Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report: annex 3

Submission to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

A3.1  Introduction

Canada reports on atmospheric emissions of air pollutants to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) through the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) pursuant to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and its associated protocols. Table A3-1 lists the atmospheric pollutants for which annual emissions are reported to the UNECE, along with the corresponding protocols under CLRTAP.

Table A3-1:  Pollutant emissions reported to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and related protocols under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

Pollutant

Relevant protocols under the CLRTAP

Protocol obligation

PM2.5

1999 Gothenburg Protocol

Emission reporting

SOx

1999 Gothenburg Protocol /
1985 Helsinki Protocol /
1994 Oslo Protocol

2010–2019 emissions ceiling of 1.45 million tonnes
Reduction of SOx emissions by at least 30 percent from 1980 levels
Maintain SOx emissions (excluding natural sources) in the regional Sulphur Oxides Management Area (SOMA) below 1.8 million tonnes

NOx

1999 Gothenburg Protocol /
1988 Sofia Protocol

2010–2019 emissions ceiling of 2.25 million tonnes
Stabilize (not exceed) 1987 NOx level

VOCs

1999 Gothenburg Protocol

2010–2019 emissions ceiling of 2.1 million tonnes

NH3

1999 Gothenburg Protocol

Emission reporting

Pb

1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals

50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011

Cd

1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals

50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011

Hg

1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals

50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011

D/F

1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs

Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

B(a)p

1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs

Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

B(b)f

1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs

Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

B(k)f

1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs

Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

I(cd)p

1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs

Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

HCB

1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs

Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

This edition of the Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory (APEI) Report summarizes the most recent estimates of air pollutant emissions for 1990–2017 as of February 2019. The inventory indicates that 14 of the 17 reported air pollutants show decreases compared to historical levels, and specifically indicate that:

  • emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) were 0.9 million tonnes in 2017, 35% below the emission ceiling of 1.45 million tonnes established under the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone
  • emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were 1.8 million tonnes in 2017, 21% below the emission ceiling of 2.25 million tonnes established under the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol
  • in 2017, emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 14% below the emission ceiling of 2.1 million tonnes established under the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol
  • in 2017 emissions of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were 85%, 72% and 82% respectfully below the ceilings established under the 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals
  • in 2017, emissions of all Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) were below ceilings established in the 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants including the four species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (69% below), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (92% below), and dioxins and furans (85% below)
  • emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) decreased 54% from 1990 to 2017
  • PM2.5 emissions (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microns in diameter) are decreasing from all sources except dust from paved and unpaved roads, agriculture fuel use, as well as construction operations; total PM2.5 emissions are 15% below 1990 levels

Exceptions to the general downward trends described above are noted for emissions of ammonia (NH3) (19% above 1990 levels in 2017), total particulate matter (TPM) (14% above 1990 levels in 2017), and coarse particulate matter (PM10) (11% above 1990 levels in 2017).

A3.2  Overview of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe reporting template

The UNECE Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) categories correspond to the sectors described in the EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2016  (EEA, 2016). In addition to providing technical guidance for developing inventory methodologies, the 2016 EMEP/EEA guidebook includes instructions for attributing sectoral emissions to NFR codes.

Whereas the APEI report groups emissions by sectors (e.g. pulp and paper industry), the emissions in the UNECE are grouped by process and combustion sources. For example, the pulp and paper industry within the APEI includes both combustion and process emissions. The combustion component is mapped to NFR sector 1A2d (Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Pulp, Paper and Print). The process component is mapped to NFR sector 2H1 (Pulp and paper industry).

Table A3-2 illustrates the structure of the UNECE reporting template. The template in its entirety can be found on the CEIP website.

Table A3-2:  Excerpt from United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Nomenclature for Reporting 14 reporting template for 2019
(Annex 1: National sector emissions: Main pollutants, particulate matter, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (kt))

NFR Aggregation
for gridding and LPS (GNFR)

NFR sectors to be reported – NFR Code NFR sectors to be reported
– Longname
NFR sectors to be reported – Notes Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – NOx
(as NO2)
Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – NMVOC
Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – SOx
(as SO2)
Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – NH3
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – PM2.5
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – PM10
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – TSP
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – BC
Other
(from 1990) – CO
Other
(from 1990)
– HCB

A_PublicPower

1 A 1 a

Public electricity and heat production

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 1 b

Petroleum refining

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 1 c

Manufacture of solid fuels and other energy industries

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 a

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Iron and steel

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 b

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 c

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Chemicals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 d

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Pulp, Paper and Print

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 e

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Food processing, beverages and tobacco

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 f

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-metallic minerals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

I_Offroad

1 A 2 g vii

Mobile combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: (please specify in your IIR)

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 g viii

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Other (please specify in your IIR)

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

A3.3  Mapping of Air Pollutant Emission Inventory emissions to United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Nomenclature for Reporting categories

The mapping of APEI sector emissions to UNECE NFR categories involves dividing the sector emissions into their combustion and process components. Whereas certain sectors contribute solely a process component (in the case of road dust) or combustion component (in the case of mobile sources), the majority of sectoral emissions are distributed over both components. This is accomplished using a split ratio, which, apart from a small number of exceptions, is assigned to a particular subsector and pollutant. For example, in the alumina production sector, all Hg, CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and VOC emissions are attributed to combustion activities, while the remaining pollutants are attributed to both the bauxite refining process and combustion activities (Table A3-3).

Table A3-3:  Example of Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Subsector mapping to a United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Nomenclature for Reporting Category
APEI Subsector APEI Subclass code UNECE NFR Category – Combustion UNECE NFR Category – Process Pollutant Split ratios (w/w) – Combustion Split ratios (w/w) – Process

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

TPM

0.229

0.771

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

PM10

0.290

0.710

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

PM2.5

0.352

0.648

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

SOx

1.000

0.000

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

NOx

0.746

0.254

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

CO

1.000

0.000

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

VOCs

1.000

0.000

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

10201

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

Hg

1.000

0.000

The mapping of APEI sector emissions to UNECE NFR categories is achieved through the use of database queries. A quality assurance / quality control process is in place to verify the results.

A3.4  References

[EEA] European Environment Agency. (2016.) EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016. Technical guidance to prepare national emissions inventories. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union Technical Report No. 21/2016.

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