Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2019: annex 2 part 8

A2.4  Facility-reported data

This section presents the procedures used to incorporate facility-reported data into the APEI.

Information on facility-reported data was provided by the provinces for 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2000. In some cases, additional information was provided to fill in intervening years or to update the original submissions. Trends for the intervening years were interpolated. The compilation of emissions for 2001 to 2005 occurred during a transition to using emissions data reported to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) as the major source of industrial emissions. In general, facility-reported data from the NPRI and data provided by the provinces were used for the 2002, 2004 and 2005 inventories, and interpolation was used for 2001 and 2003.

Since 2005, information on facility-reported data has originated mainly from the NPRI, with limited data obtained from provincial governments (Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Ontario and Quebec) on selected sources that are not reported to the NPRI.

The NPRI groups substances into the five parts listed below. Each part has its own reporting thresholds or triggers of mandatory reporting.

  • Part 1A—Core Substances, and Part 1B—Alternate Threshold Substances
  • Part 2—Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Part 3—Dioxins, Furans and Hexachlorobenzene
  • Part 4—Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs)
  • Part 5—Speciated Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Table A2-20 shows the 17 air pollutants reported in the APEI and their NPRI reporting thresholds. Details on the NPRI reporting requirements for each substance group are available in the Guide for Reporting to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) (EC, Guide for reporting to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) 2014 and 2015, 2015). No VOC data collected under Part 5 is used in the APEI.

Table A2-20:  National Pollutant Release Inventory air pollutant reporting thresholds
Substance NPRI Part # (threshold category) Mass threshold Concentration threshold
Ammonia 1A 10 tonnes Manufactured, processed or otherwise used (MPO) MPO by weight of ≥ 1%
Benzo(a)pyrene 2 50 kg total PAHs not applicable (N/A)
Benzo(b)fluoranthene 2 50 kg total PAHs N/A
Benzo(k)fluoranthene 2 50 kg total PAHs N/A
Cadmium 1B 5 kg MPO MPO by weight of ≥ 0.1%
Carbon monoxide 4 20 tonnes air release N/A
Dioxins and furans 3 Activity-based N/A
Hexachlorobenzene 3 Activity-based N/A
Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 2 50 kg total PAHs N/A
Lead 1B 50 kg MPO MPO by weight of ≥ 0.1%
Mercury 1B 5 kg MPO N/A
Nitrogen oxides 4 20 tonnes air release N/A
PM10 - particulate matter ≤ 10 microns 4 0.5 tonnes air release N/A
PM2.5 - particulate matter ≤ 2.5 microns 4 0.3 tonnes air release N/A
Sulphur dioxide 4 20 tonnes air release N/A
Total particulate matter 4 20 tonnes air release N/A
Volatile organic compounds 4 10 tonnes air release N/A

Notes

MPO: Manufactured, processed or otherwise used
N/A: not applicable

In 2017, approximately 6000 facilities reported releases to air of one or more APEI pollutants to the NPRI.

Using the 2017 NPRI database, facility information and air emissions data for the pollutants in Table A2-20 were extracted for each province and territory. The quality control process described in Section 4.1 was applied to the NPRI data to identify outliers or missing substance reports. Each extracted NPRI facility was assigned to an APEI source, sector and subsector.

For new NPRI reporting facilities, the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes (Statistics Canada, NAICS, 2012), reported by the facilities, were used to assign the related APEI sector and subsector classifications. In some cases, additional research and verification was required to provide the correct classification for facilities with a number of activities that were different from the NAICS code reported by the facility to the NPRI.

NPRI reporting facilities may not report all three of the PM size fractions. For cases where only one or two of the three PM size fractions were reported to the NPRI, a distribution procedure is applied to estimate a complete set of PM emissions for facilities. The procedure is based on sector-specific PM distribution profiles developed using PM emissions reported by facilities to the NPRI for the 2006 to 2016 inventory years. The ratios were calculated for each facility and averaged by sector. The resulting distributions are presented in Table A2-21.

The PM distribution procedure described in equations A2-1, A2-2 and A2-3 is applied on a case-by-case basis to fill data gaps.

Equation A2-1:  PM10 distribution ratio

PM10 ratio = PM10 emissions / TPM emissions

Where

PM10 ratio = Ratio of the sector’s PM10 emissions to TPM emissions

PM10 emissions = PM10 emissions for the sector

TPM emissions = TPM emissions for the sector

Equation A2-2:  PM2.5 Distribution ratio

PM2.5 ratio = PM2.5 emissions / TPM emissions

Where

PM2.5 ratio = Ratio of the sector’s PM2.5 emissions to TPM emissions

PM2.5 emissions = PM2.5 emissions for the sector

TPM emissions = TPM emissions for the sector

Equation A2-3:  PM2.5/PM10 Distribution ratio

PM2.5 / PM10 ratio = PM2.5 emissions / PM10 emissions

Where

PM2.5/PM10 ratio = Ratio of the sector’s PM2.5 emissions to the PM10 emissions

PM2.5 emissions = PM2.5 emissions for the sector

PM10 emissions = PM10 emissions for the sector

The TPM, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions calculated using the distribution procedure are added to the list of facility-reported data and flagged as an Environment and Climate Change Canada estimate.

Table A2-21:  Particulate Matter (PM) Distribution Ratiosa

Ore and Mineral Industries
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Aluminium industry Alumina (Bauxite Refining) 0.399 0.309 0.798
Aluminium industry Primary Aluminium Smelting and Refining 0.686 0.559 0.798
Aluminium industry Secondary Aluminium Production (Includes Recycling) 0.951 0.937 0.926
Asphalt Paving industry - 0.385 0.177 0.513
Cement and Concrete Industry Cement Manufacturing 0.623 0.31 0.474
Cement and Concrete Industry Concrete Batching and Products 0.497 0.23 0.465
Cement and Concrete Industry Gypsum Product Manufacturing 0.576 0.309 0.512
Cement and Concrete Industry Lime Manufacturing 0.623 0.31 0.474
Foundries Die Casting 0.711 0.51 0.81
Foundries Ferrous Foundries 0.711 0.51 0.723
Foundries Non-ferrous Foundries 0.927 0.49 0.719
Iron and Steel Industry Primary (Blast Furnace and DRI) 0.598 0.403 0.65
Iron and Steel Industry Secondary (Electric Arc Furnaces) 0.616 0.474 0.802
Iron and Steel Industry Steel Recycling 0.711 0.51 0.287
Iron and Steel Industry Other (Iron and Steel Industry) 0.711 0.510 0.287
Iron Ore Industry Iron Ore Mining 0.513 0.191 0.432
Iron Ore Industry Pelletizing 0.48 0.212 0.41
Mineral Products Industry Clay Products 0.802 0.094 0.484
Mineral Products Industry Brick Products 0.802 0.094 0.484
Mineral Products Industry Other (Mineral Products Industry) 0.762 0.545 0.665
Mining and Rock Quarrying Coal Mining Industry 0.368 0.064 0.147
Mining and Rock Quarrying Metal Mining  0.532 0.283 0.509
Mining and Rock Quarrying Potash  0.599 0.316 0.503
Mining and Rock Quarrying Rock, Sand and Gravel 0.46 0.165 0.397
Mining and Rock Quarrying Silica Production 0.460 0.165 0.397
Mining and Rock Quarrying Limestone 0.488 0.204 0.399
Mining and Rock Quarrying Other Minerals (Mining and Rock Quarrying) 0.465 0.197 0.398
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry Primary Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb 0.649 0.375 0.606
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry Secondary Pb, Cu 0.574 0.396 0.748
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry Other (Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry) 0.494 0.444 0.859
Oil and Gas Industry
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry Petroleum Refining - - -
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry Refined Petroleum Products Bulk Storage and Distribution 0.100 0.100 0.750
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry Refined Petroleum Product Pipelines 1.000 1.000 1.000
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry Natural Gas Distributionb 1.000 1.000 1.000
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry Other (Downstream Oil and Gas Industry) 0.743 0.641 0.628
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Accidents and Equipment Failures - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Disposal and Waste Treatment - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Heavy Crude Oil Cold Productionb - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Light Medium Crude Oil Productionb 1.000 1.000 1.000
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Natural Gas Production and Processingb 1.000 1.000 1.000
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Natural Gas Transmission and Storageb 1.000 1.000 1.000
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Oil Sands In-Situ Extractionb 1.000 1.000 1.000
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Oil Sands Mining and Extractionc 0.658 0.447 0.680
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Bitumen and Heavy Oil Upgradingc 0.677 0.428 0.631
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Petroleum Liquids Storageb 1.000 0.831 0.831
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Petroleum Liquids Transportation - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Coal - 0.578 0.293 0.484
Diesel - 0.967 0.962 0.943
Natural Gas - 0.909 0.663 0.902
Waste Materials - 0.734 0.54 0.76
Other (Electric Power Generation) - 0.735 0.608 0.924
Manufacturing
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Abrasives Manufacturing - 0.747 0.59 0.771
Bakeries - 0.747 0.59 0.771
Biofuel Production - - - -
Chemicals Industry Chemical Manufacturing 0.737 0.595 0.754
Chemicals Industry Cleaning Compound Manufacturing 0.737 0.595 0.754
Chemicals Industry Fertilizer Production 0.575 0.235 0.52
Chemicals Industry Paint and Varnish Manufacturing 0.919 0.564 0.701
Chemicals Industry Petrochemical Industry 0.894 0.424 0.587
Chemicals Industry Plastics and Synthetic Resins Fabrication 0.791 0.566 0.744
Chemicals Industry Other (Chemical Industry)d Varies Varies Varies
Electronics - 0.958 0.833 0.834
Food Preparation - 0.651 0.409 0.634
Glass Manufacturing - 0.836 0.755 0.919
Grain Industries Grain Processing 0.268 0.044 0.164
Grain Industries Warehousing and Storage 0.464 0.083 0.179
Metal Fabrication - 0.747 0.59 0.771
Plastics Manufacturing - 0.731 0.474 0.817
Pulp and Paper Industry Pulp and Paper Product Manufacturing 0.737 0.56 0.757
Pulp and Paper Industry Converted Paper Product Manufacturing 0.737 0.56 0.757
Textiles - 1 1 0.759
Vehicle Manufacture (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) - 0.694 0.427 0.748
Wood products Panel Board Mills 0.596 0.361 0.589
Wood products Sawmills 0.423 0.197 0.451
Wood products Other (Wood Products) 0.688 0.549 0.732
Other (Manufacturing)e - Varies Varies Varies
Transportation and Mobile Equipment
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Air Transportation -
Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles -
Heavy-Duty Gasoline Vehicles -
Heavy-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles -
Light-Duty Diesel Trucks -
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles -
Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks -
Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Ttrucks -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles -
Marine Transportation -
Motorcycles -
Off-road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment -
Off-road Gasoline/LPG/CNG Vehicles and Equipment -
Rail Transportation -
Tire Wear and Brake Lining -
Agriculture
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Animal Production - 0.289 0.060 0.208
Crop Production Fertilizer Application 0.490 0.140 0.286
Crop Production Harvesting 0.455 0.091 0.200
Crop Production Tillage Practices 0.210 0.100 0.476
Crop Production Wind Erosion 0.500 0.100 0.200
Fuel Use - 0.646 0.503 0.749
Commercial / Residential / Institutional
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Cigarette Smoking -
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion - 0.761 0.581 0.599
Commercial Cooking -
Construction Fuel Combustion -
Home Firewood Burning -
Human -
Marine Cargo Handling - 0.396 0.147 0.365
Residential Fuel Combustion -
Service Stations -
Other (Commercial / Residential / Institutional) -
Incineration and Waste
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Crematoriums - 1.000 1.000 1.000
Waste Incineration Industrial and Commercial Incineration 0.718 0.359 0.479
Waste Incineration Municipal Incineration 0.737 0.680 0.913
Waste Incineration Residential Waste Burning
Waste Incineration Other (Waste Incineration) 0.728 0.520 0.696
Waste Treatment and Disposal Landfills 0.778 0.603 0.743
Waste Treatment and Disposal Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Discharge 0.806 0.780 0.955
Waste Treatment and Disposal Specialized Waste Treatment and Remediation 0.778 0.603 0.743
Waste Treatment and Disposal Biological Treatment of Waste 1.000 1.000 1.000
Waste Treatment and Disposal Waste Sorting and Transfer 0.778 0.603 0.743
Paints and Solvents
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Dry Cleaning - 1.000 1.000 1.000
General Solvent Usef - Varies Varies Varies
Printingf - Varies Varies Varies
Surface Coatings - 0.942 0.786 0.792
Dust
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Coal Transportation -
Construction Operations -
Mine Tailings -
Paved Roads -
Unpaved Roadsg - 0.265 0.027 0.100
Fires
Sector Subsector PM10 ratio PM2.5 ratio PM2.5/PM10 ratio
Prescribed Burning -
Structural Fires -

Notes

a Based on the most recent facility-reported data from NPRI.

b Adapted from Clearstone Engineering Ltd (2014).

c Adapted from Clearstone Engineering Ltd (2017). Emissions from Bitumen and Heavy Oil Upgrading and Oil Sands Mining and Extraction are combined together and reported as Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading in this report.

d Values for PM ratios for these categories vary by subsector: Other (Chemical Industry)—values range from 0.465 to 0.886.

e Values for PM ratios for these categories vary by subsector: Other (Manufacturing)—values range from 0.359 to 0.645.

f Values for PM ratios for these categories vary by subsector: Printing and General Solvent Use—values range from 0.786 to 1.0.

g Ratios derived from particulate matter ratios provided in the NPRI Toolbox guidance document entitled Guidance on Estimating Road Dust Emissions from Industrial Unpaved Surfaces.

– PM10 and PM2.5 ratios are not used for these estimates

A2.5 Reconciliation of facility-reported data and in-house estimates

A reconciliation process is in place to prevent the double-counting of emissions when combining the in-house estimates and facility-reported data for the purpose of forming the final APEI. Reconciliation is performed separately at the subsector level for each province and territory. Table A2-1 in Section A2.2 provides a complete list of sectors and indicates the origins of the estimates for each.

A2.5.1 General procedures

The approach for reconciling facility-reported data and in-house estimates  from a province, sector and subsector and for a specific pollutant is as follows:

  • for most industrial sectors, the NPRI facility-reported data captures all facilities’ emissions, resulting in in-house estimates not being required (i.e. InHouseEstimateREC = 0). However, certain industrial sectors still have an in-house estimate component and require reconciliation
  • in general, reconciliation procedures were performed for sector/subsectors that had both in-house estimates and facility-reported data (Table A2-1). For example, for 2017, reconciliation was performed for the asphalt paving industry
  • if the total of the in-house estimates  is greater than or equal to the total facility-reported data, the reconciled in-house  estimate is equal to the total of the in-house  estimates minus the total of the facility-report data , as outlined in Equation A2-4

Equation A2-4:

If, InHouseEstimateTotal ≥ FacilityReportedDataTotal

Then, InHouseEstimateREC = InHouseEstimateTotal - FacilityReportedDataTotal

  • If the total in-house estimate quantity is less than or equal to the total of the facility-reported data for the source , the reconciled in-house estimate is equal to zero, as outlined in Equation A2-5.

Equation A2-5:

If, InHouseEstimateTotal ≤ FacilityReportedDataTotal

Then, InHouseEstimateREC = 0

Some points to consider:

  • in general, InHouseEstimateREC represents non-reporting facilities (including smaller facilities or emissions from reporting facilities that do not meet reporting requirements)
  • in cases where InHouseEstimateREC = 0 (Equation A2-5), facility-reported data are considered to reflect all the sector emitting sources.

A2.5.2 Wood products

Particulate matter emissions (TPM, PM10 and PM2.5) from Sawmills and Panel Board Mills (Wood Products sector) were not reconciled using the procedure described in section A2.5.1. Rather, NPRI facility-reported data from Sawmills and Panel Board Mills were used to characterize the entire industry. The facility-reported data, together with a number of production indicators, were used to estimate the PM emissions from facilities that are not required to report to the NPRI. The sum of the resulting emission estimates represents the total emissions for these subsectors. All other pollutants were reconciled at the subsector and provincial level according to the standard procedure and equations outlined in section A2.5.1.

A2.6  Dry cleaning, general solvent use, printing and surface coatings

The in-house estimates in the Dry Cleaning, General Solvent Use, Printing, and Surface Coatings sectors (Paints and Solvents source category) include a total of 92 different kinds of solvents and applications. The challenge is to reconcile the in-house estimates with facility-reported data, which includes a variety of sources (solvent use as well as processes, fuel combustion, road dust, etc.) grouped under the same North American Industry Classification System. Given this sector’s complexity, reconciliation of in-house estimates with facility-reported data from the NPRI requires that several steps be performed by a specially designed database application (Cheminfo Services, Compilation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the use of solvents in Canada: Inventory update. VOC emission trends compilation: 2005 to 2017, 2016):

  1. allocating the solvent use in-house estimates to the 4-digit NAICS level from the NPRI
  2. allocating the NPRI VOC inventory totals at the 4-digit NAICS level to “Process” and “Solvent” type emissions
  3. subtracting the “Solvent” type NPRI emissions from the solvent in-house emissions estimates

If subtraction of the facility-reported data from the in-house estimates for a certain solvent use yields a small negative value, the emission estimate for that in-house estimate is set to zero. However, if the reconciliation yields a large negative value, examination/verification of both the in-house estimates and the facility-reported data and the allocation percentages for that solvent use is performed, and the estimates are adjusted accordingly.

A2.7 Mercury in products (Hg)

Mercury can be released to air throughout the life cycle of mercury-containing products, including during manufacture, distribution, use, disposal, transportation and final disposition, as well as through waste streams. Releases can also result from breakage and processing. As such, reconciliation of Hg air emissions from mercury in products with NPRI facility-reported data involves a review and characterization of the source of the Hg air emissions included in the facility-reported estimate (primarily in the waste sector, such as landfills) to ensure that the Hg emissions estimated through the life-cycle approach are not duplicated in the facility-reported data.

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