Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report: chapter 2.8

2.8  Cadmium (Cd)

Approximately 6.8 t of Cd were emitted in Canada in 2017 (Table 2–10). Ore and mineral industries accounted for 67% (4.6 t) of national emissions, with the non-ferrous refining and smelting industry contributing 63% (4.3 t) of the total. Commercial/residential/institutional sources contributed 16% (1.1 t) of total Cd emissions.

From 1990 to 2017, national Cd emissions decreased by 92% (84 t) (Figure 2–8). This trend is almost entirely driven by the non-ferrous refining and smelting industry. Emissions from this industry fluctuated greatly between 1990 and 2006, but decreased steadily from 2007 onward. As with lead emissions, reductions in Cd emissions coincide with the closure of outdated smelters and implementation of pollution prevention plans  (ECCC, 2015 Progress Report: Pollution Prevention Planning by Base Metals Smelters and Refineries and Zinc Plants, 2017). Fluctuations in emissions prior to 2010 are almost entirely driven by emissions from a single smelter in Manitoba.

The most significant changes in Cd emissions from 1990 to 2017 include:

  • ore and mineral industries: decrease of 94% (76 t), of which:
    • non-ferrous refining and smelting industry: decrease of 95% (74 t)

Figure 2-8: Major contributors to national Cd trends

Figure 2-8 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2-8

Figure 2-8 is a stacked area graph displaying the two major contributors to National Cd trends. The two contributors are the following: Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry and Other. The following table displays the contributions (t) for the years 1990 to 2017.

Figure 2-8: Major contributors to national Cd trends (t)
Sector 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sector 1 - Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 78 68 69 12 13 17 24 40 42 36 34 65 35 24 26 29 35 22 17 16 12 4.8 6.2 5.3 4.6 5.0 5.1 4.3
Sector 2 - Other 12 14 15 8.5 10 12 14 6.7 5.6 5.2 4.2 4.1 4.7 7.5 7.5 6.4 6.3 6.6 5.6 5.4 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.3 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.6

Table 2-10:  National summary of annual Cd emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 81 000 35 000 32 000 6 800 5 900 5 300 5 300 5 400 4 600
Aluminium Industry 1.0 1.0 no emissions (-) - - - - - -
Asphalt Paving Industry 26 24 25 21 21 22 22 22 22
Cement and Concrete Industry 47 46 44 28 16 13 14 12 9.4
Foundries 2.0 2.0 26 1.9 1.7 62 21 0.75 21
Iron and Steel Industry 150 160 310 250 230 300 220 210 200
Iron Ore Industry - - - 8.0 8.3 5.5 0.40 0.15 0.17
Mineral Products Industry - - - - - - - - -
Mining and Rock Quarrying 2 200 830 2 900 330 320 330 50 52 53
Non-Ferrous Mining and Smelting Industry 78 000 34 000 29 000 6 200 5 300 4 600 5 000 5 100 4 300
Oil and Gas Industry (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 130 190 190 270 240 210 220 220 250
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry 110 150 130 120 100 110 94 95 98
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry 25 38 61 150 140 110 130 120 150
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 130 130 250 430 360 160 140 160 120
Coal 87 91 170 360 300 93 42 100 78
Diesel no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Natural Gas 29 30 56 50 47 43 52 35 27
Waste Materials - - 0.87 0.36 0.27 0.09 0.81 0.72 1.6
Other (Electric Power Generation) 14 14 27 20 20 27 45 25 15
Manufacturing (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 1 100 950 940 650 620 590 580 590 560
Abrasives Manufacture no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Bakeries - - - - - - - - -
Biofuel Production - - - - - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 140 130 71 7.3 7.7 7.3 7.9 8.1 7.8
Electronics - - - - - - - - -
Food Preparation - - - - - - - - -
Glass Manufacturing 1.0 1.0 1.9 - - - - - -
Grain Industry - - - - - - - - -
Metal Fabrication 460 410 290 380 340 330 320 310 290
Plastics Manufacturing 5.0 6.0 3.6 0.55 0.18 - - - -
Pulp and Paper Industry 370 190 330 210 220 200 200 210 200
Textiles - - - - - - - - -
Vehicle Manufacture (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 2.0 88 1.1 - - - - - 0.00
Wood Products 130 130 110 56 56 55 48 59 56
Other (Manufacturing) - - 140 0.08 0.19 0.68 0.06 0.06 0.13
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 300 370 410 280 230 180 91 86 85
Air Transportation no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Diesel Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Marine Transportation 190 280 320 200 160 110 35 34 32
Motorcycles - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/CNG Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Rail Transportation 100 98 95 80 71 66 57 52 53
Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 51 54 64 95 88 87 84 92 91
Animal Production no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Fuel Use 51 54 64 95 88 87 84 92 91
Commercial / Residential / Institutional (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 1 100 1 200 1 200 1 200 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100
Cigarette Smoking 6.0 5.1 3.9 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 340 510 480 500 470 480 470 480 500
Commercial Cooking no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Construction Fuel Combustion 11 7.0 10 9.1 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.1
Home Firewood Burning 200 180 150 160 160 160 150 150 150
Human - - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling - - 47 0.08 2.3 1.2 0.50 2.2 2.3
Residential Fuel Combustion 540 500 500 490 480 490 460 440 450
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Commercial / Residential / Institutional) - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 7 000 200 46 32 33 35 35 33 35
Crematoriums 0.34 0.48 0.61 0.74 0.79 0.86 0.89 0.91 0.94
Waste Incineration 7 000 200 44 31 30 30 30 30 30
Waste Treatment and Disposal no emissions (-) - 1.3 0.49 2.1 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.6
Paints and Solvents (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total 1.0 1.0 no emissions (-) 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.14
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing 1.0 1.0 - - - - - - -
Surface Coatings - - - 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.14
Dust (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Sub-total no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Prescribed Forest Burning - - - - - - - - -
Structural Fires - - - - - - - - -
Totals (kg)
Source 1990 2000 2005 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Ore and Mineral Industries 81 000 35 000 32 000 6 800 5 900 5 300 5 300 5 400 4 600
Oil and Gas Industry 130 190 190 270 240 210 220 220 250
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 130 130 250 430 360 160 140 160 120
Manufacturing 1 100 950 940 650 620 590 580 590 560
Transportation and Mobile Equipment 300 370 410 280 230 180 91 86 85
Agriculture 51 54 64 95 88 87 84 92 91
Commercial / Residential / Institutional 1 100 1 200 1 200 1 200 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100
Incineration and Waste 7 000 200 46 32 33 35 35 33 35
Paints and Solvents 1.0 1.0 no emissions (-) 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.14
Dust no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Fires no emissions (-) - - - - - - - -
Grand Total 91 000 38 000 35 000 9 800 8 600 7 700 7 600 7 700 6 800

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

- Indicates no emissions

0.00 Indicates emissions truncated due to rounding

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