Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report: chapter 2.12

2.12  Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

In 2017, approximately 8.1 kg of HCB were emitted in Canada (Table 2–14). Waste incineration was the largest contributor in 2017 with 61% (4.9 kg) of total HCB emissions. The ore and mineral industries were the second-largest contributor, with 29% (2.3 kg) of total emissions, largely attributed to iron and steel industries, which represented 13% (1.0 kg) of the national total.

Overall, a 92% (90 kg) decrease in HCB emissions occurred between 1990 and 2013; since 2013 HCB emissions have been stable (Figure 2–12). Most of the decrease is due to a drop in emissions from waste incineration since 1997, specifically as a result of a steady decline in the use of conical burners for municipal waste incineration in Newfoundland and Labrador (Newfoundland Municipal Affairs and Environment, 2017). Emission reductions were also observed as a result of the phasing out of coal electricity generation in Ontario between 2000 and 2014.Footnote 1

The most significant changes in HCB emissions from 1990 to 2017 include:

  • incineration and waste : decrease of over 93% (68 kg), of which:
    • waste incineration: decrease of over 93% (68 kg)
  • electric power generation (utilities) : decrease of 96% (11 kg), of which:
    • coal (electricity power generation): decrease of 96% (10 kg)

Figure 2-12: Major contributors to national hexachlorobenzene trends

Figure 2-12 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2-12

Figure 2-12 is a stacked area graph displaying the four major contributors to National HCB trends. The four contributors are the following: Waste Incineration, Coal (Electric Power Generation), Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry and Other. The following table displays the contributions (kg) for the years 1990 to 2017.

Figure 2-12: Major contributors to national hexachlorobenzene trends (kg)
Section 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Section 1 - Waste Incineration 73 55 57 58 55 56 55 54 17 17 27 30 11 8.3 7.8 5.8 6.4 6.5 5.9 5.9 5.5 5.3 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9
Section 2 - Coal (Electric Power Generation) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 16 8.5 8.4 4.5 4.5 3.9 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.3 1.3 1.1 0.20 0.19 0.24 0.43 0.43 0.36
Section 3 - Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.7 5.0 12.4 8.1 3.8 5.0 5.6 4.5 1.9 2.7 0.72 0.94 0.94 0.66 0.73 0.53 0.70 0.83 0.94
Section 4 - Other 12 16 15 16 16 15 14 14 13 14 13 5.6 13 8.6 5.6 4.2 3.3 3.5 2.6 1.7 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9

Table 2-14:  National summary of annual hexachlorobenzene emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 5 500 8 100 8 100 2 500 2 300 1 900 2 100 2 300 2 300
Aluminium Industry no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Asphalt Paving Industry - - - - - - - - -
Cement and Concrete Industry 1 600 2 100 880 420 420 280 290 410 300
Foundries - - - 0.01 - 29 23 24 6.0
Iron and Steel Industry 1 100 980 1 500 1 400 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 000 1 100
Iron Ore Industry - - - - - - - - -
Mineral Products Industry - - - - - - - - -
Mining and Rock Quarrying 13 13 44 18 13 12 17 12 7.5
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 2 700 5 000 5 600 660 730 530 700 830 940
Oil and Gas Industry (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 1.3 1.6 no emissions (-) - - - - - -
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry - - - - - - - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry 1.3 1.6 - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 11 000 17 000 4 100 370 390 430 600 570 470
Coal 10 000 16 000 3 900 200 190 240 430 430 360
Diesel no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Natural Gas 640 1 300 170 140 140 140 150 120 84
Waste Materials 4.8 19 - 40 40 30 4.9 2.3 2.7
Other (Electric Power Generation) - 190 - - 25 23 16 17 16
Manufacturing (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 8 600 8 200 1 500 460 330 360 350 280 350
Abrasives Manufacturing no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Bakeries - - - - - - - - -
Biofuel Production - - - - - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 680 330 480 - - - - - -
Electronics - - - - - - - - -
Food Preparation - 2.9 3.0 - - - - - -
Glass Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Grain Industry - - - - - - - - -
Metal Fabrication 450 470 52 350 230 290 210 190 240
Plastics Manufacturing - - 0.00 - - - - - -
Pulp and Paper Industry 140 180 310 120 94 73 140 88 110
Textiles - - - - - - - - -
Vehicle Manufacturing (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 7 000 6 700 - - - - - - -
Wood Products 340 580 610 - 1.7 - - - -
Other (Manufacturing) - - - - - - - - -
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Air Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Diesel Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Marine Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Motorcycles - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Rail Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0
Animal Production - - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Fuel Use - - - 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0
Commercial / Residential / Institutional (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 1.6 4.4 1.3 0.73 0.68 0.58 0.31 0.23 0.28
Cigarette Smoking no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 0.11 3.0 0.01 - - - - - -
Commercial Cooking - - - - - - - - -
Construction Fuel Combustion - - - - - - - - -
Home Firewood Burning - - - - - - - - -
Human - - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling - - - - - - - - -
Residential Fuel Combustion 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.73 0.68 0.58 0.31 0.23 0.28
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Commercial / Residential / Institutional) - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 73 000 27 000 5 900 4 900 4 800 4 800 4 800 4 900 4 900
Crematoriums 10 14 18 22 24 26 27 27 28
Waste Incineration 73 000 27 000 5 800 4 800 4 800 4 800 4 800 4 900 4 900
Waste Treatment and Disposal 0.49 260 99 3.6 3.8 0.71 0.15 0.09 0.09
Paints and Solvents (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing - - - - - - - - -
Surface Coatings - - - - - - - - -
Dust (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Prescribed Burning - - - - - - - - -
Structural Fires - - - - - - - - -
Totals (g)
Source 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Ore and Mineral Industries 5 500 8 100 8 100 2 500 2 300 1 900 2 100 2 300 2 300
Oil and Gas Industry 1.3 1.6 no emissions (-) - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 11 000 17 000 4 100 370 390 430 600 570 470
Manufacturing 8 600 8 200 1 500 460 330 360 350 280 350
Transportation and Mobile Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture - - - 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0
Commercial / Residential / Institutional 1.6 4.4 1.3 0.73 0.68 0.58 0.31 0.23 0.28
Incineration and Waste 73 000 27 000 5 900 4 900 4 800 4 800 4 800 4 900 4 900
Paints and Solvents - - - - - - - - -
Dust - - - - - - - - -
Fires - - - - - - - - -
Grand Total 98 000 60 000 20 000 8 200 7 800 7 500 7 900 8 100 8 100

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

- Indicates no emissions

0.00 Indicates emissions truncated due to rounding

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