Canada’s Black Carbon Inventory Report 2021

2 Black carbon emissions and trends in Canada

This chapter describes the main sources and sectors contributing to the black carbon (BC) emissions and their trends since 2013.

Approximately 31 kilotonnes (kt) of black carbon were emitted in Canada in 2019 (Table 2–1). Emissions have been grouped according to the following source categories:

Under each of these source categories, emissions are then grouped under sectors.Footnote 3  Furthermore, consistent with international reporting requirements, Canada’s emissions of black carbon from aircraft at cruising altitude as well as emissions from international marine navigation, are presented separately from other sources of emissions in this report and excluded from Canada’s national total emissions.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment are by far the most important sources of black carbon in Canada, accounting for 19 kt (61%) of total emissions in 2019 (Table 2–1). Mobile diesel engines alone, which include both on-road and off-road diesel vehicles, accounted for 48% (15 kt) of total emissions.

Commercial/Residential/Institutional sources are the second-largest contributors to black carbon emissions in Canada, making up 8.6 kt or 28% of total emissions. Home Firewood Burning is the largest source in this category, accounting for 7.4 kt of emissions, or 24% of total emissions. Wood is an abundant fuel in Canada; approximately 9.2 million tonnes of firewood were burned in Canadian homes in 2019, an increase of about 7% since 2015 (ECCC, 2020).

Since 2013, black carbon emissions in Canada have decreased overall by 5.4 kt (15%) (Figure 2–1). This overall decrease is attributed to declining emissions from Transportation and Mobile Equipment (4.8 kt or 20%). Emissions from Commercial/Residential/Institutional fuel combustion have decreased from 9.0 kt in 2013 to 8.6 kt in 2019 (0.39 kt or 4.3%). The Oil and Gas Industry sources have shown an overall increase in emissions from 2.2 kt in 2013 to 2.3 kt in 2019 (0.10 kt or 4.7%).

Details on each of the source category as well as their associated sectors can be found in sections 2.1 to 2.7. An overview of the methods to develop the black carbon inventory, improvements applied to this edition of the inventory, sources of uncertainty and future refinements are described in Chapter 3. Provincial and territorial estimates of black carbon emissions are provided in Annex 4. The full-time series of national, provincial, and territorial black carbon emissions from 2013 to 2019 are also available online on the Government of Canada Open Data Portal.

Table 2–1: Black carbon emissions in Canada (2019)
Source category and sector Black carbon (tonnes) Percentage of Total
Aluminium Industry 29 0.1%
Cement and Concrete Industry 16 0.1%
Foundries 0.00 0.0%
Iron and Steel Industry 130 0.4%
Iron Ore Pelletizing 6.5 0.0%
Mining and Rock Quarrying 430 1.4%
Ore and Mineral Industries (total) (total of the 6 preceding rows) 620 2.0%
Disposal and Waste Treatment 0.10 0.0%
Flaring 870 2.8%
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production 100 0.3%
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production 160 0.5%
Natural Gas Production and Processing 530 1.7%
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 36 0.1%
Natural Gas Distribution 0.71 0.0%
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction 260 0.8%
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading 320 1.0%
Petroleum Liquids Storage 7.7 0.0%
Petroleum Liquids Transportation 4.2 0.0%
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing 1.1 0.0%
Oil and Gas Industry (total) (total of the 12 preceding rows) 2 300 7.4%
Coal 31 0.1%
Diesel 140 0.5%
Natural Gas 7.1 0.0%
Other (Electric Power Generation) 31 0.1%
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (total) (total of the 4 preceding rows) 210 0.7%
Pulp and Paper Industry 150 0.5%
Wood Products 140 0.5%
Manufacturing (total) (total of the 2 preceding rows) 290 0.9%
Air Transportation (LTO) 230 0.7%
Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military 1 000 3.2%
On-Road Transport 6 700 22%
On-Road Transport: Diesel
5 900 19%
On-Road Transport: Gasoline
830 2.7%
On-Road Transport: Liquid Petroleum Gas
0.21 0.0%
On-Road Transport: Natural Gas
0.57 0.0%
Off-Road Transport 9 600 31%
Off-Road Transport: Diesel
9 200 30%
Off-Road Transport: Gasoline and Natural Gas
470 1.5%
Rail Transportation 1 500 4.8%
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (total) (total of the 11 preceding rows) 19 000 61%
Fuel Use 20 0.1%
Agriculture (total) (total of the preceding row) 20 0.1%
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 990 3.2%
Construction Fuel Combustion 47 0.2%
Home Firewood Burning 7 400 24%
Home Firewood Burning: Fireplaces
680 2.2%
Home Firewood Burning: Furnaces
5 100 16%
Home Firewood Burning: Wood Stoves
1 700 5.5%
Residential Fuel Combustion 160 0.5%
Commercial/Residential/Institutional (total) (total of the 7 preceding rows) 8 600 28%
Grand total 31 000 100%

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

0.00 Indicates emissions were truncated due to rounding.

Other emissions estimated in the black carbon inventory
Sector Black carbon (tonnes) Percentage of Total
Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise) 250 11%
International Air Transportation (Cruise) 490 21%
International Marine Navigation 1 600 68%

Note:

Refer to Chapter 2.5 for more information.

Figure 2–1: Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions (2013 to 2019)

Figure 2-1 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–1

Figure 2–1 is a stacked area graph displaying the trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from four categories. The four categories are the following: Oil and Gas Industry, Commercial/Residential/Institutional, Transportation and Mobile Equipment and Other. The following table displays the emissions in tonnes (t) for the years 2013 to 2019.

Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Other 1 419 1 317 1 274 1 166 1 229 1 124 1 135
Oil and Gas Industry 2 175 2 462 2 316 2 079 2 208 2 248 2 278
Commercial/Residential/Institutional 9 027 9 063 8 689 8 226 8 314 8 656 8 637
Transportation and Mobile Equipment 23 953 22 083 19 711 16 926 18 083 19 147 19 122
Total 36 574 34 926 31 989 28 397 29 834 31 175 31 172

2.1 Ore and Mineral Industries

Ore and Mineral Industry sources include primary resource extraction and processing (Table 2–2 and Figure 2–2). For the purpose of this inventory, black carbon emissions were considered for the following industries:

Greater sectoral coverage and further refinement of emissions from Ore and Mineral Industries are expected in future editions of the inventory.

Of all Ore and Mineral Industry sources included in this inventory, the Mining and Rock Quarrying sector accounted for the largest proportion (1.4% or 0.43 kt) of total black carbon emissions in 2019 (Figure 2–2). Black carbon emissions from Mining and Rock Quarrying remained relatively stable since 2013, ranging between 0.40 and 0.56 kt. The use of diesel to generate electricity at remote mines in northern areas, combined with the relatively high BC/PM2.5 fraction for diesel relative to other fuels, is a significant contributor to this sector.

The second-largest source of black carbon emissions in the Ore and Mineral Industries is the Iron and Steel Industry, which accounted for 0.13 kt or 0.4% of total black carbon emissions. Emissions from this sector have increased by 14% since 2013 consistent with a 39% increase in pig iron production and a 13% increase in steel production (Canadian Steel Producers Association [CSPA], 2019).

The Aluminium Industry sector emitted 0.03 kt of black carbon, or 0.1% of the national total, which has decreased by 0.02 kt or 41% since 2013. The decrease can be attributed to the closures of the last three Søderberg aluminium smelters between 2013 and 2015.Footnote 4  Black carbon emissions from the Cement and Concrete Industry increased slightly by 3 t (18%) since 2013 associated with an increase in production.

Table 2–2: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Ore and Mineral Industries (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Aluminium Industry 2 300 2 100 1 700 1 600 1 600 1 400 1 400 50 46 36 35 35 31 29
Cement and Concrete Industry 730 800 860 900 800 930 890 14 15 16 18 15 19 16
Foundries 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.6 1.8 0.10 0.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Iron and Steel Industry 1 700 2 100 1 900 1 800 2 200 2 300 2 300 120 120 120 120 120 140 130
Iron Ore Pelletizing 730 760 820 850 730 660 750 6.3 6.6 7.1 7.3 6.3 5.7 6.5
Mining and Rock Quarrying 2 700 2 300 1 700 1 700 2 300 2 200 2 700 470 440 390 360 500 390 430
Total 8 200 8 100 7 000 6 900 7 600 7 500 8 000 650 630 570 540 670 580 620

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

0.00 Indicates emissions were truncated due to rounding.

Figure 2–2: Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Ore and Mineral Industries (2013 to 2019)

Figure 2-2 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–2

Figure 2–2 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from five sectors in Ore and Mineral Industries. The five sectors are the following: Iron Ore Pelletizing, Cement and Concrete Industry, Aluminium Industry, Iron and Steel Industry and Mining and Rock Quarrying. The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2019.

Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Ore and Mineral Industries (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Aluminium Industry 50 46 36 35 35 31 29
Cement and Concrete Industry 14 15 16 18 15 19 16
Iron and Steel Industry 117 125 121 119 122 138 134
Iron Ore Pelletizing 6.3 6.6 7.1 7.3 6.3 5.7 6.5
Mining and Rock Quarrying 466 440 386 363 496 390 431

2.2 Oil and Gas Industry

The Oil and Gas Industry accounted for 2.3 kt or 7.3% of all black carbon emitted in 2019. Oil and Gas Industry sources include combustion activities resulting in black carbon emissions, mostly within the upstream oil and gas industry (Table 2–3 and Figure 2–3). The sectors presented below are included in this year’s report. While flaring activities occur in many of the upstream oil and gas sectors, Flaring is presented separately since it is a significant source of black carbon emissions.

Of all Oil and Gas sectors included in this inventory, Flaring accounted for the largest proportion (2.8% or 0.87 kt) of total black carbon emissions in 2019 (Figure 2–3). Emissions from flaring are directly related to volumes of gas flared in the industry. From 2016 to 2018, volumes of flared gas increased as operators reduced the volumes of vented gas. Flaring is preferential to venting as it reduces emissions of methane and non-methane volatile organic compound. It does, however, increase emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM) (and hence black carbon) and nitrogen oxides. From 2018 to 2019 the volume of gas flared was relatively consistent.

The next two largest sources of black carbon emissions in this category are Natural Gas Production and Processing, which accounted for 0.53 kt or 1.7% of total black carbon emissions, and Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading, which accounted for 0.32 kt or 1.0% of total black carbon emissions. Since 2013, black carbon emissions have increased from Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading and from Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction by a combined total of 200 tonnes (51%). This is consistent with a 59% increase in crude bitumen production from mining operations and a 65% increase in crude bitumen production from in-situ thermal extraction facilities, both of which contribute to increased fuel combustion and flaring activities.

Table 2–3: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from the Oil and Gas Industry (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Disposal and Waste Treatment 0.30 0.34 0.33 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.23 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.10
Flaring 5 000 5 800 5 600 4 600 5 100 5 000 4 900 970 1 100 1 000 800 860 870 870
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production 160 170 170 160 170 170 170 94 96 99 96 97 100 100
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production 300 300 290 290 290 300 300 160 160 160 150 150 160 160
Natural Gas Production and Processing  1 400 1 400 1 400 1 300 1 300 1 400 1 300 530 540 540 530 530 540 530
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 88 83 84 92 93 94 95 34 32 32 35 36 36 36
Natural Gas Distribution 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.8 0.82 0.74 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.72 0.71
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction  460 500 530 540 600 640 660 180 200 210 210 230 250 260
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading 1 300 2 200 1 600 1 700 1 900 1 900 2 100 200 310 250 250 290 280 320
Petroleum Liquids Storage 9.0 8.1 7.9 6.9 6.1 13 20 3.4 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.4 4.8 7.7
Petroleum Liquids Transportation 10 10 10 11 9.3 9.8 11 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.1 3.6 3.8 4.2
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing  3.9 3.8 1.7 1.2 1.9 1.9 1.4 3.0 2.9 1.3 0.89 1.4 1.4 1.1
Total 8 700 10 000 9 700 8 700 9 500 9 500 9 600 2 200 2 500 2 300 2 100 2 200 2 200 2 300

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

Figure 2–3: Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Oil and Gas Industry (2013 to 2019)

Figure 2-3 (See long description below)

Note: "Other" includes Disposal and Waste Treatment, Natural Gas Distribution, Petroleum Liquids Storage, Petroleum Liquids Transportation and Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing sectors.

Long description for Figure 2–3

Figure 2–3 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from eight sectors in Oil and Gas Industry. The eight sectors are the following: Natural Gas Transmission and Storage, Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production, Light/Medium Crude Oil Production, Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction, Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading, Natural Gas Production and Processing, Flaring and Other. The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2019. 

Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Oil and Gas Industry (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Flaring 968 1 124 1 024 800 862 873 866
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production 94 96 99 96 97 101 100
Light/Medium Crude Oil Production 155 156 155 153 154 162 161
Natural Gas Production and Processing 531 538 535 525 530 537 525
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 34 32 32 35 36 36 36
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction 181 195 208 211 233 248 256
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading 201 311 254 250 288 280 320
Other 11 11 9.2 8.5 8.2 11 14

2.3 Electric Power Generation (Utilities)

Electric Power Generation (Utilities) sources include the combustion of coal, diesel, natural gas and other fuels for the purpose of generating electricity (Table 2–4).

Electric Power Generation (Utilities) accounted for 0.21 kt (0.7%) of all black carbon emissions in 2019 (Table 2–4 and Figure 2–4). Black carbon emissions from electric power generation are relatively low. This is because large facilities using solid fuels are equipped with particulate controls and boilers and heaters using liquid and gaseous fuels that emit relatively little particulates. There is relatively little diesel fuel used in large stationary electricity generation applications.

Coverage for this source category is nearly complete; the remaining small sources (smaller facilities including those in remote communities that do not report their emissions to the National Pollutant Release Inventory [NPRI]) will be addressed in future inventories. Emissions from these sources, though small nationally, can have important regional atmospheric and air quality impacts in such areas as Canada’s North.

The largest emitter of black carbon in this category was Diesel fuel electric power generation, which accounted for 0.14 kt (0.5%) of total black carbon emissions in 2019. The upward trend in this sector between 2013 and 2019 has largely been influenced by the increased use of diesel-fired electricity generation. This increase has been offset by decreases in the Coal and Natural Gas fuel generation, resulting in an overall decrease for the Electric Power Generation (Utilities) black carbon emission sources for the 2013–2019 time series. The reduction in emissions from coal-fired electricity generation is due to the closure of coal plants in Ontario and reduced consumption of coal in Alberta.

Table 2–4: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Coal 2 200 2 500 2 300 2 200 2 200 2 100 1 800 37 42 40 37 37 36 31
Diesel 170 190 210 210 170 180 180 130 150 160 160 130 140 140
Natural Gas 500 420 420 390 340 350 290 12 11 11 9.7 8.5 8.7 7.1
Other (Electric Power Generation) 300 420 420 510 490 420 430 29 34 34 36 31 31 31
Total 3 200 3 500 3 400 3 300 3 200 3 100 2 700 210 230 240 240 210 220 210

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

Figure 2–4: Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (2013 to 2019)

Figure 2-4 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–4

Figure 2–4 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from four sectors in Electric Power Generation (Utilities). The four sectors are the following: Natural Gas, Coal, Diesel and Other (Electric Power Generation). The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2019.

Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Coal 37 42 40 37 37 36 31
Diesel 134 148 160 162 133 141 140
Natural Gas 12 11 11 10 8.5 8.7 7.1
Other (Electric Power Generation) 29 34 34 36 31 31 31

2.4 Manufacturing

Manufacturing sources include the Pulp and Paper Industry and Wood Products sectors (Table 2–5). They accounted for 0.29 kt or 0.9% of total black carbon emissions in 2019. While there are other manufacturing sectors, only those with significant PM2.5 emissions from combustion are included in this inventory.

The decreasing trend in this source category between 2013 and 2019 (0.21 kt or 42%) is largely consistent with reduced production in both the Pulp and Paper Industry sector and the Wood Products sector.

Table 2–5: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Manufacturing (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Pulp and Paper Industry 8 200 7 600 6 900 6 300 5 900 5 400 5 000 270 220 200 190 170 160 150
Wood Products 3 200 2 500 2 800 2 100 1 900 1 900 2 200 230 170 210 140 130 120 140
Total 11 000 10 000 9 700 8 400 7 800 7 300 7 200 500 390 410 330 300 280 290

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

2.5 Transportation and Mobile Equipment

Transportation and Mobile Equipment includes Air Transportation (Landing and Takeoff [LTO]), Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military, On-Road and Off-Road Transport (diesel, gasoline, liquid petroleum gas and natural gas) and Rail Transportation sectors (Table 2–6 and Figure 2–5). Off-Road Transport is a highly diverse sector that includes lawn and garden equipment; recreational vehicles, such as pleasure craft and snowmobiles; farm equipment; construction and mining equipment; and portable generators and pumps. Both on-road and off-road diesel engines are subject to emission standards for particulate matter and are equipped with sophisticated emission controls to reduce PM emissions. As more new engines equipped with this technology replace older, more polluting engines, it is expected that PM and black carbon emissions will exhibit an overall decreasing trend.

Transportation and Mobile Equipment are by far the largest sources of black carbon in Canada, accounting for 19 kt (61%) of total emissions in 2019 (Table 2–1). An important source in this category is mobile diesel engines, both on-road and off-road, which accounted for 48% (15 kt) of total emissions. Larger sources of black carbon are those that either emit large quantities of PM2.5, or those for which the BC/PM2.5 fraction is high. Mobile diesel engines emit significant quantities of PM2.5 and have the highest BC/PM2.5 fractions of all black carbon sources (Table 2–6). As a result, mobile diesel engines account for nearly all emissions from this category, or almost half of total black carbon emissions. The implementation of effective fuel and engine regulations for on-road and off-road diesel have resulted in decreasing emissions between 2013 and 2019 by 12% (0.9 kt) and 24% (2.9 kt) respectively, contributing to 70% of the overall decrease in the national total. The remaining black carbon emissions from Transportation and Mobile Equipment come from air, marine, non-diesel on- and off-road transport, and rail transportation, which accounted for 4.0 kt and 13% of the total black carbon emitted in 2019.

The emissions from Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise), International Air Transportation (Cruise) and International Marine Navigation are reported as separate items as those emissions do not contribute to Canada’s national total. This is based on the Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) used in the submission to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). For more information on Canada’s submission to the UNECE refer to Annex 4 [PDF] of the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (APEI) Report (ECCC, 2021).

Table 2–6: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Transportation and Mobile Equipment (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Air Transportation (LTO) 300 280 280 270 280 300 290 230 220 210 210 210 230 230
Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military 3 300 3 100 1 400 1 400 1 500 1 500 1 600 1 600 1 700 800 820 850 900 1 000
On-Road Transport 14 000 13 000 12 000 12 000 12 000 13 000 13 000 7 600 7 000 6 300 6 200 6 500 6 800 6 700
On-Road Transport: Diesel
11 000 9 700 8 600 8 400 8 900 9 300 9 300 6 800 6 200 5 500 5 300 5 600 5 900 5 900
On-Road Transport: Gasoline
3 800 3 400 3 300 3 500 3 500 3 500 3 500 860 790 780 810 810 820 830
On-Road Transport: Liquid Petroleum Gas
2.3 0.83 0.64 0.74 0.88 0.89 0.87 0.49 0.20 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.21 0.21
On-Road Transport: Natural Gas
1.1 1.0 1.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 2.8 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.62 0.62 0.57
Off-Road Transport 20 000 18 000 18 000 14 000 15 000 16 000 16 000 13 000 11 000 11 000 8 400 9 100 9 800 9 600
Off-Road Transport: Diesel
16 000 14 000 13 000 10 000 11 000 12 000 12 000 12 000 11 000 10 000 7 900 8 700 9 300 9 200
Off-Road Transport: Gasoline and Natural Gas
4 100 4 200 4 100 3 600 3 700 3 800 3 800 500 510 510 450 460 470 470
Rail Transportation 2 500 2 300 2 000 1 800 1 900 1 900 1 900 1 900 1 800 1 500 1 400 1 400 1 500 1 500
Total 40 000 37 000 34 000 29 000 31 000 33 000 33 000 24 000 22 000 20 000 17 000 18 000 19 000 19 000

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

Other emissions estimated in the black carbon inventory (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise) 290 280 280 280 300 320 330 230 220 210 210 230 250 250
International Air Transportation (Cruise) 480 470 480 500 540 620 640 370 360 370 380 420 480 490
International Marine Navigation 7 100 6 500 2 300 2 300 2 300 2 300 2 300 3 200 3 700 1 600 1 600 1 500 1 500 1 600

Note:

Refer to Chapter 2.5 for more information.

Figure 2–5: Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Transportation and Mobile Equipment (2013 to 2019)

Figure 2-5 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–5

Figure 2–5 is a stacked area graph displaying the black carbon emissions from five sectors in Transportation and Mobile Equipment. The five sectors are the following: Air Transportation (Landing and Takeoff [LTO]), Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military, Rail Transportation, On-Road Transport and Off-Road Transport. The following table displays the emissions (t) for the years 2013 to 2019.

Trends in Canadian black carbon emissions from Transportation and Mobile Equipment (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Air Transportation (LTO) 234 216 213 207 213 234 225
Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military 1 569 1 739 801 818 852 904 1 022
On-Road Transport 7 646 6 958 6 271 6 160 6 451 6 755 6 744
Off-Road Transport 12 604 11 408 10 911 8 389 9 124 9 783 9 650
Rail Transportation 1 900 1 762 1 515 1 351 1 442 1 470 1 481

2.6 Agriculture

Agriculture sources consist of Fuel Use for non-mobile equipment (e.g. for drying grain), and accounted for 0.02 kt (0.1%) of total black carbon emitted in 2019 (Table 2–7). Estimates for these sources are based on the fuel type and quantity consumed in Canada and the corresponding BC/PM2.5 fraction. A lower BC/PM2.5 fraction specific to agricultural fuel consumption is used.

Table 2–7: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Agriculture (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Fuel Use 420 440 390 390 380 360 260 56 59 52 51 50 43 20
Total 420 440 390 390 380 360 260 56 59 52 51 50 43 20

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

2.7 Commercial/Residential/Institutional

Commercial/Residential/Institutional sources include Home Firewood Burning and fossil fuel combustion in commercial and institutional buildings, at construction sites and in homes. The majority of emissions from these sources are due to combustion in large, relatively efficient commercial boilers, or in small, less-efficient residential fireplaces and woodstoves.

Of all Commercial/Residential/Institutional sources, Home Firewood Burning accounted for the largest proportion (7.4 kt or 24%) of total black carbon emissions in 2019 (Table 2–8). Emissions from Home Firewood Burning are grouped according to the following subsectors:

A key determinant of total emissions from Home Firewood Burning is the quantity of wood burned in each type of wood-burning device (residential wood stoves, furnaces and fireplaces). The decreasing trend in this sector between 2013 and 2019 (0.6 kt or 7.0%) can be attributed in part to the reduction in the use of conventional fireplaces and wood stoves; that have been replaced with fireplace inserts, furnaces and stoves with improved emission controls and combustion efficiencies.

The next largest source of black carbon emissions in this category is Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion, which accounted for 1.0 kt (3.2%) of total black carbon emissions.

Overall, the combustion of fuels, other than wood, accounted for 1.2 kt (3.8%) of total black carbon emissions in 2019 from this category. Estimations for these sources are based on the fuel type and quantity consumed in Canada and the corresponding BC/PM2.5 fraction for each sector.

Table 2–8: Emissions of combustion PM2.5 and black carbon from Commercial/Residential/Institutional components (2013 to 2019) (tonnes)
Sector PM2.5
from combustion 2013
PM2.5
from combustion 2014
PM2.5
from combustion 2015
PM2.5
from combustion 2016
PM2.5
from combustion 2017
PM2.5
from combustion 2018
PM2.5
from combustion 2019
Black carbon
2013
Black carbon
2014
Black carbon
2015
Black carbon
2016
Black carbon
2017
Black carbon
2018
Black carbon
2019
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 2 300 2 400 2 300 2 300 2 500 2 600 2 600 830 880 840 850 930 960 990
Construction Fuel Combustion 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 42 41 41 43 44 47 47
Home Firewood Burning 89 000 89 000 85 000 78 000 77 000 80 000 79 000 8 000 8 000 7 700 7 200 7 200 7 500 7 400
Home Firewood Burning: Fireplaces
16 000 16 000 14 000 13 000 13 000 13 000 12 000 900 870 800 730 710 710 680
Home Firewood Burning: Furnaces
37 000 37 000 36 000 34 000 35 000 37 000 37 000 5 100 5 100 4 900 4 700 4 800 5 100 5 100
Home Firewood Burning: Wood Stoves
36 000 36 000 35 000 31 000 29 000 30 000 30 000 2 000 2 000 1 900 1 700 1 600 1 700 1 700
Residential Fuel Combustion 2 400 2 400 2 300 2 200 2 400 2 500 2 400 160 150 150 140 150 160 160
Total 94 000 94 000 90 000 83 000 82 000 85 000 84 000 9 000 9 100 8 700 8 200 8 300 8 700 8 600

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Values in this report have been rounded to two significant digits.

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