

Figure 2–3 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from eight sectors in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. The eight sectors are the following: Flaring, Natural Gas Production and Processing, Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading, Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction, Light/Medium Crude Oil Production, Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production, Natural Gas Transmission and Storage, and Petroleum Liquids Storage. The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2018.

Black carbon emissions from Upstream Oil and Gas Industry (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Flaring 967 1 122 1 035 804 871 877
Sector 2 - Natural Gas Production and Processing 531 538 535 525 530 537
Sector 3 - Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading 201 311 254 250 288 280
Sector 4 - Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction 181 195 208 211 233 249
Sector 5 - Light/Medium Crude Oil Production 155 156 155 153 154 162
Sector 6 - Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production 94 96 99 96 97 101
Sector 7 - Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 34 32 32 35 36 36
Sector 8 - Petroleum Liquids Storage 3.4 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.4 4.8

2.3 Electric Power Generation (Utilities)

Electric power generation (utilities) sources include the combustion of coal, diesel, natural gas and other fuels for the purpose of generating electricity (Table 2–4).

Electric power generation (utilities) accounted for 0.23 kt (0.6%) of all black carbon emissions in 2018 (Table 2–4 and Figure 2–4). Black carbon emissions from electric power generation are low because large facilities using solid fuels are equipped with particulate controls. Emissions of PM2.5 from liquid and gaseous fuels from boilers and heaters are low. There is relatively little diesel fuel used in large stationary electricity generation applications. Coverage for this sector is nearly complete; the remaining small sources (smaller facilities including those in remote communities that do not report their emissions to the National Pollutant Release Inventory [NPRI]) will be addressed in future inventories. Emissions from these sources, though small nationally, can have important regional atmospheric and air quality impacts in such areas as Canada’s North.

The largest emitter of black carbon in this category was diesel fuel generation, which accounted for 0.15 kt (0.4%) of total black carbon emissions in 2018.

The trend in this sector between 2013 and 2018 has largely been influenced by the increased use of diesel-fired electricity generation.

Table 2–4: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Coal 2 205 2 468 2 322 2 178 2 191 2 137 37 42 39 37 37 36
Diesel 174 191 207 212 173 194 134 148 160 163 134 150
Natural Gas 497 423 420 385 340 345 12 11 11 9.6 8.5 8.6
Other (Electric Power Generation) 299 423 428 511 497 421 29 34 34 36 31 32
Total 3 175 3 505 3 378 3 286 3 201 3 098 213 234 244 246 210 226

Figure 2–4: Black carbon emissions from Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (2013 to 2018)

Figure 2-4 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–4

Figure 2–4 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from four sectors in Electric Power Generation (Utilities). The four sectors are the following: Diesel, Other (Electric Power Generation), Coal, and Natural Gas. The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2018.

Black carbon emissions from Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Coal 37 42 39 37 37 36
Sector 2 - Diesel 134 148 160 163 134 150
Sector 3 - Natural Gas 12 11 11 10 8.5 8.6
Sector 4 - Other (Electric Power Generation) 29 34 34 36 31 32

2.4 Manufacturing

Manufacturing sources include the pulp and paper and wood product industries (Table 2–5). This category accounted for 0.24 kt or 0.7% of total black carbon emissions in 2018. The Pulp and Paper Industry sector and the Wood Products sector accounted for 0.4% and 0.2% respectively of the total black emissions in 2018. While there are other manufacturing sectors, only those with significant PM2.5 emissions from combustion are included in this inventory.

The decreasing trend in this sector between 2013 and 2018 has largely been influenced by reduced production in both the Pulp and Paper Industry sector and the Wood Products sector.

Table 2–5: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Manufacturing (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Pulp and Paper Industry 8 179 7 643 6 829 6 318 5 841 5 401 268 222 196 185 165 167
Wood Products 3 213 2 479 2 798 2 145 1 937 1 354 225 170 209 141 127 75
Total 11 391 10 122 9 628 8 463 7 778 6 755 493 392 406 326 292 243

2.5 Transportation and Mobile Equipment

Transportation and mobile equipment includes air transportation, marine transportation, on-road and off-road transport (diesel, gasoline, liquid petroleum gas, and natural gas), and rail transportation (Table 2–6 and Figure 2–5). Off-road transport is a highly diverse source that includes lawn and garden equipment, recreational vehicles, such as pleasure craft and snowmobiles, farm equipment, construction and mining equipment, and portable generators and pumps. Both on-road and off-road diesel engines are subject to emission standards for particulate matter and are equipped with sophisticated emission controls to reduce emissions of particulate matter. As more new engines equipped with this technology replace older, more polluting engines, it is expected that emissions of particulate matter will exhibit an overall decreasing trend.

Transportation and mobile equipment are by far the largest sources of black carbon in Canada, accounting for 21 kt (57%) of total emissions in 2018 (Table 2–1). An important source in this category is mobile diesel engines, which includes on-road and off-road diesel, and accounted for 41% (15 kt) of total emissions. Larger sources of black carbon are those that either emit large quantities of PM2.5, or those for which the BC/PM2.5 fraction is high. Mobile diesel engines emit significant quantities of PM2.5 and have the highest BC/PM2.5 fractions of all black carbon sources (Table 2–6). As a result, mobile diesel engines account for nearly all emissions from this category, or about half of total black carbon emissions. The remaining black carbon emissions from transportation and mobile equipment come from air, marine, non-diesel on- and off-road transport, and rail transportation, which accounted for 5.9 kt and 16% of the total black carbon emitted in 2018.

To estimate emissions from mobile sources, bottom-up approaches were adopted, i.e. applying fuel-specific emission factors to disaggregated activity data, such as vehicle or equipment data sorted by class, age or model year. In all cases, PM2.5 was estimated first, and BC/PM2.5 fractions were subsequently applied. The methods for estimating PM2.5 emissions from mobile sources are described in the APEI Report (ECCC 2020).

Table 2–6: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Transportation and Mobile Equipment (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Air Transportation 293 279 275 274 281 289 225 214 211 211 216 222
Marine Transportation 10 806 9 964 3 981 4 005 4 029 4 053 4 941 5 652 2 607 2 676 2 745 2 815
On-Road Transport 14 294 13 073 11 941 11 869 12 328 12 880 7 646 6 958 6 271 6 160 6 444 6 760
On-Road Transport: Diesel
10 529 9 662 8 628 8 405 8 851 9 315 6 784 6 166 5 494 5 350 5 631 5 927
On-Road Transport: Gasoline
3 761 3 409 3 312 3 461 3 473 3 561 862 792 776 810 812 833
On-Road Transport: Liquid Petroleum Gas
2.3 0.83 0.64 0.74 0.88 0.89 0.49 0.20 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.21
On-Road Transport: Natural Gas
1.1 1.0 1.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.62 0.62
Off-Road Transport 19 777 18 284 17 610 13 930 14 945 15 959 12 604 11 408 10 911 8 389 9 101 9 777
Off-Road Transport: Diesel
15 696 14 130 13 491 10 297 11 201 12 053 12 105 10 897 10 405 7 941 8 639 9 295
Off-Road Transport: Gasoline, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Compressed Natural Gas
4 081 4 154 4 119 3 633 3 744 3 906 499 511 507 448 462 482
Rail Transportation 2 464 2 284 1 964 1 752 2 006 2 049 1 900 1 762 1 515 1 351 1 547 1 580
Total 47 633 43 884 35 771 31 829 33 589 35 229 27 317 25 995 21 514 18 787 20 053 21 154

Figure 2–5: Black carbon emissions from Transportation and Mobile Equipment (2013 to 2018)

Figure 2-5 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–5

Figure 2–5 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from five sectors in Transportation and Mobile Equipment. The five sectors are the following: Off-Road Transport, On-Road Transport, Marine Transportation, Rail Transportation, and Air Transportation. The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2018.

Black carbon emissions from Transportation and Mobile Equipment (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Air Transportation 225 214 211 211 216 222
Sector 2 - Marine Transportation 4 941 5 652 2 607 2 676 2 745 2 815
Sector 3 - On-Road Transport 7 646 6 958 6 271 6 160 6 444 6 760
Sector 4 - Off-Road Transport 12 604 11 408 10 911 8 389 9 101 9 777
Sector 5 - Rail Transportation 1 900 1 762 1 515 1 351 1 547 1 580

2.6 Agriculture

Agriculture sources consist of fuel use for non-mobile equipment, e.g. for drying grain, and accounted for 0.04 kt (0.1%) of total black carbon emitted in 2018 (Table 2–7). Estimates for these sources are based on the fuel type and quantity consumed in Canada and the corresponding BC/PM2.5 fraction. A lower BC/PM2.5 fraction specific to agricultural fuel consumption is used.

Table 2–7: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Agriculture (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Fuel Use 419 438 391 390 379 356 56 59 52 51 50 43
Total 419 438 391 390 379 356 56 59 52 51 50 43

2.7 Commercial/Residential/Institutional

Commercial/residential/institutional sources include home firewood burning, and fossil fuel combustion in commercial and institutional buildings, at construction sites, and in homes. The majority of emissions from these sources are due to combustion in large, relatively efficient commercial boilers, or in small, less-efficient residential fireplaces and woodstoves.

Of all commercial/residential/institutional sources, home firewood burning accounted for the largest proportion (11 kt or 31%) of total black carbon emissions in 2018 (Table 2–8). Emissions from home firewood burning are grouped according to the following subsectors:

A key determinant of total emissions from home firewood burning is the quantity of wood burned in each type of wood-burning device (residential wood stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces).

The next largest source of black carbon emissions in this category is commercial and institutional fuel combustion, which accounted for 0.9 kt (2.5%) of total black carbon emissions.

Overall, the combustion of fuels, other than wood, accounted for 1.2 kt (3.1%) of the total black carbon emissions in 2018 from this category. Estimations for these sources are based on the fuel type and quantity consumed in Canada and the corresponding BC/PM2.5 fraction for each sector.

Table 2–8: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Commercial / Residential / Institutional Components (2013 to 2018) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 2 252 2 396 2 280 2 282 2 426 2 515 829 882 842 852 909 947
Construction Fuel Combustion 117 116 117 120 122 130 42 41 41 43 44 47
Home Firewood Burning 164 707 163 566 162 465 163 258 162 191 161 123 11 679 11 601 11 525 11 606 11 532 11 459
Home Firewood Burning: Fireplaces
60 577 60 000 59 433 59 365 58 821 58 278 3 380 3 347 3 316 3 312 3 282 3 251
Home Firewood Burning: Furnaces
30 290 30 106 29 934 30 380 30 208 30 037 4 180 4 155 4 131 4 192 4 169 4 145
Home Firewood Burning: Wood Stoves
73 840 73 460 73 098 73 513 73 161 72 808 4 120 4 098 4 078 4 101 4 082 4 062
Residential Fuel Combustion 2 406 2 526 2 362 2 119 2 243 2 517 157 165 152 136 144 163
Total 169 481 168 604 167 224 167 780 166 981 166 285 12 707 12 688 12 560 12 638 12 629 12 616
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