Canada’s Black Carbon Inventory Report 2021

Annex 2: Fractions of black carbon to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microns in diameter

The fractions used to convert particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) emissions to black carbon (BC) emissions are listed in Table A2–1 through Table A2–7.

Note:

NA = Not applicable

Table A2–1: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Ore and Mineral Industries
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions – description BC/PM2.5 fractions – value (w/w) Profile Reference
Aluminium Industry Alumina (Bauxite Refining) Aluminium Processing, baghouse (avg) 0.020165 2910110 291012.5 2910130 29101C Average of 4 speciation factors from U.S. EPA (2014a)
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Aluminium Processing, baghouse (avg) 0.020165 2910110 291012.5 2910130 29101C Average of 4 speciation factors from U.S. EPA (2014a)
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Aluminium Reduction Potline 0.0268 2910210 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Coal Combustion 0.021321 4373 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Aluminium Industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.02052458 NA Weighted average (excluding Coal Combustion)
Aluminium Industry Secondary Aluminium Production (Includes Recycling) Secondary Aluminium – Dross Recovery Furnace 0.01426 2010310
201032.5
2010330
20103C
U.S. EPA (2014a)
Cement and Concrete Industry Cement Manufacture Cement Kiln (Coal-Fired) 0.002 2720310 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Cement and Concrete Industry Cement Manufacture Cement Kiln 0.027801 4331 U.S. EPA (2014a))
Cement and Concrete Industry Concrete Batching and Products Sector Specific Speciation Factor – Concrete Batching & Products 0.001704 NA U.S. EPA (2014a)
Cement and Concrete Industry Gypsum Product Manufacturing Sector Specific Speciation Factor – Gypsum Product Manufacturing 0.01467 NA U.S. EPA (2014a)
Cement and Concrete Industry Lime Manufacturing Lime Kiln 0.00464 23202C U.S. EPA (2014a)
Cement and Concrete Industry Lime Manufacturing Cement Kiln 0.027801 4331 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Foundries Die Casting Cast Iron Cupola – Composite 0.0091 91157 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Foundries Ferrous Foundries Cast Iron Cupola – Composite 0.0091 91157 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Foundries Non-Ferrous Foundries Primary Metal Production – Average 0.01002 9000730 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Iron and Steel Industry Primary (Blast Furnace and DRI) Iron and Steel facility – Coke Making 0.137466 8945 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Iron and Steel Industry Primary (Blast Furnace and DRI) Blast Furnace Charging 0.024 NA EEA (2019) (2.C.1 Iron and Steel Production, Table 3.9)
Iron and Steel Industry Secondary (Electric Arc Furnace) Electric Arc Furnace / Basic Oxygen Furnace – Composite 0.00363 283052.5
3989
3997
Average of 3 speciation factors U.S. EPA (2011) Speciate 4.3
Iron and Steel Industry Secondary (Electric Arc Furnace) Iron and Steel facility – Hot forming 0.023967 8948 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Iron Ore Indusrtry Iron Ore Pelletization Iron and Steel facility – Sintering 0.008653 8946 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Coal Mining Industry Mineral Products – Avg –Simplified 0.01467 92120 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Incinerator (avg) 0.06658 3286
3287
3288
3290
U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.06658 3286
3287
3288
3290
U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Potash Phosphate Manufacturing – Composite 0.0274 91165 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Potash Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.0274 91165 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Rock, Sand and Gravel Sand 0.00265 3665 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Silica Production Mineral Products – Avg – Simplified 0.01467 92120 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Limestone Mineral Products – Avg – Simplified 0.01467 92120 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Mineral Products – Average 0.01537 9001310
900132.5
9001330
90013C
U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Natural Gas Combustion – Simplified 0.384 92112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Oil Combustion 0.42997 3864 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other (Mining and Rock Quarrying) Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.13074 NA Weighted average
Table A2–2: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Oil and Gas Industry
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions – description BC/PM2.5 fractions – value (w/w) Profile Reference
Disposal and Waste Treatment
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage
Natural Gas Distribution
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Petroleum Liquids Storage
Petroleum Liquids Transportation
Well Drilling/Servicing
Flaring 0.24 NA McEwen (2013)
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Well Testing
Flaring NA NA Emission Factors: Quadram (2019)
Activity Data: AER (2020); BCOGC (2020a;b);
CNLOPB (2020); Petrinex (2020); SKMER (2020)
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing
Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 3914 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Disposal and Waste Treatment
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production
Natural Gas Production and Processing
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage
Natural Gas Distribution
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading
Petroleum Liquids Storage
Petroleum Liquids Transportation
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing
Natural Gas Combustion – Simplified 0.384 92112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading Petroleum Coke Combustion 0.0428 91110 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading Biomass Combustion 0.05579138 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Table A2–3: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Electric Power Generation (Utilities)
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions – description BC/PM2.5 fractions – value (w/w) Profile Reference
Coal Bituminous Coal Combustion – Simplified 0.01696 92104 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Diesel Diesel Exhaust 0.77124 92106 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Natural Gas Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Other (Electric Power Generation) Diesel Exhausta 0.77124 92106 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Other (Electric Power Generation) Distillate Oil Combustion 0.1 4736 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Other (Electric Power Generation) Flare Gas 0.24 NA McEwen 2013
Other (Electric Power Generation) Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Other (Electric Power Generation) Landfill Gas 0.384 91112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Other (Electric Power Generation) Oil Combustion 0.429969 3864 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Other (Electric Power Generation) Residual Oil Combustion 0.01 4737 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Other (Electric Power Generation) Wood Fired Boiler – Simplified 0.037088024 92114 U.S. EPA (2014a)

Note:

a. This diesel is included as part of other electric power generation since it is the diesel combustion occuring at hydroelectric power plants.

Table A2–4: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Manufacturing
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions – description BC/PM2.5 fractions – value (w/w) Profile Reference
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Kraft Recovery Furnace – Simplified 0.0153 92119 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Wood Fired Boiler – Simplified 0.03709 92114 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Residual Oil Combustion 0.01 4737 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Hog fuel and bunker crude use 0.03167 92114 (80%)
4737 (20%)
U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Natural Gas 0.384 91112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Distillate Oil 0.1 92115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Sludge 0.01522 92177 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Lime Kiln 0.00464 23202C U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Gas-Fired Combined Cycle and Cogeneration Plants 0.025 5671 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Oil-Fired Boilers 0.071 5672 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.07447 NA Weighted average
Pulp and Paper Industry Converted Paper Product Manufacturing Pulp & Paper Mills – Simplified 0.001 92144 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Wood Fired Boiler – Simplified 0.03709 92114 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Wood Products – Drying – Composite 0.08 91128 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Composite wood and natural gas boilers 0.21054 91114
91112
U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Panel Board Mills Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.1573 NA Weighted average
Wood Products Sawmills Wood Products – Drying – Composite 0.08 91128 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Sawmills Wood Products – Sawing – Simplified 0.038 92131 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Other (Wood Products) Wood Fired Boiler – Simplified 0.03709 92114 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Other (Wood Products) Wood Products – Drying – Composite 0.08 91128 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Wood Products Other (Wood Products) Average of large stack BC/PM2.5 fractions 0.06547 NA Weighted average
Table A2–5: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Transportation and Mobile Equipment
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions – description BC/PM2.5 fractions – value (w/w) Profile Reference
Air Transportation (LTO)
Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise)
International Air Transportation (Cruise)
Aviation Turbo Fuel
(Jet A or B)
0.771241 92106 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Air Transportation (LTO)
Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise)
International Air Transportation (Cruise)
Aviation Gasoline 0.12178 92113 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Domestic Marine Navigation,
Fishing and Military
International Marine Navigation
Diesel 0.771241 92106 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Domestic Marine Navigation,
Fishing and Military
International Marine Navigation
Heavy Fuel Oil 0.12 NA EEA (2019) (Table A2)
On-Road Transport Diesel EC data extracted from MOVES model;
values are variable according to model input and vehicle class
NA U.S. EPA (2014b)
On-Road Transport Gasoline EC data extracted from MOVES model;
values are variable according to model input and vehicle class
NA U.S. EPA (2014b)
On-Road Transport Liquid Petroleum Gas EC data extracted from MOVES model;
values are variable according to model input and vehicle class
NA U.S. EPA (2014b)
On-Road Transport Natural Gas EC data extracted from MOVES model;
values are variable according to model input and vehicle class
NA U.S. EPA (2014b)
Off-Road Transport Diesel 0.771241 92106 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Off-Road Transport Gasoline 0.12178 92113 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Off-Road Transport Natural Gas 0.384 92112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Rail Transportation Diesel 0.771241 92106 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Rail Transportation Biodiesel 0.771241 92106 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Table A2–6: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Agriculture
Sector BC/PM2.5 fractions – description BC/PM2.5 fractions – value (w/w) Profile Reference
Fuel Use Coal 0.239526 91155 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Fuel Use Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Fuel Use Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Fuel Use Natural Gas 0.067 91156 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Fuel Use Natural Gas Liquids 0.067 91156 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Table A2–7: Fractions of black carbon to PM2.5, Commercial/Residential/Institutional
Sector Subsector BC/PM2.5 fractions – description BC/PM2.5 fractions – value (w/w) Profile Reference
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Coal 0.01696 92104 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Heavy Fuel Oil 0.01 91117 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas 0.384 91112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas Liquids 0.384 91112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Heavy Fuel Oil 0.01 91117 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Construction Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas 0.384 91112 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Advanced Technology Fireplace Non-Catalytic 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Conventional Fireplace With Glass Doors 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Conventional Fireplace Without Glass Doors 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Fireplace Insert Advanced Technology 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Fireplace Insert Conventional 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Pellet Stove All 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Wood Furnace All 0.138 4704 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Wood Stove Conventional 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Home Firewood Burning Wood Stove EPA Certified 0.055791381 92105 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Coal 0.239526 91155 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Heavy Fuel Oil 0.01 91117 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Kerosene & Stove Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Light Fuel Oil 0.1 91115 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas 0.067 91156 U.S. EPA (2014a)
Residential Fuel Combustion NA Natural Gas Liquids 0.067 91156 U.S. EPA (2014a)
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