Canada’s Black Carbon Inventory Report 2021

Annex 1: Sector descriptions

The sectors for which black carbon emission estimates have been calculated are listed in Table A1–1.

Table A1–1: Sector descriptions
Sector Description
Ore and Mineral Industries

Ore and Mineral Industries:Aluminium Industry

Alumina production through bauxite refining, primary aluminium production through smelting and refining and secondary aluminium production in which aluminium is recovered from aluminium-containing scrap.

Ore and Mineral Industries:Cement and Concrete Industry

Entire process of cement production in rotary kilns, as well as the preparation of concrete and ready-mix concrete, lime manufacture and concrete batching and products.

Ore and Mineral Industries:Foundries

Castings of various types of ferro-alloys as well as small iron and steel foundries not associated with integrated iron and steel facilities. The types of foundries included are open ferrous, electric arc and induction foundries.

Ore and Mineral Industries:Iron and Steel Industry

Steel production, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen funaces, electric arc furnaces, sintering, direct reduction of iron, hot forming and semi-finishing, and coke production.

Ore and Mineral Industries:Iron Ore Pelletizing

The process includes grinding, drying, balling, and thermal treatment of iron-containing raw materials (i.e. fine iron ore and additives).

Ore and Mineral Industries:Mining and Rock Quarrying

Overburden removal, drilling in rock, blasting, crushing of rock, loading of materials, transporting raw materials by conveyors, scraping, bulldozing, grading, open storage pile losses and wind erosion from exposed areas.
Oil and Gas Industry

Oil and Gas Industry:Disposal and Waste Treatment

Treatment and disposal of any oilfield or processing waste fluids or produced water. Typically injected into a disposal well.

Oil and Gas Industry:Flaring

An open flame used for routine or emergency disposal of waste gas.

Oil and Gas Industry:Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production

Production of heavy crude oil which does not involve the use of any thermal techniques. Heavy crude oil is a category of crude oil characterized by relatively high viscosity, a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, and a density greater than 900 kg/m3 or more (25º or less American Petroleum Institute [API]). Heavy crude oil typically is more difficult to extract with conventional recovery techniques and is more costly to refine.

Oil and Gas Industry:Light/Medium Crude Oil Production

Production of light- and medium-density crude oils characterized by relatively low viscosity, a lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a density less than 900 kg/m3 (greater than 25º API).

Oil and Gas Industry:Natural Gas Production and Processing

Production of natural gas from natural gas wells, as well as associated gas production from oil wells. Processing of the raw natural gas to remove undesired constituents such as helium, ethane, natural gas liquids (NGLs), water, H2S and CO2 to upgrade the quality of the natural gas to meet contract specifications. May also include the fractionation of mixed NGLs to natural gas products and possibly adjusting the heating value by the addition or removal of nitrogen.

Oil and Gas Industry:Natural Gas Transmission and Storage

Transportation of sales-quality natural gas from the producers to market and storage of natural gas (typically in underground caverns) to accommodate the fluctuating differences between gas supply and demand rates.

Oil and Gas Industry:Natural Gas Distribution

Local distribution of natural gas from the transmission system to the final end-users.

Oil and Gas Industry:Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction

Recovery of bitumen or heavy oil from a reservoir using a series of wells and thermal techniques.

Oil and Gas Industry:Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading

Recovery of bituminous sands using open-pit mining techniques, the extraction of bitumen from the mined ore through hot water and hydrocarbon solvent extraction, and the upgrading of bitumen into synthetic crude oil.

Oil and Gas Industry:Petroleum Liquids Storage

Storage of liquid hydrocarbons (i.e. crude oil, diluted bitumen, natural gas liquids, condensate, etc.), including storage tank losses, loading/unloading and handling losses.

Oil and Gas Industry:Petroleum Liquids Transportation

Transportation by pipeline, truck, rail and ship of liquid hydrocarbons, but does not include emissions from the vehicles themselves.

Oil and Gas Industry:Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing

The drilling of wells to produce crude oil and natural gas. Well-related activities performed after drilling consisting of well completions, testing, workovers and abandonments. Sometimes the test may be conducted into a flow or gathering line; however, more often the liquids are produced into temporary tankage brought on site for the test, and the gas phase is either vented or flared. Emissions from diesel engines used to power the rigs are included in the off-road use of diesel.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)

Electric Power Generation (Utilities):Coal

Electric power generation from combustion of coal by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sale and/or private use.

Electric Power Generation (Utilities):Diesel

Electric power generation from combustion of diesel by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sale and/or private use.

Electric Power Generation (Utilities):Natural Gas

Electric power generation from combustion of natural gas by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sale and/or private use.

Electric Power Generation (Utilities):Other (Electric Power Generation)

Electric power generation from other energy sources by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sale and/or private use.
Manufacturing

Manufacturing:Pulp and Paper Industry

Chemical, mechanical, recycling and semi-chemical mills, including the production of energy through the combustion of spent pulping liquor, biomass and fossil-fuel combustion. Also includes fugitive emissions from wood refining, screening and drying, and various steps in chemical recovery systems.

Manufacturing:Wood Products

Sawmills, panelboard mills (including veneer, plywood, waferboard, particle board and medium-density fiberboard mills), and other wood products manufacturing establishments (including furniture and cabinet makers, wood treating plants, wood pellet mills and Masonite manufacturers).
Transportation and Mobile Equipment

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:Air Transportation (LTO)

Landing and takeoff (LTO) cycles from piston and turbine aircraft used for commericial and private operations. LTO cycles and cruise modes from piston and turbine aircraft used for military operations.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise)

Cruise modes from aircraft used for domestic commercial and private operations.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:International Air Transportation (Cruise)

Cruise modes from aircraft used for international commercial and private operations.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military

Marine vessels engaged in domestic navigation, fishing, or military operations within Canadian waters.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:International Marine Navigation

Marine vessels engaged in international navigation within Canadian waters.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:On-Road Transport – Diesel

Diesel road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, and automobiles.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:On-Road Transport – Gasoline

Gasoline road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiles and motorcycles.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:On-Road Transport – Liquid Petroleum Gas

Propane road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiles.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:On-Road Transport – Natural Gas

Natural gas road vehicles, including light- and heavy-duty trucks, automobiles.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:Off-Road Transport – Diesel

Off-road vehicles and mobile equipment using diesel fuel in mining, construction, agriculture, logging, railway maintenance and airport ground support; lawn and garden equipment, such vehicles and equipment used for commercial purposes; and recreational vehicles.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:Off-Road Transport – Gasoline and Natural Gas

Off-road vehicles and mobile equipment using gasoline and compressed natural gas in mining, construction, agriculture, logging, railway maintenance, airport ground support and for commercial purposes; lawn and garden equipment using gasoline or compressed natural gas; and recreational vehicles using gasoline and compressed natural gas.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment:Rail Transportation

Emissions from freight and passenger trains, including yard-switching activities.
Agriculture

Agriculture:Fuel Use

Stationary combustion sources in agricultural facilities such as space and water heating and crop drying.
Commercial/Residential/Institutional

Commercial/Residential/Institutional:Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion

Combustion of fossil and biogenic fuels used for space/water heating in commercial establishments, health and educational institutions and government/public administration facilities.

Commercial/Residential/Institutional:Construction Fuel Combustion

Combustion of fossil fuels used for space heating and the heating of construction materials, such as concrete.

Commercial/Residential/Institutional:Home Firewood Burning

Burning of wood, pellets and manufactured logs as fuel for space heating and hot water. Includes emissions from fireplaces, wood stoves and wood-fired boilers.

Commercial/Residential/Institutional:Residential Fuel Combustion

Combustion of fossil fuels used for space/water heating in residences.
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