Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report: chapter 2.10

2.10  Dioxins and Furans (D/F)

In 2017, emissions of dioxins and furans (D/F) in Canada totalled approximately 66 grams of toxicity equivalent (gTEQ) (Table 2–12). Incineration and waste sources accounted for the largest share of these emissions (37% or 24 gTEQ), with waste incineration accounting for 32% (21 gTEQ). Transportation and mobile equipment contributed 31% (21 gTEQ) of 2017 D/F emissions, 30% (20 gTEQ) of which are attributed to marine transportation. Commercial/residential/institutional sources were also significant contributors (12% and 7.7 gTEQ). Ore and mineral industries collectively accounted for 10% (6.3 gTEQ) of 2016 D/F emissions.

Between 1990 and 2017, D/F emissions decreased by 85% (387 gTEQ) (Figure 2–10). This decrease is due to large reductions in emissions from waste incineration.

The most significant changes in D/F emissions from 1990 to 2017 include:

  • incineration and waste: decrease of 93% (322 gTEQ), of which:
    • waste incineration: decrease of 94% (324 gTEQ)

Figure 2-10: Major contributors to national D/F trends

Figure 2-10 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2-10

Figure 2-10 is a stacked area graph displaying the four major contributors to National D/F trends. The four contributors are the following: Home Firewood Burning, Marine Transportation, Waste Incineration and Other. The following table displays the contributions (gTEQ) for the years 1990 to 2017.

Figure 2-10: Major contributors to national D/F trends (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sector 1 - Waste Incineration 350 190 200 200 190 200 190 190 150 100 150 140 130 87 81 43 40 39 38 39 31 26 22 21 20 20 20 21
Sector 2 - Marine Transportation 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 26 25 24 22 21 26 31 36 41 19 19 20
Sector 3 - Home Firewood Burning 9.0 8.9 8.5 8.9 9.1 8.7 8.6 8.2 8.8 8.4 8.2 7.6 8.3 7.2 7.1 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.5 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0 7.0
Sector 4 - Other 79 83 85 87 84 84 83 80 69 58 63 57 54 62 61 38 27 25 20 18 23 17 16 15 21 21 20 18

Table 2-12:  National summary of annual dioxins/furans emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 45 28 10 4.1 3.8 6.7 7.3 5.7 6.3
Aluminium Industry 3.0 4.0 no emissions (-) - - - - - -
Asphalt Paving Industry 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01
Cement and Concrete Industry 3.0 1.8 2.6 0.65 0.54 1.9 1.6 0.61 0.22
Foundries - 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.01
Iron and Steel Industry 35 17 4.0 2.9 2.9 4.4 5.2 4.7 5.6
Iron Ore Industry - - - - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mineral Products Industry 1.0 1.0 1.0 - - - - - -
Mining and Rock Quarrying - 0.14 1.1 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.03 0.02
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 3.0 3.3 1.3 0.48 0.38 0.29 0.38 0.41 0.44
Oil and Gas Industry (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry - - - - - - - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry - - - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 3.0 6.4 5.5 1.6 1.7 2.1 1.9 2.9 2.2
Coal 2.3 3.1 3.9 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.6
Diesel no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Natural Gas 0.46 1.0 1.2 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.03
Waste Materials 0.00 0.19 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.16 0.01
Other (Electric Power Generation) 0.23 2.1 0.43 0.13 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.75 0.60
Manufacturing (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 17 16 13 3.3 3.7 3.0 2.9 4.0 3.2
Abrasives Manufacturing no emissions (-) - 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01
Bakeries - - - - - - - - -
Biofuel Production - - - - - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 2.0 0.10 0.07 0.27 0.13 0.27 0.26 0.31 0.33
Electronics - - - - - - - - -
Food Preparation - - 0.07 - - - - - -
Glass Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Grain Industry - - - - - - - - -
Metal Fabrication 2.0 7.1 5.0 1.4 1.1 0.90 0.87 0.92 0.92
Plastics Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Pulp and Paper Industry 11 5.2 4.9 1.0 1.8 1.1 1.1 2.1 1.3
Textiles - - - - - - - - -
Vehicle Manufacturing (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) - 1.3 0.44 - - - - - -
Wood Products 1.8 2.6 1.8 0.60 0.62 0.66 0.64 0.64 0.59
Other (Manufacturing) - - 0.12 - - - - - -
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 21 26 29 32 37 42 20 20 21
Air Transportation no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Heavy-Duty Gasoline Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Heavy-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-Duty Diesel Trucks 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-Duty LPG/NG Trucks 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Marine Transportation 20 25 28 31 36 41 19 19 20
Motorcycles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Rail Transportation 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2
Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.63 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.58 0.55
Animal Production no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Fuel Use 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.63 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.58 0.55
Commercial / Residential / Institutional (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 13 12 10 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.8 7.7 7.7
Cigarette Smoking 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 0.37 0.37 0.33 0.25 0.26 0.45 1.3 0.27 0.25
Commercial Cooking no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Construction Fuel Combustion 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Home Firewood Burning 9.0 8.2 6.7 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0 7.0
Human - - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling - - - - - - - - -
Residential Fuel Combustion 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.72 0.64 0.58 0.44 0.39 0.38
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Commercial / Residential / Institutional) 2.0 2.0 2.0 - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 350 150 47 24 23 23 23 23 24
Crematoriums 1.1 1.6 2.0 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2
Waste Incineration 350 150 43 22 21 20 20 20 21
Waste Treatment and Disposal 0.01 4.3 1.9 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Paints and Solvents (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing - - - - - - - - -
Surface Coatings - - - - - - - - -
Dust (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 7.6 1.5 0.92 1.6 0.68 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.1
Prescribed Burning 7.6 1.5 0.92 1.6 0.68 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.1
Structural Fires no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Totals (gTEQ)
Source 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Ore and Mineral Industries 45 28 10 4.1 3.8 6.7 7.3 5.7 6.3
Oil and Gas Industry no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 3.0 6.4 5.5 1.6 1.7 2.1 1.9 2.9 2.2
Manufacturing 17 16 13 3.3 3.7 3.0 2.9 4.0 3.2
Transportation and Mobile Equipment 21 26 29 32 37 42 20 20 21
Agriculture 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.63 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.58 0.55
Commercial / Residential / Institutional 13 12 10 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.8 7.7 7.7
Incineration and Waste 350 150 47 24 23 23 23 23 24
Paints and Solvents - - - - - - - - -
Dust - - - - - - - - -
Fires 7.6 1.5 0.92 1.6 0.68 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.1
Grand Total 450 240 120 76 79 88 67 66 66

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

- Indicates no emissions

0.00 Indicates emissions truncated due to rounding

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