Air Pollutant Emission Inventory report: chapter 2.3


2.3 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Approximately 1.9 Mt of NOx were released in Canada in 2015 (Table 2-5). Transportation and mobile equipment was the largest contributor, accounting for 54% (1.0 Mt) of total NOx emissions. Within this source category, heavy-duty diesel vehicles, marine transportation, and off-road diesel vehicles and equipment were the largest emitters, collectively contributing 35% (660 kt) of total NOx emissions. The oil and gas industry accounted for 25% (470 kt) of NOx emissions in 2015, including the upstream petroleum industry, which accounted for 23% (430 kt) of the national total. Electric power generation (utilities) contributed 8% (150 kt) of NOx emissions, including coal-fired generation, which contributed 6% (110 kt) of national emissions. The remaining 13% of NOx emissions were distributed across multiple sources.

From 1990 to 2015, national NOx emissions decreased by 22% (530 kt) (Figure 2-3). A significant driver of this trend was the consistent reduction in emissions from light-duty gasoline trucks and vehicles across the entire time series, as a result of increasingly stringent vehicle regulations. Emissions from off-road diesel vehicles and equipment decreased more gradually through the same time period, while emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles increased from 1990 to 2005, followed by a consistent decreasing trend beginning in 2006. Within electric power generation (utilities), the coal sector contributed to the decreasing trend across the time series, with a gradual decrease in emissions from 1998 to 2015. Finally, the upstream petroleum industry and marine transportation are the only major contributors to NOx emissions that experienced an increase in emissions across the time series. This increase is attributed to expansion and growth in the petroleum industry and increased marine transportation activity, respectively.

The most significant changes in NOx emissions from 1990 to 2015 include:

  • Transportation and mobile equipment emissions: decrease of 28% (400 kt)
    • Light-duty gasoline trucks and vehicles: decrease of 67% (210 kt)
    • Off-road diesel vehicles and equipment: decrease of 47% (150 kt)
    • Heavy-duty diesel vehicles: decrease of 19% (60 kt)
    • Marine transportation:  increase of 70% (100 kt)
  • Electric power generation (utilities) emissions: decrease of 40% (100 kt)
    • Coal: decrease of 44% (90 kt)
  • Oil and gas industry emissions: increase of 36% (120 kt)
    • Upstream petroleum industry: increase of 50%  (140 kt)
    • Downstream petroleum industry: decrease of 49% (17 kt)
    • Petroleum product transportation and distribution: decrease of 11% (3 kt)
Figure 2-3: Major Contributors to National NOx Trends
Figure 2-3 (See long description below)
Long description for figure 2-3
Figure 2-3: Major Contributors to National NO x Trends (kt)
Sector 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Sector 1 - Heavy-duty diesel vehicles 306.2258 261.6947 247.9113 262.4538 296.2706 315.0376 309.843 351.1241 405.4733 415.316 420.9223 406.8177 387.9571 384.997 378.5829 409.2989 388.8794 373.1158 358.9396 326.1506 327.3544 324.2138 300.4497 286.0749 265.6313 248.2413
Sector 2 - Marine Transportation 139.7383 143.8244 147.9104 151.9964 156.0825 160.1685 165.4755 170.7825 176.0895 181.3965 186.7035 191.6478 196.5922 201.5365 206.4809 211.4252 210.0706 208.9959 207.9212 206.8464 205.9305 212.2399 218.5494 224.8589 231.1684 237.4778
Sector 3 - Upstream Petroleum Industry 286.6127 279.7879 295.4124 317.2412 346.4459 363.9051 375.9518 417.3241 430.0401 446.4807 388.7982 382.2857 379.9756 432.8716 365.976 366.9408 380.0427 401.9878 414.1769 417.4712 416.0064 430.9856 421.5449 421.1378 431.8086 428.7253
Sector 4 - Other 1686.937 1626.756 1691.039 1693.282 1739.628 1757.92 1818.733 1888.685 1868.093 1897.735 1905.307 1783.033 1746.641 1663.179 1589.004 1467.964 1363.442 1338.721 1261.337 1135.344 1178.174 1108.35 1036.545 1010.414 999.1743 979.3311

 

Table 2-5: National Summary of Annual NO x Emissions (tonnes)
Source Sector 1990 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Grand Total 2,400,000 2,900,000 2,500,000 2,100,000 2,100,000 2,000,000 1,900,000 1,900,000 1,900,000
Ore and Mineral Industries Empty 110,000 99,000 110,000 85,000 86,000 89,000 83,000 82,000 82,000
Ore and Mineral Industries Aluminium Industry 1,600 1,400 2,000 1,100 1,100 1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100
Ore and Mineral Industries Asphalt Paving Industry 1,200 1,100 1,200 1,500 1,300 1,100 1,000 1,200 1,200
Ore and Mineral Industries Cement and Concrete Industry 42,000 45,000 54,000 33,000 32,000 35,000 32,000 31,000 35,000
Ore and Mineral Industries Foundries 490 640 530 150 140 140 140 140 140
Ore and Mineral Industries Iron and Steel Industries 19,000 16,000 13,000 11,000 11,000 12,000 11,000 12,000 11,000
Ore and Mineral Industries Iron Ore Industry 10,000 10,000 9,800 14,000 13,000 13,000 13,000 12,000 12,000
Ore and Mineral Industries Mineral Products Industry 1,500 780 1,100 370 370 450 520 540 460
Ore and Mineral Industries Mining and Rock Quarrying 25,000 21,000 23,000 23,000 24,000 24,000 22,000 23,000 20,000
Ore and Mineral Industries Non-Ferrous Mining and Smelting Industry 4,300 3,800 2,000 1,600 1,600 1,500 1,600 1,600 1,600
Oil and Gas Industry Empty 340,000 460,000 440,000 460,000 470,000 460,000 460,000 470,000 470,000
Oil and Gas Industry Downstream Petroleum Industry 34,000 29,000 29,000 20,000 19,000 19,000 18,000 17,000 17,000
Oil and Gas Industry Petroleum Product Transportation and Distribution 24,000 40,000 40,000 24,000 21,000 18,000 20,000 22,000 21,000
Oil and Gas Industry Upstream Petroleum Industry 290,000 390,000 370,000 420,000 430,000 420,000 420,000 430,000 430,000
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) Empty 250,000 310,000 250,000 230,000 200,000 170,000 160,000 170,000 150,000
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) Coal 210,000 230,000 190,000 150,000 130,000 130,000 120,000 130,000 110,000
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) Diesel 3,000 8,200 7,600 8,500 8,000 7,800 8,000 8,600 9,100
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) Natural Gas 16,000 45,000 31,000 61,000 49,000 22,000 21,000 18,000 16,000
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) Waste Materials 240 800 330 350 430 450 370 340 420
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) Other Electric Power Generation 28,000 28,000 21,000 12,000 11,000 11,000 8,600 11,000 11,000
Manufacturing Empty 190,000 180,000 130,000 68,000 70,000 68,000 69,000 68,000 74,000
Manufacturing Abrasives Manufacture 240 90 74 - - - - - -
Manufacturing Bakeries 4.1 4 - 0.7 1 0.86 1.1 1 0.89
Manufacturing Biofuel Production - - - 22 19 18 18 17 18
Manufacturing Chemicals Industry 41,000 47,000 36,000 23,000 23,000 24,000 22,000 21,000 23,000
Manufacturing Electronics 150 160 71 0.46 - - - - -
Manufacturing Food Preparation 2,400 2,900 3,100 1,800 2,000 1,600 1,700 1,700 2,000
Manufacturing Glass Manufacture 7,000 7,400 6,100 940 940 900 920 890 920
Manufacturing Grain Processing 1,400 1,300 1,600 870 850 1,000 950 1,000 780
Manufacturing Metal Fabrication 5,900 9,100 1,500 830 370 350 300 330 420
Manufacturing Plastics Manufacture 1,100 1,100 350 270 260 260 220 180 87
Manufacturing Pulp and Paper Industry 72,000 49,000 41,000 30,000 31,000 29,000 31,000 30,000 30,000
Manufacturing Textiles 120 170 110 42 43 30 33 33 8.2
 Manufacturing Vehicle Manufacture (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 2,300 3,100 1,400 670 630 500 560 540 550
Manufacturing Wood Products 19,000 24,000 21,000 9,600 9,900 11,000 11,000 12,000 16,000
Manufacturing Other Manufacturing Industries 33,000 30,000 21,000 250 190 170 140 140 160
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Empty 1,400,000 1,800,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 1,100,000 1,100,000 1,000,000 1,000,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Air Transportation 52,000 64,000 67,000 60,000 60,000 69,000 72,000 73,000 73,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Heavy-duty diesel vehicles 310,000 420,000 410,000 330,000 320,000 300,000 290,000 270,000 250,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Heavy-duty gasoline vehicles 62,000 83,000 60,000 45,000 41,000 41,000 40,000 38,000 37,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Heavy-duty LPG/NG vehicles 17,000 38,000 4,800 1,300 360 250 140 940 200
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Light-duty diesel trucks 830 1,500 1,900 1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 1,100 1,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Light-duty diesel vehicles 2,400 2,300 1,200 1,000 1,100 970 980 920 870
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Light-duty gasoline trucks 100,000 200,000 130,000 91,000 81,000 75,000 71,000 64,000 60,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Light-duty gasoline vehicles 210,000 230,000 120,000 72,000 62,000 56,000 52,000 46,000 42,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Light-duty LPG/NG trucks 9,000 6,700 2,800 430 150 94 48 33 32
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Light-duty LPG/NG vehicles 970 830 300 35 5 3 1.2 0.91 0.87
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Marine Transportation 140,000 190,000 210,000 210,000 210,000 220,000 220,000 230,000 240,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Motorcycles 340 450 530 580 580 590 580 580 590
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Off-road diesel vehicles and equipment 320,000 350,000 280,000 250,000 220,000 190,000 180,000 170,000 170,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Off-road gasoline/LPG/CNG vehicles and equipment 37,000 28,000 23,000 28,000 27,000 27,000 26,000 29,000 30,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Rail Transportation 160,000 150,000 130,000 110,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 130,000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture Empty 2,100 2,200 2,000 3,300 3,900 3,900 4,000 4,000 4,000
Agriculture Animal Production - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture Fuel Use 2,100 2,200 2,000 3,300 3,900 3,900 4,000 4,000 4,000
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Empty 87,000 90,000 86,000 79,000 83,000 78,000 79,000 82,000 82,000
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Cigarette Smoking - - - - - - - - -
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 23,000 30,000 30,000 25,000 27,000 25,000 25,000 27,000 27,000
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Commercial Cooking - - - - - - - - -
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Construction Fuel Combustion 3,900 2,000 3,000 3,300 2,500 1,700 1,600 1,700 1,700
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Home Firewood Burning 25,000 23,000 19,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Human - - - - - - - - -
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Marine Cargo Handling 0.2 0.059 - - - - 29 31 26
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Residential Fuel Combustion 35,000 35,000 34,000 32,000 34,000 31,000 32,000 34,000 34,000
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Service Stations  - - - - - - - - -
Commercial / Residential / Institutional Other Miscellaneous Sources - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste Empty 8,200 7,800 8,500 5,100 4,700 4,800 5,300 5,000 4,900
Incineration and Waste Crematoriums 8.2 12 15 18 18 19 20 21 22
Incineration and Waste Industrial and Commercial Incineration 62 62 61 530 530 530 530 530 530
Incineration and Waste Municipal Incineration 1,000 1,100 1,100 1,200 1,100 1,200 1,200 930 740
Incineration and Waste Waste 6,900 6,400 6,900 3,000 2,600 2,700 3,100 3,100 3,200
Incineration and Waste Other Incineration and Utilities 250 250 360 390 390 390 390 390 390
Paints and Solvents Empty 110 120 130 29 23 23 23 23 23
Paints and Solvents Dry Cleaning 1.1 1.6 - - - - - - -
Paints and Solvents General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Paints and Solvents Printing 110 120 130 29 23 23 23 23 23
Paints and Solvents Surface Coatings 0.12 0.12 - - - - - - -
Dust Empty - - - - - - - - -
Dust Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Dust Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Dust Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Dust Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Dust Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires Empty 7,500 1,400 890 790 1,300 1,500 650 2,600 2,000
Fires Prescribed Forest Burning 7,400 1,400 850 750 1,300 1,500 610 2,600 2,000
Fires Structural Fires 49 39 35 34 39 39 39 28 27

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

- denotes no emissions.

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