Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: annex 2

In-house estimation methodologies: continued

A2—6: Estimation methodologies for Commercial/Residential/Institutional by sector/subsector

Cigarette Smoking

Description

Two sources of emissions are included under Cigarette Smoking:

  1. mainstream cigarette smoke, which is directly exhaled by the smoker
  2. sidestream smoke, which is directly released from burning cigarettes

Cigarette Smoking is being considered for removal from future inventories. If you have any questions, please contact us at ec.iepa-apei.ec@canada.ca or 1-877-877-8375.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f

The average number of cigarettes smoked per year by the smoking population by province/territory is calculated and then multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Tobacco use/smoking prevalence: (Health Canada, 2017)

Population data: Statistics Canada, Table 051-0001, 1991–2018

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5:  (Ott et al., 1996)
VOCs:  (Wallace et al., 1987)
CO: (Ott et al., 1992)

NH3:  (Roe et al., 2004)
Hg, Cd, Pb:  (Gray & Boyle, 2002)
Dioxins/furans: (U.S. EPA, Exposure and Human …, 2004)
B(a)p, B(b)f, B(b)k:  (Ding et al., 2005)

Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion, Construction Fuel Combustion and Residential Fuel Combustion

Description

Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion, Construction Fuel Combustion and Residential Fuel Combustion include emissions resulting primarily from external combustion sources used for space/water heating and material heating. Commercial establishments, health and educational institutions, government/public administration facilities, and residences all fall under these categories, in addition to construction sites.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

Emissions are calculated for 10 types of fuel: natural gas, natural gas liquids, kerosene and stove oils, light fuel oil, heavy fuel oil, Canadian bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, lignite coal, anthracite coal, and imported coal.

Total usage by fuel type and province/territory is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

(Statistics Canada, RESD, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO: (U.S. EPA, 1998)

(Emission factors are chosen to represent the typical type of combustion equipment for each fuel type.)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO for natural gas fuel: (U.S. EPA, WebFIRE. Factor Information …, 2004)
Sulphur contents of liquid fuels: (EC, Sulphur in liquid fuels, 2010)
Sulphur contents of coal: (CEA, 2002)

NH3: (Battye et al., 1994); (Coe et al., 1996)

Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f: (CARB, 2005; U.S. EPA, 1998; U.S. EPA, 2003; U.S. EPA, WebFIRE. Factor Information …, 2004)
(Emission factors are selected to represent the typical type of combustion equipment for each fuel type.)

Commercial Cooking

Description

Commercial Cooking includes emissions from cooking meat and french fries in commercial operations that are classified under five foodservice types: ethnic, fast food, family, seafood, and steak and BBQ.

The types of meat considered include beef steak, hamburger, poultry with skin, poultry without skin, pork, seafood and other. Five types of commercial cooking equipment are taken into account including: chain driven charbroilers, underfired charbroilers, deep-fat fryers, flat griddles and clamshell griddles. The commercial operations inventoried are defined as all commercial foodservice points of distribution that are open to the public, offer prepared meals and snacks for consumption on/off-premises, and operate in a fixed location.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, CO, B(a)p

Commercial Meat Cooking (1999 to 2018)
  1. determined the number of restaurants in each province/territory that were classified as ethnic, fast food, family, seafood, steak and BBQ
  2. determined the fraction of restaurants with commercial cooking equipment (i.e. chain driven charbroilers, underfired charbroilers, deep-fat fryers, flat griddles and clamshell griddles), the average number of units of each type of equipment per restaurant, and the average amount of food cooked (i.e. steak, hamburger, poultry with skin, poultry without skin, pork, seafood and other) on each type of equipment
  3. applied pollutant-specific emission factors to each type of food for each type of commercial cooking equipment to get the final emission estimates
Commercial Meat Cooking (1990 to 1998)

1999 emission estimates were back-casted to 1990 using the gross domestic product (GDP) for NAICS [72]: Accommodation and Food Services (Statistics Canada, Table 379-0019 , n.d.).

Commercial cooking of french fries

The annual national consumption rate of frozen fries was multiplied by the annual provincial/territorial population and by a VOC-specific emission factor.

Activity data
Commercial Meat Cooking (1999 to 2018 only)
Commercial cooking of french fries

Activity data were estimated using:

Emission factors (EF)

Commercial meat cooking:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, CO, B(a)p: (E.H. Pechan & Associates Inc., 2003)

Commercial cooking of french fries:
VOCs: (E.H. Pechan & Associates 2003)

Home Firewood Burning

Description

Home Firewood Burning encompasses emissions from wood burned in urban and rural homes for primary and supplementary heating, as well as for aesthetics and hot water, in both main and secondary residences. This covers household wood-burning devices such as wood-burning fireplaces, wood stoves, pellet stoves, outdoor boilers and a variety of other devices used in limited quantities, such as wood-fired cooking stoves.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

The quantity of wood burned by device type and province is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors by device type.

Activity data

Activity data from (Canadian Facts, 1997; Canadian Facts, 2006; TNS Canada, 2012) are converted from volume to mass utilizing the reported wood species burnt. Wood consumption is interpolated and extrapolated from the three points (1996, 2006 and 2012) to the time series using statistical information on household wood-burning devices from (Statistics Canada, 1997; Statistics Canada, 2010; Tracey, 2016).

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3: Gulland (2000)

Pb, Cd, Hg, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f: (U.S. EPA, 1995)

Dioxins/furans: (EC, 2000)

Human

Description

Sources of ammonia emissions in the Human sector include respiration, perspiration, pharmaceutical use and infant-diapered waste.

Infant Diapered Waste is being considered for removal from future inventories. If you have any questions, please contact us at ec.iepa-apei.ec@canada.ca or 1-877-877-8375.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
NH3 and Hg

Respiration and perspiration

Annual population data by province/territory are multiplied by an NH3 emission factor

Infant-diapered waste

An annual estimate of the population aged 0-3 years by province/territory is multiplied by an NH3 emission factor

Activity data
Respiration and perspiration

Population data:  (Statistics Canada, Table 051-0001, n.d.) Infant-diapered waste:
Number of children aged 0-3 years by province/territory: (Statistics Canada, Table 051-0001, n.d.)

Emission factors (EF)

Respiration and perspiration and Infant-diapered waste:
NH3: Roe et al. (2004)

Service Stations

Description

Service Stations estimates covers fugitive VOC emissions from fuel transfers and storage from refined petroleum products retail, as well as fugitive emissions from the refuelling of on- and off-road vehicles.

Off-road refuelling emissions include all non-vehicle gasoline usage (lawn mowers, snow blowers, etc.).

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
VOCs

Refined petroleum products retail

Emissions are calculated using gasoline usage data multiplied by emission factors for underground tank filling and breathing.

For British Columbia and Ontario, emissions from service stations are broken down into regulated versus unregulated areas. An emission control efficiency of 50% is applied to the filling of underground storage tanks in regulated areas in British Columbia and Ontario. The rest of the country is assumed to have no control efficiency.

Off-road refuelling

Off-road refuelling emissions are calculated using off-road gasoline usage data multiplied by an emission factor for uncontrolled vehicle refuelling.

On-road refuelling

On-road refuelling estimates are produced using the MOVES model. This year’s estimates were made using MOVES2014. Vehicle-specific activity (vehicle kilometres travelled) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Refined petroleum products retail: Gross sales of gasoline for motor vehicles: (Statistics Canada, Table 23-10-0066-01, n.d.).

Off-road refuelling: Off-road gasoline usage data (ECCC, 2019)

On-road refuelling: Data on the vehicle fleet (counts), defined by fuel type, model-year and gross vehicle weight rating, originate from DesRosiers Automotive Consultants (DAC, 2017) and R. L. Polk & Co. (Polk & Co, 2017) for light- and heavy-duty vehicles, respectively.

Motorcycle populations originate from the Road motor vehicle, trailer and snowmobile registration database (Statistics Canada, Table 405-0001, n.d.). The Annual Industry Statistics report (MMIC, 2013) is used to estimate the age distribution of motorcycles by model year which is applied to motorcycle populations obtained from Statistics Canada. The actual activity level is vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT). To arrive at estimates of VKT, vehicle counts are multiplied by mileage accumulation rates from Stewart-Brown Associates (Stewart-Brown Associates, 2012).

Emission factors (EF)

Refined petroleum products retail and off-road refuelling: Evaporative emissions from gasoline service station operations (U.S. EPA, 2008)

On-road refuelling: Emission factors for on-road vehicles are embedded in the MOVES model. More information on MOVES is available online at www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/, in the U.S. EPA user guides (U.S. EPA, 2012; U.S. EPA, 2014) and in the U.S. EPA technical guidance document (U.S. EPA, 2010).

A2—6 References

Battye R, Battye W, Overcash C, Fudge S. (1994). Development and selection of ammonia emission factors. Durham (NC), Report No. EPA/600/R-94/190.

Canadian Facts. (1997). Residential fuelwood combustion in Canada: Volumes I, II, III, Hull (QC): Canadian Facts. Prepared for Environment Canada.

Canadian Facts. (2006). Residential fuelwood combustion in Canada, Unpublished report. Hull (QC): Canadian Facts. Prepared for Environment Canada.

[CARB] California Air Resources Board. (2005). California Air Toxics Emission Factor Database, [database on the Internet].

[CEA] Canadian Electricity Association. (2002). Perspectives: Understanding mercury.

Coe DL, Main HH, Chinkin LR, Loomis C, Wilkinson J. (1996). Review of current methodologies for estimating ammonia emissions, Draft final report. Santa Rosa (CA): Sonoma Technology. Report No. STI-95310-1580-DFR. Prepared for California Air Resources Board.

[DAC] DesRosiers Automotive Consultants. (2017). Census of vehicles in operation in Canada, Richmond Hill (ON). Prepared for Environment Canada

Ding YS, Trommel JS, Yan XJ, Ashley D, Watson CH. (2005). Determination of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from domestic cigarettes, Environ Sci Technol 39(2):471-78.

[EC] Environment Canada. (2010). Sulphur in liquid fuels, Gatineau (QC): Environment Canada, Oil, Gas and Alternative Energy Division. [PDF]

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2019). Off-road gasoline usage data from 1990 to 2018, Gatineau (QC): Environment and Climate Change Canada.

E.H. Pechan & Associates Inc. (2003). Methods for developing a national emission inventory for commercial cooking processes: Technical memorandum, Unpublished report. Springfield (VA): Pechan. Prepared for the U.S. EPA. [PDF]

Gray N, Boyle P. (2002). Heavy metals range of emissions from 26 selected brands, Ann Oncol (13):19-21.

Gulland J. (2000). Non-industrial fuel combustion sector: residential fuel wood combustion, Unpublished report. Gatineau (QC). Prepared for Environment Canada.

Health Canada. (2017). Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CTADS): 2015 supplementary tables, [database on the Internet]. Ottawa (ON) [revised 2017 Mar 13; accessed 2017 May 3].

[MMIC] Motorcycle & Moped Industry Council. (2013). Motorcycle, scooter & all-terrain vehicle annual industry statistics report, 2013, Markham (ON): MMIC.

Ott W, Lagan L, Switzert P. (1992). A time series model for cigarette smoking activity patterns: Model validation for carbon monoxide and respirable particles in a chamber and an automobile, J Exp Anal Epid 2:175-200.

Ott W, Switzer P, Robinson J. (1996). Particle concentrations inside a tavern before and after prohibition of smoking: evaluating the performance of an indoor air quality model, J Air Waste Manag Assoc 46:1120-34.

Polk & Co. (2017). Trucking Industry Profile Database, [unpublished database]. Polk & Co. Prepared for Environment Canada.

Roe SM, Spivey MD, Lindquist HC, Thesing KB, Strait RP, E.H Pechan & Associates Inc. (2004). Estimating ammonia emissions from anthropogenic nonagricultural sources –Draft final report, Unpublished report. U.S EPA, Emission Inventory Improvement Program. [PDF]

Statistics Canada. (1997). Products shipped by Canadian manufacturers (1995), Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada. Catalogue No.: 31-211-XPB.

Statistics Canada. (2010). Spending patterns in Canada (2009), Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada. Catalogue No.: 62-202-X. [PDF]

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Report on energy supply and demand in Canada (Annual), Catalogue No. 57 003 X.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 23-10-0066-01 (formerly CANSIM 405-0002) Sales of fuel used for road motor vehicles, annual (x 1,000), (database).

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 051-0001 Estimates of population, by age group and sex for July 1, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (persons unless otherwise noted), CANSIM (database) [last updated 2016 Sep 27; accessed 2017 Feb 2].

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 379-0019 Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), monthly (dollars x 1,000,000), CANSIM (database) [last updated 2007 Sep 27; accessed 2016 Jun 2].

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 405-0001 Road motor vehicle, trailer and snowmobile registration, CANSIM (database).

Stewart-Brown Associates. (2012). Kilometre Accumulation Rates in British Columbia and Ontario, Abbotsford (BC). Prepared for Environment Canada.

The NPD Group Inc. (2017). ReCount Restaurant Census, 1999 - . [database]. Table of Outlet Name, City, Province, Postal Code, Census Region, Segment, Group, Category, System Type, Sales Volume Range, Estimated Annual Sales (000), North York (ON): NPD Group.

TNS Canada. (2012). Residential fuelwood combustion in Canada, Unpublished report. Ottawa (ON): TNS Canada. Prepared for Natural Resources Canada.

Tracey K. (2016). Residential fuelwood combustion in Canada, Unpublished report. Gatineau (QC): Environment Canada, Pollutant Inventories and Reporting Division.

[USDA FAS] United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service. (2015). Canada potatoes and potato products annual 2015, Unpublished report. Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN). Report No. CA15085.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1995). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

[EC] Environment Canada. (2000). Characterization of organic compounds from selected residential wood stoves and fuels, Unpublished report. Ottawa (ON).

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2003). Draft Dioxin Reassessment.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2004). Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds, Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences (External Review Draft). Report No. EPA/600/P-00/001Cb.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2004). WebFIRE. Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System, Clearinghouse for Inventories & Emission Factors.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). SPECIATE 4.2: Speciation database development documentation, Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Research and Development. Report No. EPA/600-R-09/038.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Technical guidance on the use of MOVES2010 for emission inventory preparation in state implementation plans and transportation conformity, Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No. EPA-420-B-10-023. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). User guide for MOVES2010b, Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Report No. EPA-420-B-12-001b. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). User guide for MOVES2014, Washington (DC). Report No. EPA-420-B-14-055. [PDF]

Wallace L, Pellizzari E, Hartwell TD, Perritt R, Ziegenfus R. (1987). Exposures to benzene and other volatile compounds from active and passive smoking, Arch Environ Health 42(5):272-279.

A2—7: Estimation methodologies for Incineration and Waste by sector/subsector

Crematoriums

Description

Crematoriums cover emissions from the combustion of caskets and human bodies.

The combustion of fuel associated with the operation of a crematorium furnace or crematory fire is excluded from the sector. Fuel combustion emissions from cremations are captured under the Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion sector. In-house estimates do not cover animal cremation, as these emissions are reported through the NPRI.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, CO, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p, HCB

Number of human cremations per year by province/territory is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Activity data for the years 2002 to 2018 is obtained from annual reports produced by the Cremation Association of North America (CANA). The CANA Annual Statistics Report 2012: Executive Summary (CANA, 2013) covers 2002 to 2007 and the CANA Annual Statistics Report (CANA, 2019) includes data from 2008 to 2018. Given the unavailability of data for some years, emission estimates are calculated using linear interpolation for all provinces/territories for the year 2001 to 2002, and as well as Quebec for the years 2002 to 2007.

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5: (U.S. EPA, 2014)
VOCs, HCB: (EEA, 2013)
SOx, NOx, CO:  (EEA, 2009)
Hg, Cd, Pb:  (U.S. EPA, 2014)
Dioxins/furans:  (U.S. EPA, 2014)
B(a)p, B(b)f, B(b)k, I(cd)p: (U.S. EPA, 2014)

An average weight per body and casing of approximately 150 lbs. is assumed.

Sewage Sludge Incineration (under Waste Incineration)

Description

Sewage Sludge Incineration involves the incineration of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment facilities.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p

The volume of sewage sludge is multiplied by default emission factors.

Activity data

Activity data is developed based on Environment and Climate Change Canada surveys (ECCC, 2018).

Emission factors (EF)

TPM, PM10, PM2.5, Cd, Pb, Hg, D/F, NOx, SOx, NH3, CO, VOC: (EEA, EMEP/EEA, 2016)

Municipal Incineration (under Waste Incineration)

Description

Municipal Incineration involves the incineration of domestic waste, as well as non-hazardous and industrial waste.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, Cd, CO, dioxins/furans ,HCB, Hg, NH3, NOx, Pb, SOx, VOCs

Methodology under review.

Activity data

Methodology under review.

Emission factors (EF)

Methodology under review.

Landfills (under Waste Treatment and Disposal)

Description

Landfills include emissions from bulk non-hazardous waste disposed of in landfills across Canada. Materials deposited into landfills are covered daily with soil to prevent scattering of litter by wind, scavenging by animals, and odours. As a result, PM emissions are due to wind erosion, the movement of heavy vehicles and the dumping of waste.

VOC emissions are emitted as a small component of landfill gas (LFG) generated by the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste within the landfill.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs

The quantity of waste landfilled for each province/territory is multiplied by PM emission factors to determine the amount of PM released.

VOC emissions are calculated as a concentration of the total fugitive landfill gas released, derived from CH4 emissions.

Activity data

The tonnage of waste landfilled is calculated on the basis of the total amount of waste disposed by province as reported by Statistics Canada (Statistics Canada, n.d.), the amount of waste exported out of the province, and the amount of waste incinerated. Landfilled waste is assumed to be any disposed waste that is not exported or incinerated. Where landfill data is available directly from provincial sources, it is integrated into the activity data set.

The provincial CH4 emissions calculated for Canada's NIR are used to estimate VOC emissions for the APEI. CH4 emissions are calculated using a First Order Decay model, as described in the NIR.

Emission factors (EF)

TPM: BCMELP (1997)

PM10, PM2.5: (GVRD & FVRD, 2003). The EFPM10 is calculated using a distribution percentage of 8% of the EFTPM. The EFPM2.5 is calculated using a distribution percentage of 2% of the EFTPM.

VOCs: (U.S. EPA, 1995). The default concentration of VOC in landfill gas is 835 ppmv.

Residential Waste Burning (under Waste Incineration)

Description

Emissions from Residential Waste Burning are related to on-site burning of residential waste materials in backyard barrels or to open-pit burning in rural areas.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p, HCB

Methodology under review.

Activity data

Methodology under review.

Emission factors (EF)

Methodology under review.

A2—7 References

[BCMELP] British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. (1997). British Columbia inventory of common air contaminants emitted in 1995 from miscellaneous area sources outside of the Lower Fraser Valley, Victoria (BC): BCMELP.

[CANA] Cremation Association of North America. (2013). Annual CANA statistics report 2012: Executive summary. Retrieved 2016 Aug 11. [PDF]

[CANA] Cremation Association of North America. (2018). Annual CANA statistics report.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2018). Waste Incineration in Canada 1990-2018 - A summary of findings from Surveys Conducted in 2006-2018. Gatineau: Unpublished report.

[EEA] European Environment Agency. (2009). EMEP/EEA Air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009, Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. Part B: Sectoral guidance chapters. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

[EEA] European Environment Agency. (2013). EMEP/EEA Air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2013, Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Technical Report No. 12/2013.

[EEA] European Environment Agency. (2016). EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2016. Technical Guidance to Prepare National Emission Inventories, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Technical Report No. 21/2016.

[GVRD] Greater Vancouver Regional District, [FVRD] Fraser Valley Regional District. (2003). 2000 emission inventory for the Canadian portion of the Lower Fraser Valley airshed – detailed listing of results and methodology, Burnaby (BC): Greater Vancouver Regional District.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Table 153-0041 Disposal of waste, by source, Canada, provinces and territories, every 2 years (tonnes), CANSIM (database) [accessed 2017 Oct].

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1995). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). WebFIRE [database on the Internet], Durham (NC): Technology Transfer Network Clearinghouse for Inventories & Emissions Factors.

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