Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: annex 2

In-house estimation methodologies: continued

A2—2:  Estimation methodologies for Oil and Gas Industry by sector/subsector

Refined Petroleum Products Bulk Storage and Distribution (under Downstream Oil And Gas Industry)

Description

Refined Petroleum Products Bulk Storage and Distribution covers fugitive VOC emissions from bulk distribution terminals and bulk plants. It includes volatile components of fuels that are emitted as fuel moves from the refinery to the end user whenever tanks are filled or emptied or while tanks are open to the atmosphere, be they large above-ground tanks, tank trucks, or railcars. In addition, the subsector includes emissions that occur from the evaporation of fuels spilled during transfer operations.

Only fugitive VOC emissions from bulk plants are estimated in-house.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
VOCs

Emissions are calculated using the gross sales of gasoline for on-road motor vehicles multiplied by emission factors developed by (Tecsult Inc, 2006)

Activity data

Gross sales of gasoline for motor vehicles: (Statistics Canada, RESD, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

Study on gasoline vapour recovery in Stage 1 distribution networks in Canada: (Tecsult Inc, 2006)

Natural Gas Distribution (under Downstream Oil and Gas Industry)

Description

Natural Gas Distribution includes emissions from all infrastructure used to receive high-pressure natural gas from transmission pipelines and then reduce the pressure for distribution to end users. This sector consists of distribution pipelines (distribution mains and service lines) and measurement and regulation stations, up to and including customer meters.

Emissions from related construction activities, ancillary structures and operations (buildings, offices, etc.), and mobile sources are included under the Construction Operations, Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion, and Transportation and Mobile Equipment sources (respectively) of the APEI.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3

Emission estimates are generated using data from comprehensive inventories (EC, 2014; CAPP, 2005a) and extrapolated (CAPP, 2005b) from 2012 onwards based on pipeline length.

Activity data

Gas Pipeline Distance, by province (Statistics Canada, 2019)

Emission factors (EF)

(EC, 2014)

Natural Gas Transmission and Storage (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry)

Description

Natural Gas Transmission includes emissions from all infrastructure used to transport pipeline quality natural gas to local distribution companies. This sector consists of large diameter pipelines, compressor stations and metering facilities. Natural Gas Storage includes emissions from all infrastructure used to store natural gas produced during off-peak times (i.e. summer) for delivery during peak demand periods (i.e. winter). Gas is stored in spent production fields, aquifers or salt caverns with facilities consisting of piping, meters, compressor stations and dehydrators.

Emissions from midstream services (e.g. straddle plants) and gas plants are included under Natural Gas Production and Processing. Emissions from related construction activities, ancillary structures and operations (buildings, offices, etc.) and mobile sources are included under the Construction Operations, Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion, and Transportation and Mobile Equipment sources (respectively) of the APEI.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3

Emission estimates are generated using data from comprehensive inventories (EC, 2014; CAPP, 2005a) and extrapolated (CAPP, 2005b) from 2012 onwards. Natural gas transmission emissions are extrapolated based on pipeline length, while natural gas storage emissions are extrapolated based on annual volumes of gas injected and withdrawn.

Activity data

Gas Pipeline Distance, by province (Statistics Canada, 2019)

Natural gas injections to storage and withdrawals from storage (Statistics Canada, Table 25-10-0057-01, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

(EC, 2014)

Upstream Oil and Gas Industry

Description

Upstream Oil and Gas Industry includes emissions from all infrastructure used to locate, extract, produce, process/treat and transport natural gas, crude oil (light/medium oil, heavy oil, crude bitumen), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and condensate to market. It also includes emissions from onshore and offshore facilities, as well as drilling and exploration, conventional oil and gas production, open pit mining and in situ oil sands production, natural gas processing and oil transmission. Specifically, it includes the following subsectors:

Emissions from related construction activities, ancillary structures and operations (buildings, offices, etc.), and mobile sources are included under the Construction Operations, Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion, and Transportation and Mobile Equipment sources (respectively) of the APEI.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3

Emission estimates are generated using data from comprehensive inventories (EC, 2014; CAPP, 2005a) and are extrapolated (CAPP, 2005b) from 2012 onwards using various provincial-level activity data.

Activity data

Spills and accidents (AER, 2019a; BCOGC, 2019a; CNLOPB, 2019a; MB, 2019; SKMER, 2019a)
Wells drilled (CAPP, 2019)
Operating wells (CAPP, 2019, CNLOPB, 2019b,c,d,e,f)
Reported volumes of gas flared and vented (AER, 2019b; BC, 2019; BCOGC, 2019b; CNLOPB, 2019g; SKMER, 2019b)
Fuel gas volumes (AER, 2019c; BC, 2019; SKMER, 2019b)
In-situ bitumen production volumes (AER, 2019d)
Non-associated natural gas production volumes (CER, 2019)
Crude oil and natural gas production volumes (NBERD, 2019; SKMER, 2019c, d; Statistics Canada, Table 25-10-0014-01, n.d.; Statistics Canada, Table 25-10-0047-01, n.d.; Statistics Canada, Table 25-10-0055-01, n.d.; Statistics Canada, Table 25-10-0063-01, n.d.)
Natural gas shrinkage (AER, 2019e; BC, 2019)

In addition to the extrapolated estimates, the SOx estimates for Alberta Natural Gas Processing are adjusted to account for regulations that were developed after the model was originally created. The adjustments are made with both historical provincial data and NPRI data up to 2005. From 2006 onwards, NPRI data for Alberta SOx emissions from gas plants are used due to the complete facility coverage. NPRI data for the Atlantic provinces are used in place of the model estimates due to the complete facility coverage for the region. Additionally, extrapolated estimates for the Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction facilities are reconciled with NPRI data to eliminate double-counting. NPRI data for Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading are used due to the complete facility coverage of the subsector.

Emission factors (EF)

(EC, 2014)

A2—2 References

[AER] Alberta Energy Regulator. (2019a). AER Compliance Dashboard – Incidents [cited 2019 Jul 5].

[AER] Alberta Energy Regulator. (2019b). Upstream petroleum industry flaring and venting report. [PDF]

[AER] Alberta Energy Regulator. (2019c). VPR6800 Supply and disposition of gas (economics), [revised 2019 Jan 24; cited 2019 Jul 11].

[AER] Alberta Energy Regulator. (2019d). Alberta’s energy reserves and supply/demand outlook, [revised 2019 May; cited 2019 Jul 5].

[AER] Alberta Energy Regulator. (2019e). Alberta Energy Resource Industries Monthly Statistics, Gas Supply and Disposition, [revised 2019 Apr 4; cited 2019 Jul 5].

[BC] British Columbia Government. (2019). Production and distribution of natural gas in BC, [cited 2019 Jul 5].

[BCOGC] British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission. (2019a). Drilling kicks and blowouts by area, [cited 2019 Jul 5].

[BCOGC] British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission. (2019b). Air Summary Report.

[CAPP] Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. (2005a). A national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG), criteria air contaminant (CAC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions by the upstream Oil and gas industry, Vols 1-5. Calgary (AB): Clearstone Engineering Ltd.

[CAPP] Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. (2005b). Extrapolation of the 2000 UOG emission inventory to 2001, 2002 and 2003, Calgary (AB): Clearstone Engineering Ltd.

[CAPP] Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. (2019). Statistical handbook for Canada’s upstream petroleum industry, [cited 2019 Sep 11].

[CER] Canada Energy Regulator. (2019). Canada’s Energy Future 2018, [cited 2019 Jul 5].

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019a). Environment statistics: Spill frequency and volume annual summary, [revised 2019 Jan 15; cited 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019b). Production summary by well – Hebron, [revised 2019 Jan 28; cited 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019c). Production summary by well – Hibernia, [revised 2019 Jan 28; cited 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019d). Production summary by well – North Amethyst, [revised 2019 Jan 25; cited 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019e). Production summary by well – Terra Nova, [revised 2019 Jan 24; cited 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019f). Production summary by well – White Rose, [revised 2019 Jan 25; cited 2019 Jul 5].
[PDF]

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019g). Monthly Gas flaring (unpublished) [2019 Oct 11].
[PDF]

[EC] Environment Canada. (2014). Technical report on Canada’s upstream oil and gas industry, Vols. 1 – 4. Prepared for Environment Canada. Calgary (AB): Clearstone Engineering Ltd., [2014 Mar 31].

[MB] Manitoba Government. (2019). Petroleum industry spill statistics, [revised 2019 Apr 11; cited 2019 Jul 5].

[NBERD] New Brunswick Energy and Resource Development. (2019). Monthly production statistics, [revised 2019 May 15; cited 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

[SKMER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources. (2019a). Saskatchewan upstream oil and gas IRIS incident report, [revised 2019 Jul 3; cited 2019 Jul 3].

[SKMER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources. (2019b). Saskatchewan fuel, flare and vent, [revised 2019 Feb; cited 2019 Jul 5].

[SKMER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources. (2019c). 2018 crude oil volume and value summary, [revised 2019 Jun 10; cited 2019 Jul 5].

[SKMER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources. (2019d). 2018 natural gas volume and value summary, [revised 2019 Jun 12; cited 2019 Jul 5].

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Report on energy supply and demand in Canada (Annual), Catalogue No. 57 003 X.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 25-10-0014-01 (formerly CANSIM 126-0001) Crude oil and equivalent, monthly supply and disposition.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 25-10-0047-01 (formerly CANSIM 131-0001) Natural gas, monthly supply and disposition.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 25-10-0055-01 (formerly CANSIM 131-0004) Supply and disposition of natural gas, monthly.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 25-10-0057-01 (formerly CANSIM 129-0005) Canadian monthly natural gas storage, Canada and provinces, (database).

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 25-10-0063-01 (formerly CANSIM 126-0003) Supply and disposition of crude oil and equivalent.

Statistics Canada. (2019). Gas Pipeline Distance, by Province (unpublished).  Provided by Statistics Canada to Environment and Climate Change Canada [2019 Oct 10].

Tecsult Inc. (2006). Study on gasoline vapour recovery in Stage I distribution networks in Canada, Report No. 0514676. Prepared for Environment Canada.

A2—3: Estimation methodologies for Manufacturing by sector/subsector

For years prior to 2010, there are several source categories for which in-house estimates were developed to use in combination with facility-reported data and historical data from provinces, such as chemical manufacturing (1990–2000) and pulp and paper product manufacturing (1990–2006). Improvement of these estimates is under consideration for future inventories.

Bakeries

Description

Bakeries release VOCs during the leavening process of industrial baking. Emissions from products leavened by baking powder (used mainly for pastries) are negligible, but VOCs are released when yeast is used for leavening. Yeast is used nearly exclusively in the production of bread and bread-like pastries.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
VOCs

Total quantity of wheat flour available per person is multiplied by population, the fraction of flour use in yeast-leavened baked goods, ratio of product to flour ratio, and an emission factor for VOCs.

Activity data

Bread production values are estimated using:

Emission factors (EF)

(Cheminfo Services, 2005)

EFVOC = 2.35 kg per tonne of baked goods

Grain Industry

Description

Grain Industry covers emissions from grain elevators. Grain elevators are divided into four groups in the APEI:

Primary elevators receive grain by truck from producers for either storage or forwarding. These elevators sometimes clean or dry grain before it is transported to terminal or process elevators (U.S. EPA, 1985).

Process elevators are grain processing plants or mills. While the elevator operations of unloading, conveying and storing are performed at these locations, direct manufacturing or processing of grain for use in other products are also carried out (U.S. EPA, 1985).

Terminal elevators dry, clean, blend and store grain for shipment.

Transfer elevators generally perform the same function as terminal elevators.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5

Total grain production by province/territory is multiplied by process-specific emission factors through primary elevators, process elevators, transfer elevators and terminal elevators. Calculated emissions are reconciled with point source emissions reported through the NPRI.

Activity data

The Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) provides year-to-date deliveries and shipment data for grains for Western provinces (AB, BC, MB and SK) at weekly periods where the majority of grain crops are grown. These data include primary, process, transfer and terminal elevators. The reports follow an ‘August to July’ crop production cycle so three representative weekly reports are selected to estimate the grain throughput for a calendar year; Weeks 21-22 (W22), week 52 (W52) from the previous year (PY) and week 21-22 (W22) from current year (CY). PY-W52 represents grain throughput from August and July and PY-W22 represents throughputs from August to December of the previous year (CGC, 2017). The current calendar year’s estimate of grain throughput is calculated as:

Grain throughputs = (PY-W52) – (PY-W22) + (CY-W22)

Estimation of grain distribution among provinces: The CGC do not report primary delivery data from Eastern provinces (NS, NB, PE). Consequently, grains that are delivered to primary elevators outside of Western provinces are assumed to be consistent with the grain deliveries in Ontario (ON).

The division of grains between Western Canada and Eastern Canada is performed based on the Total Canadian grain (Statistics Canada, Table 32-10-0351-01, 2017). However, the sum of each grain type shows the annual receipts in Western Canada as one value not by province, and therefore, two assumptions are made in order to estimate the provincial grain receipts. First, it is assumed all grains received by ON primary elevators are transferred to process elevators in ON (including inter-provincial transfers). Second, the portion of receipts shared by each province is calculated based on the provincial proportions from the 1995 Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) inventory. This inventory also provides the provincial distribution for transfer elevators. All grains from process elevators in ON are subsequently transported to terminal elevators, while transfer elevators in Ontario receive and ship grains from Western provinces.

Unlike process elevators, terminal elevators, are only located in four ports among three provinces: BC (Vancouver, Prince Rupert), ON (Thunder Bay, MB (Churchill). With receipts and shipment data of each port from CGC statistics, terminal elevator throughputs are computed by averaging the received and shipped grains of the three ports ON (Thunder Bay), BC (Vancouver, Prince Rupert) and MB (Churchill).

Emission factors (EF)

Emission for each process are calculated by multiplying the total activity level (grain throughputs in thousand metric tonnes) by the emission factor, control efficiency and handling ratio. The handling ratio represents the actual amount of grains treated in a process. Handling process emissions are regulated by the “control efficiency” factor. It is assumed that no loss occurs between processes, so the activity level is identical at all processes in each elevator. Accordingly, the total Canadian TPM, PM10 and PM2.5 annual emission is the sum of emissions from all processes involved in the four elevators. The emission factors and parameters are listed in following section.

Emission = Activity level × (1 – Control Efficiency) × Emission factor × Handling ratio

All emission factors and parameters are identical in all provinces. Source: (Pinchin Environmental Ltd, 2007).

Primary elevator
Process Emission factor (kg/t)—TPM Emission factor (kg/t)—PM10 Emission factor (kg/t)—PM2.5 Control Efficiency Handling Ratio
Shipping & Receiving 0.10 0.03 0.01 75 1
Transfer conveying 0.04 0.01 0.00 0 0.5
Cleaning 1.50 0.38 0.07 75 0.5
Drying 1.40 0.35 0.06 75 NA*
Headhouse 2.25 0.35 0.06 75 NA
Process elevator
Process Emission factor (kg/t)—TPM Emission factor (kg/t)—PM10 Emission factor (kg/t)—PM2.5 Control Efficiency Handling Ratio
Receiving 0.05 0.02 0.00 75 1
Pre-cleaning & Handling 0.04 0.01 0.00 0 1
Cleaning House 0.04 0.01 0.00 0 1
Millhouse 35.00 17.50 2.98 97 1
Transfer elevator
Process Emission factor (kg/t)—TPM Emission factor (kg/t)—PM10 Emission factor (kg/t)—PM2.5 Control Efficiency Handling Ratio
Receiving & Shipping 0.10 0.03 0.00 90 1
Transfer conveying 0.01 0.00 0.00 90 1.2
Headhouse 0.03 0.02 0.00 90 2.2
Terminal elevator
Process Emission factor (kg/t)—TPM Emission factor (kg/t)—PM10 Emission factor (kg/t)—PM2.5 Control Efficiency Handling Ratio
Shipping & Receiving 0.04 0.01 0.00 90 1
Transfer conveying 0.01 0.00 0.00 90 2
Cleaning 0.04 0.01 0.00 0 0.5
Drying 1.50 0.38 0.07 90 0
Headhouse 0.03 0.02 0.00 90 3

* NA = Not applicable (not included in calculation for these processes)

Reconciliation: The emissions calculated at the provincial scale are considered as area source (AS) estimates. Point source (PS) values are those directly reported by the grain handling facilities to National Pollutant Release Inventory and they serve as the most reliable estimate of emission values. Thus, a reconciliation procedure is administered between the AS and PS estimates before submission to the inventory. When cumulative AS values for a province were found to be lower than the cumulative PS value from the same province, the AS value was replaced by PS value. The precedence of PS values over AS is determined based on their reliability.

Warehousing and Storage: These are PM emissions categorized for facilities that store the grains. The PS emissions are summed by province for the reporting facilities.

Sawmills, Panel Board Mills and Other (Wood Products) (under Wood Products)

Description

Sawmills cover emissions from facilities that typically produce hardwood and softwood lumber from logs. The process of converting wet logs into dry lumber includes debarking, sawing, drying and planing steps, which all release air emissions.

Panel Poard Mills include emissions from several types of mills, all producing hardwood and softwood-based materials. These include:

Other Wood Products encompass emissions from furniture and cabinet manufacturers, wood treating plants, wood pellet mills and masonite manufacturers.

The combustion of various fuels for energy production or waste disposal, notably wood residues, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and fuel oil is a common practice at wood products facilities. Significant amounts of air pollutant emissions result from combustion in this sector.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

Sawmills and panel board mills

The in-house estimates for panel board mills were carried forward in 2016 based on 2015 mill capacities. Capacity data was available for 2017. 2018 capacity data was extrapolated based on the capacity data from 2015 to 2017.

Other wood products

All pollutants: In-house estimates are not calculated for this subsector. For the whole time series, emissions are from facility data reported to provinces/territories and NPRI facility-reported data.

Activity data

NPRI 2018 data and data sources for facilities not reporting to the NPRI, including:

Emission factors (EF)

Sawmills: (U.S. EPA, 2012)

Plywood manufacturing, particle board, oriented strand board: (U.S. EPA, 1995)

Fuel combustion: (Meil et al., 2009; U.S. EPA, 1992; U.S. EPA, 1995; U.S. EPA, 2014)

A2—3 References

Cheminfo Services. (2005). Survey of small and medium commercial baking establishments to estimate average VOC emission factors, Unpublished report. Markham (ON): Cheminfo. Prepared for Environment Canada.

[CGC] Canadian Grain Commission. (2017). Grain Statistics Weekly 2017–2018

Madison. (2017). Madison’s 2017 Online lumber directory.

Meil J, Bushi L, Garrahan P, Aston R, Gingras A, Elustondo D. (2009). Status of energy use in the Canadian wood products sector, Ottawa (ON). Report No. M144-214/2009.

Pinchin Environmental Ltd. (2007). CAC emissions from the Canadian grain handling industry – 1985- 2007, Unpublished report. Mississauga (ON): Health Canada.

[RISI] Resource Information Systems Inc. (2013). North American wood panels and engineered wood products capacity report, 2013.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 17-10-0005-01 (formerly: CANSIM 051-0001) Population estimates on July 1st, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted),  (database) [last updated 2019 Sep 30; accessed 2019 Nov 8].  Statistics Canada. (2017). Table 32-10-0351-01 (formerly CANSIM 001-0001) Producer deliveries of major grains, (database). 

Statistics Canada. (2018). Table 32-10-0054-01 (formerly CANSIM 002-0011) Food available in Canada: Wheat flour, (database).

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1985). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, 5th Edition. Research Triangle (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards [cited 2014 Aug 27].

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1992). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 4th Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1995). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th Edition [updates for 2002]. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). EPA memorandum - EPA Region 10 HAP and VOC emission factors for lumber drying, December 2012. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). WebFIRE [database on the Internet], Durham (NC): Technology Transfer Network Clearinghouse for Inventories & Emissions Factors.

A2—4: Estimation methodologies for Transportation and Mobile Equipment by sector/subsector

Air Transportation

Description

Air Transportation covers emissions from aircraft but not airport support equipment (captured as off-road applications).

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

Aircraft-specific activity (landing/take-offs) by province/territory is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

The emission estimates from Air Transportation are calculated using Aircraft Movement Statistics (Statistics Canada, Aircraft Movement Statistics (database), n.d.), a database developed by Statistics Canada based on flight-by-flight data, recorded at airport towers operated by NAV Canada post-1996 and Transport Canada pre-1996. The data are of the highest resolution available and are the only known such aircraft movement data within Canada.

Emission factors (EF)

For aircraft using turbo aviation fuel, hydrocarbon (HC), CO and NOx emission factors are taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank (ICAO, 2009) for landing/take-offs (LTO) and from the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook 2006 (EEA, EMEP/CORINAIR, 2006) for the cruise stage. Emission factors are mapped to representative aircraft on the basis of engine characteristics. SO2 is estimated as a sulphur balance, using data from the Sulphur in liquid fuels reports (ECCC, 2017). The NH3 emission factor is taken from (Coe et al., 1996). Emissions of PM during LTO are based on a paper by (Wayson et al., 2009), which relates the smoke number from the ICAO databank to an emission factor in g/kg fuel consumed.

For aircraft using aviation gasoline, VOC, CO, PM10 and NOx emission factors are taken from the Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA, 2007). No quantification of these emissions is performed at the cruise stage, due to a lack of emission factors. SO2 is estimated as a sulphur balance, using data from the Sulphur in liquid fuels reports (ECCC, 2017). The NH3 emission factor is taken from (Coe et al., 1996). PM2.5 is calculated as 69% of PM10 as per (U.S. EPA, Documentation for Aircraft …, 2005). Lead is estimated as a lead balance, using the U.S. EPA’s 5% retention (U.S. EPA, 2013). TPM is equal to PM10 (U.S. EPA, Documentation for Aircraft …,  2005). Emissions of non-standard CACs are estimated as a ratio to PM10 or HC/VOCs based on speciation profiles from the U.S. EPA (U.S. EPA, Documentation for Aircraft …, 2005).

Marine Transportation

Description

Marine Transportation covers emissions from commercial marine vessels, but not recreational marine engines (captured as off-road applications).

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(1,2,3-cd)p

Vessel-specific activity (movements) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

The main source of data is from the Marine Emission Inventory Tool (MEIT) (ECCC, MEIT 2015, 2018; ECCC, MEIT V.4.3.1, 2016) which provides emissions for NOx, CO, HC, SO2, TPM, PM10, PM2.5 and NH3. MEIT provides data for 1980, 1985, 1987, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and forecast for 2020.

Emission factors (EF)

NOX, CO, HC, SO2, TPM, PM10, PM2.5 and NH3 are taken directly from MEIT. B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(1,2,3-cd)p, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans are estimated as ratios of PM based on speciation profiles from the Documentation for the Commercial Marine Vessel Component of the National Emissions Inventory Methodology (U.S. EPA, 2009). The correlation factor for HC to VOCs is taken from Emission Factors for Locomotives document (U.S. EPA, 2009).

On-Road Vehicles

Description

On-road Vehicles include: Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles, Heavy-duty Gasoline Vehicles, Light-duty Diesel Trucks, Light-duty Diesel Vehicles, Light-duty Gasoline Trucks, Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles, Propane and Natural Gas Vehicles, Motorcycles, and Tire Wear and Brake Lining.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

Vehicle-specific activity (vehicle kilometres travelled) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors in the MOVES model (version MOVES2014 was used for this submission).

Refuelling VOC emissions are included in under Service Stations.

Activity data

Data on the vehicle fleet (counts), defined by fuel type, model-year and gross vehicle weight rating, originate from (DAC, 2017) and (Polk & Co, 2017) for light- and heavy-duty vehicles, respectively. Motorcycle populations originate from the publication Road motor vehicle, trailer and snowmobile registration (registrations) (Statistics Canada, Table 405-0001 , n.d.; Statistics Canada, Table 405-0004, n.d.). The Annual Industry Statistics report (MMIC, 2013) is used to estimate the age distribution of motorcycles by model year which is applied to motorcycle populations obtained from Statistics Canada. The actual activity level is vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT). To arrive at estimates of VKT, vehicle counts are multiplied by mileage accumulation rates from Stewart-Brown Associates (Stewart-Brown Associates, 2012).

Emission factors (EF)

Emission factors for on-road vehicles are embedded in the MOVES model. More information on MOVES is available online in the U.S. EPA user guides (U.S. EPA, 2012; U.S. EPA, 2014) and in U.S. EPA technical guidance document (U.S. EPA, 2010).

Off-Road Vehicles and Equipement

Description

Off-road Vehicles and Equipment consists of Off-road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment and Off-road gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3

Application-specific activity (hours-of-use, load factor) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors in the NONROAD model.

Activity data

Data on the applications (vehicle/engine counts, load factor, hours-of-use), defined by fuel type, model year and source classification code, originate from (EC, 2011). The hours-of-use parameter was updated in 2018 for select equipment types. For example, snowmobile hours of use is now distinct by stroke type (ECCC, Off-road Equipment Analysis - Snowmobiles, 2018). Construction equipment populations used in oil sands mining operations are now sourced from The Parker Bay Company (ECCC, Off-road Equipment Analysis - Oil Sands Mining Equipment, 2018).

Emission factors (EF)

Emission factors for off-road applications are embedded in the NONROAD model. For this iteration of the APEI, NONROAD version 2012C was used. This version is based on the U.S. EPA’s NONROAD2008, and modified by Environment and Climate Change Canada to exploit detailed activity data. Model operation is conducted following the user guide for NONROAD2005/2008 (U.S. EPA, User’s Guide for the Final NONROAD2005 Model, 2005), given that the functionality of the models is the same.

More information on the NONROAD model is available online.

Rail Transportation

Description

Rail transportation covers emissions from the fuel consumed by locomotive engines.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

Railway activity (fuel consumption) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Fuel consumption data: (Statistics Canada, RESD, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

HC, CO, SO2, PM10 and NOx emission factors are taken from the Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program 2011 report (Railway Association of Canada, 2013) and the Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program 2016 report (Railway Association of Canada, 2019). The correlation factor for HC to VOCs and TPM to PM10 is taken from Emission Factors for Locomotives document (U.S. EPA, 2009). PM2.5, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p are estimated as ratios to PM10 or VOCs, based on speciation profiles from are taken from the Documentation for Locomotive Component of the National Emissions Inventory Methodology (U.S. EPA, 2011). The dioxin/furan emission factor (0.54 ng/L) is taken from the An inventory of sources and environmental releases of dioxin-like compounds in the United States for the years 1987, 1995, and 2000 report (U.S. EPA, 2006).

A2—4 References

Coe DL, Main HH, Chinkin LR, Loomis C, Wilkinson J. (1996). Review of current methodologies for estimating ammonia emissions, Draft final report. Santa Rosa (CA): Sonoma Technology. Report No. STI-95310-1580-DFR. Prepared for California Air Resources Board.

[DAC] DesRosiers Automotive Consultants. (2017). Census of vehicles in operation in Canada, Richmond Hill (ON). Prepared for Environment Canada.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2016). Marine Emission Inventory Tool (MEIT). V4.3.1. Environment and Climate Change Canada - Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2017). Sulphur in liquid fuels, [confidential database]. Gatineau (QC): Environment Canada, Oil, Gas and Alternative Energy Division.[PS[1].

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2018). Marine Emission Inventory Tool. V4.3.1. Environment and Climate Change Canada - Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2018). Off-road Equipment Analysis - Oil Sands Mining Equipment, Unpublished report. Prepared by B. Greenlaw, Pollutant Inventories and Reporting Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada. Gatineau (QC).

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2018). Off-road Equipment Analysis - Snowmobiles, Unpublished report. Prepared by B. Greenlaw, Pollutant Inventories and Reporting Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada. Gatineau (QC).

[EC] Environment Canada. (2011). Canadian off-road equipment population, Unpublished report. Mississauga (ON): Environment Canada. Report No. CA12-00333A. Prepared for Environment Canada.

[EC] Environment Canada. (2017). Sulphur in liquid fuels, [confidential database]. Gatineau (QC): Environment Canada, Oil, Gas and Alternative Energy Division.

[EEA] European Environment Agency. (2006). EMEP/CORINAIR emission inventory guidebook 2006, Technical Report No. 11/2006. Copenhagen (DK): European Environment Agency.

[FOCA] Federal Office of Civil Aviation. (2007). Aircraft piston engine emissions summary report, Swiss Confederation. Report No. 0/3/33/33-05-003.022.

[ICAO] International Civil Aviation Organization. (2009). ICAO engine emissions databank, [database on the Internet].

[MMIC] Motorcycle & Moped Industry Council. (2013). Motorcycle, scooter & all-terrain vehicle annual industry statistics report, 2013, Markham (ON): MMIC.

Polk & Co. (2017). Trucking Industry Profile Database, [unpublished database]. Polk & Co. Prepared for Environment Canada.

Railway Association of Canada. (2013). Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program 2011.

Railway Association of Canada. (2019). Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program 2016.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Aircraft Movement Statistics (database), Statistics Canada data file transfer [last updated 2017 Aug 17].

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 405-0001 Road motor vehicle, trailer and snowmobile registration, CANSIM (database).

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 405-0004 Vehicle registrations, CANSIM (database).

Stewart-Brown Associates. (2012). Kilometre Accumulation Rates in British Columbia and Ontario, Abbotsford (BC). Prepared for Environment Canada.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2005). Documentation for Aircraft, Commercial Marine Vessel, Locomotive, and other Nonroad Components of the National Emissions Inventory, Vol 1 – Methodology, Research Triangle Park (NC). Contract No. 68-D-02-063.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2005). User’s guide for the final NONROAD2005 model, Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No. EPA-420-R-05-013.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2006). An inventory of sources and environmental releases of dioxin-like compounds in the United States for the years 1987, 1995, and 2000. Washington, DC: National Center for Environmental Assessment. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Documentation for the Commercial Marine Vessel Component of the National Emissions Inventory Methodology. Morrisville (NC): Eastern Research Group. Prepared for the U.S. EPA. Contract No. EPA420-F-09-025

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Technical guidance on the use of MOVES2010 for emission inventory preparation in state implementation plans and transportation conformity, Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No. EPA-420-B-10-023. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Documentation for locomotive component of the National Emissions Inventory Methodology, Morrisville (NC): Eastern Research Group for Emissions. Prepared for the U.S. EPA. Contract No. EP-D-07-097. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). User guide for MOVES2010b, Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No. EPA-420-B-12-001b. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Calculating Piston-Engine Aircraft Airport Inventories for Lead for the 2011 National Emissions Inventory, Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No. EPA-420-B-13-040.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). User guide for MOVES2014, Washington (DC). Report No. EPA-420-B-14-055. [PDF]

Wayson RL, Fleming GG, Lovinelli R. (2009). Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, J Air Waste Manag Assoc 59(1):91-100.

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