Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: annex 2

In-house estimation methodologies: continued

A2—1: Estimation methodologies for Ore and Mineral Industries by sector/subsector

For years prior to 2010, there are several source categories for which in-house estimates were developed to use in combination with facility-reported data and historical data from provinces, such as lime manufacturing (1990–2010). Improvement of these estimates is under consideration for future inventories.

Asphalt Paving Industry

Description

Asphalt Paving Industry consists of emissions released during asphalt concrete (or hot-mix asphalt) manufacturing and application. Asphalt concrete manufacturing includes the heating and mixing of asphaltic cement with a mixture of graded aggregates. The sector applies to both permanent or portable hot-mix asphalt installations.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

Total usage of asphalt by province/territory is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Cutback and emulsion asphalt data to calculate VOC emissions from paving process: (SNC/GECO Canada Inc. & Ontario Research Foundation, 1981)

Asphalt usage data from construction: (Statistics Canada, RESD, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p: (Senes Consultants, 2008)

VOCs from paving: (SNC/GECO Canada Inc. & Ontario Research Foundation, 1981)

Concrete Batching and Products (under Cement and Concrete Industry)

Description

Concrete Batching and Products include emissions produced by activities at concrete batching plants.

Concrete is composed essentially of water, cement, fine aggregate (i.e. sand) and coarse aggregate (i.e. gravel, crushed stone or iron blast furnace slag). Concrete batching plants store, convey, measure and discharge these constituents into trucks for transport to a construction site or process, for use in the manufacturing of concrete pipe, concrete blocks, etc.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, Pb, Cd

Province/territory cement distribution ratios are calculated based on the province/territory population data and province/territory cement consumption distribution data. To obtain the total usage of cement by province/territory, the province/territory cement distribution ratios are multiplied by the national domestic consumption of cement. The total usage of cement by province/territory is then multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Cement consumption distribution for the provinces: (CANMET, 1993)

Cement production and export data: (Statistics Canada, Table 16-10-0009-01, 2018)

Population data for the provinces/territories: (Statistics Canada, Table 17-10-0005-01, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5, Pb, Cd: (U.S. EPA, 1998; U.S. EPA, 2010)

Emission factors for TPM, PM10 and PM2.5 emitted by loading mixers and loading trucks: (U.S. EPA,2006)

PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors for sand and aggregate transfer are derived from a weighted combination of TPM emission factors, using information from the U.S. EPA’s PM Calculator database (U.S. EPA, 2010) (using SCC 30501101):

EFPM10=0.51 x EFTPM
EFPM2.5=0.15 x EFTPM

Ferrous Foundries (under Foundries)

Description

Ferrous Foundries include facilities that produce castings of various types of ferro-alloys, as well as small iron and steel foundries not associated with integrated iron and steel facilities. The types of foundries found in Canada include open ferrous, electric arc and induction foundries.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO

Methodology under review.

The in-house estimates were last calculated for 2011 and were carried forward to 2018.

Activity data

Methodology under review.

Emission factors (EF)

Methodology under review.

Rock, Sand and Gravel (under Mining and Rock Quarrying)

Description

Rock, Sand and Gravel encompasses emissions from rock quarrying, stone processing, and sand and gravel operations, excluding those from off-road equipment which are reported under Transportation.

Stone processing is categorized into three activities, depending on the size of stone required: crushed stone, pulverized stone and building stone.

Sand and gravel deposits are quarried, classified and stockpiled. Processing is accomplished by crushing, screening, washing, blending and stockpiling materials according to product specifications. Products are used for road construction, as an aggregate for asphalt and concrete, and for other construction purposes such as fill and mortar sand. Sand is also used in the glassmaking, foundry and abrasives industries.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5

Total quantity of rock, sand and gravel produced by province/territory is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Annual Statistics, Mineral Production of Canada, by Province and Territory (NRCan, 2017).

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5: (EEA, 2013)

Silica Production (under Mining and Rock Quarrying)

Description

Silica Production applies to silica sand quarrying and processing mainly for the glass and refining and smelting industries. Industrial sand processing operations are similar to those of construction sand production, with dust emissions originating mainly from crushing and screening operations, especially when grinding to very fine particle sizes. Dry or wet screening and air classification may be carried out to achieve the desired size distribution. Both wet and dry methods of dust control are used, and baghouses are commonly used.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5

Total quantity of silica produced by province/territory is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Annual mineral production: (NRCan, 2017)

Confidential provincial production values are estimated with population distributions: (Statistics Canada, Table 051-0001, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5: (EEA, 2013)

A2—1 References

[CANMET] Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology. (1993). Present and future uses of energy in the cement and concrete industries in Canada, Unpublished report. Mississauga (ON): Holderback Consulting. Prepared for Energy, Mines and Resources Canada.

[EEA] European Environment Agency. (2013). EMEP/EEA Air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2013, Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Technical Report No. 12/2013.

[NRCan] National Resources Canada. (2017). Minerals and mining statistics on-line: Mineral production of Canada by province and territory, Ottawa (ON): NRCan.

Senes Consultants. (2008). Update of process emission profiles for hot mix asphalt (HMA) manufacturing establishments across Canada, Unpublished report. Richmond Hill (ON): Senes Consultants. Prepared for Environment Canada.

SNC/GECO Canada Inc., Ontario Research Foundation (1981). A nationwide inventory of anthropogenic sources and emissions of primary fine particulate matter, Unpublished report. Montreal (QC): SNC/GECO. Prepared for Environment Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 16-10-0009-01: Annual survey of cement, production and exports, (database) [last updated 2019 Jul 8; accessed 2019 Nov 8]. 

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Report on energy supply and demand in Canada (Annual), Catalogue No. 57 003 X.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 17-10-0005-01 (formerly: CANSIM 051-0001) Population estimates on July 1st, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted),  (database) [last updated 2019 Sep 30; accessed 2019 Nov 8]. 

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2006). Compilation of air pollutant emission factors, Volume I: Stationary point and area sources, 5th Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). PM Calculator, [database on the Internet]. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: