Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: annex 3

Recalculations

Emission recalculation is an essential practice in the maintenance of up-to-date and consistent trends in air pollutant emissions. The Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory (APEI) is continuously updated with improved estimation methodologies, statistics and more recent and appropriate emission factors. As new information and data become available, previous estimates are updated and recalculated to ensure a consistent and comparable trend in emissions. Circumstances that warrant a change or refinement of data and/or methods include:

Resubmissions of facility-reported data previously reported to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) can also result in revised historical estimates. Generally, these recalculations by facilities are completed for only a few years in their historical emissions.

In contrast, new activity data are incorporated into the in-house estimates as they become available, and these updates are reflected in the trends on an ongoing basis. Updated trends, based on updated facility-reported data and in-house estimates, are published on a yearly basis. For example, the calculation of emissions from commercial fuel combustion, residential fuel combustion, agricultural fuel use and construction fuel combustion sectors rely on the latest fuel use quantities from the Statistics Canada annual publication Report on Energy Supply and Demand in Canada (RESD) (Statistics Canada, RESD, n.d.).

The following in-house emissions estimates were recalculated for the 2020 edition of the APEI. Brief Descriptions of the recalculations and the impacts on emission levels are provided in Table A3–1 to Table A3–11.

For the purpose of Table A3–1 to Table A3–11, the term “significant” refers to changes greater than ±10% in emission levels.

Table A3–1: Recalculations for Ore and Mineral Industries
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Secondary (Electric Arc Furnaces) (under Iron and Steel Industry) Hg Recalculations of Hg occurred due to changes in Hg in Products model and the detection of an error in the reconciliation of values throughout the time series. This resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 1990 through 2017 for Hg. The differences ranged from -0.16 tonnes to +0.20 t or -62% to +516% (largest difference was for the year 2008).
Table A3–2: Recalculations for Oil and Gas Industry
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Natural Gas Distribution (under Downstream Oil and Gas Industry) TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO Recalculations of TPM and PM10 occurred from 2003 through 2013 as a result of improved allocation of NPRI data to the Oil and Gas Industry subsectors and corrections to the distribution of particulate matter emissions. Recalculations for all pollutants occurred in 2016 and 2017 as a result of updated activity data (Statistics Canada, 2019). This resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 2003 through 2017 for PM10 (largest difference in 2005: +12.8 t, 57.3%), from 2009 through 2017 for TPM (largest difference in 2010: -0.2 t, -16.2%). All other pollutants had recalculations in 2016 and 2017 and did not result in emissions changes greater than ±10%.
Accidents and Equipment Failures (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) VOCs Recalculations occurred from 2013 through 2017 as a result of updated activity data. ([CNLOPB] Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board, 2019; [SKMER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources, 2019; [CAPP] Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, 2019).

The recalculations did not result in changes greater than ±10% in any of the impacted years.

Disposal and Waste Treatment (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) VOCs, CO, NOx, PM2.5, PM10, TPM Recalculations occurred from 1990 through 2010 as a result of methodological changes to flaring emission estimates. The recalculations resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 1990 through 2010 for: VOCs (largest difference in 1992: +8.7 t, +76%), CO (largest difference in 1992: +93.6 t, +5293%), NOx (largest difference in 1992: +17.2 t, +422%), and PM2.5, PM10, and TPM (largest difference in 1992: +33.5 t, +25223%).
Heavy Crude Oil Cold Production (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) VOCs, SOx, PM2.5, PM10, TPM Recalculations occurred from 1990 through 1999 as a result of methodological changes to flaring emission estimates. The recalculations resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 1990 through 1999 for: SOx (largest difference in 1997: -122.8 t, -20.2%), and PM2.5, PM10, and TPM (largest difference in 1997: -179.7 t, -17.7%). The recalculations did not result in changes greater than ±10% for any other pollutants.
Light Medium Crude Oil Production (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3 Recalculations occurred from 1990 through 2017, as a result of updated flaring activity data (CNLOPB. Personal communication (email from CNLOPB to S. Smyth [Pollutant Inventories and Reporting Division (PIRD), ECCC] dated 2019 October 11); [BCOGC] British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission. Personal communication (email from BCOGC to S. Smyth [PIRD, ECCC] dated 2019 October 10) and methodological changes to flaring emission estimates. The recalculations resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 1990 through 2017 for SOx (largest difference in 1997: -4153.0 t, -21.0%). For all other pollutants, this recalculation did not result in changes greater than ±10%.
Natural Gas Production and Processing (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) CO, NOx, VOCs, SOx, TPM, PM10, PM2.5 Recalculations occurred from 1990 through 2017 as a result of updated flaring activity data (BCOGC. Personal communication (email from BCOGC to S. Smyth [PIRD, ECCC] dated 2019 October 10) and methodological changes to flaring emission estimates. This resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 1990 through 2017 for TPM, PM10, and PM2.5 (largest difference in 1997: -315.7 t, -12.3%). The recalculations did not result in changes greater than ±10% for any of the other pollutants.
Natural Gas Transmission and Storage (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO Recalculations occurred from 2002 through 2017 as a result of corrections to the distribution of particulate matter emissions, and improved allocation of NPRI data to Oil and Gas Industry subsectors. Recalculations for all pollutants occurred in 2017 as a result of updated activity data. (Statistics Canada, 2019). This resulted in changes to emissions at the national level in 2012 for SOx (difference of -63.2 t, -26.7%), from 2002 through 2017 for PM10 (largest difference in 2015: -18.2 t, -17.4%) and TPM (largest difference in 2011: -83.3 t, -46.9%). For all other pollutants, this recalculation did not result in an emissions change of greater than ±10%.
Oil Sands In-Situ Extraction (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO Recalculations occurred from 1990 through 2017 as a result of corrections to the distribution of particulate matter emissions and methodological changes to flaring emission estimates. This resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 1990 through 2017 for TPM (largest difference in 1997: -73.7 t, -14.3%), from 1990 through 2016 for PM10 (largest difference in 1997: -72.0 t, -14.0%) and PM2.5 (largest difference in 1997: -73.7 t, -14.3%). For all other pollutants, this recalculation did not result in an emissions change of greater than ±10%.
Petroleum Liquids Storage (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) VOCs, TPM, PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx, Pb, Cd, B(a)p, B(p)f, HCB, B(k)f, I(1,2,3-cd)p Recalculations occurred from 2002 through 2017 as a result of updates to the reported NPRI data and improved allocation of NPRI data to the Oil and Gas Industry subsectors. Unsubstantiated air toxic emissions legacy data was removed for the year 2004. The recalculations resulted in changes to emissions from 2012 through 2017 for VOCs (largest difference in 2013: +909.0 t, +14.5%) and PM10 (largest difference in 2012: +11.2 t, +62.6%), from 2004 through 2017 for TPM (largest difference in 2012: +44.1 t, +88.8%), from 2003 through 2017 for PM2.5 (largest difference in 2009: +3.0 t, +20.9%). From 2002 through 2012 for CO and from 2006 through 2010 for NOx, emissions were previously zero. Data removal resulted in emissions in 2004 becoming zero for Pb, Cd, HCB, and PAHs.
Petroleum Liquids Transportation (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) TPM, PM10, PM2.5, NOx, VOCs, CO Recalculations occurred from 1990 through 2010 as a result of updated flaring activity data. (BCOGC. Personal communication [email from BCOGC to S. Smyth (PIRD, ECCC) dated 2019 October 10]) and corrections to the distribution of particulate matter emissions. This resulted in changes to emissions at the national level from 1990 through 2004 for PM2.5 (largest difference in 2001: +5.3 t, +39.6%), PM10 (largest difference in 2001: +5.3 t, +31.2%), CO (largest difference in 2001: +14.9 t, 628%), and NOx (largest difference in 2001: +2.7 t, 628%. Emissions changed from 1990 through 2010 for TPM (largest difference in 2001: +5.3 t, +32.0%). This recalculation did not result in an emissions change of greater than ±10% for VOCs.
Oil Sands Mining, Extraction and Upgrading (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) TPM, PM2.5 Recalculations occurred from 2002 through 2017 as a result of corrections to the distribution of particulate matter emissions. This resulted in changes to emissions at the national level in 2002 for PM2.5 (difference of -389.5t, -19.9%). This recalculation did not result in an emissions change of greater than ±10% for TPM.
Well Drilling/Servicing/Testing (under Upstream Oil and Gas Industry) TPM, PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx Updated flaring activity data for Well Drilling (BCOGC. Personal communication [email from BCOGC to S. Smyth (PIRD, ECCC) dated 2019 October 10]) resulted in recalculations for the years 2012 to 2017, while methodological changes to Well Testing flaring emission estimates resulted in recalculations between 1996 and 2017. These recalculations resulted in changes to emissions from 1996 through 2017 for PM2.5, PM10, and TPM (largest difference in 2017: -114.5 t, -44.0%), CO (largest difference in 2017: -319.7 t, -43.5%), and NOx (largest difference in 2017: -58.7 t, -35.9%).
Table A3–3: Recalculations for Manufacturing
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Bakeries VOCs Updated population and bakeries activity data were used for 1990–2017 estimates.

The recalculations resulted in minor changes in emissions for 2001–2017 for VOCs (largest difference in 2017: +58 t or +1%; for the other years, i.e. 2001 to 2016, differences were < ±0.69 t or ±0.01%).

Wood Products TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p.

The recalculations were done using updated facility data reported to provinces and NPRI facility-reported data from 1990 to 2017.

The recalculations resulted in changes in emission levels (> ±10%) for PM2.5 for 2006, 2011 to 2013 and 2016 to 2017; NOx for 2004; VOCs from 2002 to 2017;Cd from 2011 to 2013; dioxins/furans for 2002 and from 2004 to 2006; HCB for 2007 and 2013; Hg from 2012 to 2013; and SOx from 1990 to 2005 and 2009.
Table A3–4: Recalculations for Transportation and Mobile Equipment
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Fuel Description Impact on emissions
Air Transportation

B(a)p, B(b)f,
B(k)f, I(cd)p,
CO, NH3, Pb,
TPM, PM10,
PM2.5, VOCs,
NOx, SOx

Aviation Turbo Fuel,

Aviation Gasoline

Civil emissions from the cruise segment of each flight were removed from the report total in order to conform with the national total reported in the NFR table.

The percent of sulphur in each fuel type was updated with the most recent data.

The overall air transportation emissions are not significantly impacted.

The change in reporting for 1990 resulted in significant changes in the emissions of
TPM (-54% or -389 t),
PM10 (-54% or -389 t),
PM2.5 (‑59% or -379 t),
SOx (-85% or -4490 t),
VOCs (-46% or ‑2390 t),
CO (-14% or ‑8540 t),
NOx (-87% or ‑45 kilotonne),
NH3 (-83% or ‑24 t),
Pb (‑70% or -54.4 t),
B(a)p (-29% or -0.60 kilogram),
B(b)f (-33% or -1.17 kg),
B(k)f (‑33% or -1.17 kg), and
I(cd)p (-36% or -1.27 kg).

The change in reporting for 2017 resulted in significant changes in the emissions of
TPM (-64% or -640 t),
PM10 (-64% or -640 t),
PM2.5 (‑69% or -632 t),
SOx (-93% or -6170 t),
VOCs (-63% or ‑3860 t),
CO (-23% or ‑11.7 kt),
NOx (-92% or ‑74 kt),
NH3 (-88% or ‑35 t),
Pb (‑37% or -11.8 t),
B(a)p (-59% or -0.92 kg),
B(b)f (-62% or -1.81 kg),
B(k)f (‑62% or -1.81 kg), and
I(cd)p (-64% or -1.96 kg).

Marine Transportation B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p, TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, D/F Heavy Fuel Oil, Diesel Fuel Oil

Provincial estimates were redeveloped based on port origin/destination pairs

The recalculations will only impact the emissions of individual provinces and not the national total.
Table A3–5: Recalculations for Agriculture
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Animal Production NH3 Corrections were made to the nitrogen excretion rates of minor animal categories (fox, mink, rabbit), and adjustments to the ecodistrict distribution of animals. The changes resulted in minor recalculations for all years.
Crop Production NH3

Recalculations are due to:

A methodology for estimating ammonia emissions from land-applied sewage sludge (i.e. biosolids), was added as a new subcategory of crop production.
Emission for this new source were 2.6 kt in 1990, 3.7 kt in 2005, and 5.1 kt in 2017.
Crop Production NH3 Corrections to inorganic N fertilizer data for years 2013–2017. Emissions of NH3 decreased by 11.3 kt (-7%) in 2017, but recalculations were minor in other years.
Fuel Use TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/ furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p, HCB

The activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.

The recalculations did not result in changes in emission levels for any of the pollutants in 1990.

For the year 2017, pollutant emissions changed by less than ±10%.

Table A3–6: Recalculations for Commercial/Residential/Institutional
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p, HCB

The activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.

The recalculations did not result in changes in emission levels for any of the pollutants in 1990.

For the year 2017, pollutant emissions changed by less than ±10%.

Construction Fuel Combustion TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p, HCB

The activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.

The recalculations did not result in changes in emission levels of greater than 10% for any of the pollutants in 1990.

For the year 2017, pollutant emissions changed by less than ±10%.

Residential Fuel Combustion TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B(a)p, B(b)f, B(k)f, I(cd)p, HCB The activity data have been updated to a more recent edition of the RESD.

The recalculations did not result in changes in emission levels for any of the pollutants in 1990.

For the year 2017, HCB changed by 100%. The remaining pollutant emissions changed by less than ±10% in 2017.

Service Stations VOCs The activity data has been updated to a more recent version of the source data.

At the national level, recalculations did not result in changes of emissions levels greater than 3% over the entire time series.

For the year 2017, VOCs changed by less than 0.1% (23 tonnes).
Table A3–7: Recalculations for Incineration and Waste Sources
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Waste Incineration Cd, CO, D/F, Hg, NH3, NOX, Pb, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, TPM, VOCs

Changes affecting estimates are a result of updating incineration activity data for the complete 1990-2018 time series using information collected in the ECCC waste incineration surveys, the re-classification of several incinerators into the Other Incineration subcategory, and the removal of the in-house model for the Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional incineration sector in favor of using facility data. In addition, the mercury in products model was implemented for the sewage sludge incineration sector resulting in an increase in mercury emissions.

At a national level, the recalculations for 1990-2017 years ranged from -45% to +87% for mercury emissions, 0% to +365% for HCB emissions and -80% to -32% for lead emissions.

Table A3–8: Recalculations for Mercury in Products
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Ore and Mineral Industries Hg

The estimation methodologies for mercury in products have been updated from 2009 forward for two product types, namely fluorescent and non-fluorescent lamps. In addition, distribution of emissions to provinces and territories from 1990 to 2008 have been re-allocated based on product type for time series consistency with the update done by ChemInfo Services in 2018. Distribution of emissions to the provinces and territories for open burning, sewage sludge incineration and municipal incineration have been updated for the full time series to better reflect the provinces that use these practices. Recalculations for municipal incineration also occurred.

Please note that mercury in products Hg emissions are reconciled with point source emissions before publication.

At the national level the recalculations resulted in a 0% to 10% change for 1990 and a 0% to 40% for 2017.  

Manufacturing Hg

The estimation methodologies for mercury in products have been updated from 2009 forward for two product types, namely fluorescent and non-fluorescent lamps. In addition, distribution of emissions to provinces and territories from 1990 to 2008 have been re-allocated based on product type for time series consistency with the update done by ChemInfo Services in 2018. Distribution of emissions to the provinces and territories for open burning, sewage sludge incineration and municipal incineration have been updated for the full time series to better reflect the provinces that use these practices. Recalculations for municipal incineration also occurred.

Please note that mercury in products Hg emissions are reconciled with point source emissions before publication.

At the national level the recalculations resulted in a 0% to 10% change for 1990 and a 0% to 40% for 2017.  

Commercial / Residential / Institutional Hg

The estimation methodologies for mercury in products have been updated from 2009 forward for two product types, namely fluorescent and non-fluorescent lamps. In addition, distribution of emissions to provinces and territories from 1990 to 2008 have been re-allocated based on product type for time series consistency with the update done by ChemInfo Services in 2018. Distribution of emissions to the provinces and territories for open burning, sewage sludge incineration and municipal incineration have been updated for the full time series to better reflect the provinces that use these practices. Recalculations for municipal incineration also occurred.

Please note that mercury in products Hg emissions are reconciled with point source emissions before publication.

At the national level the recalculations resulted in a 0% to 10% change for 1990 and a 0% to 40% for 2017.  

Incineration and Waste Hg

The estimation methodologies for mercury in products have been updated from 2009 forward for two product types, namely fluorescent and non-fluorescent lamps. In addition, distribution of emissions to provinces and territories from 1990 to 2008 have been re-allocated based on product type for time series consistency with the update done by ChemInfo Services in 2018. Distribution of emissions to the provinces and territories for open burning, sewage sludge incineration and municipal incineration have been updated for the full time series to better reflect the provinces that use these practices. Recalculations for municipal incineration also occurred.

Please note that mercury in products Hg emissions are reconciled with point source emissions before publication.
At the national level the recalculations resulted in a 0% to 10% change for 1990 and a 0% to 40% for 2017.  
Table A3–9: Recalculations for Dust
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Mine Tailings Dust TPM, PM10, PM2.5

The activity data has been completely recalculated. Originally derived from Murray et. al. (1977), tailings areas are now determined mapping of mine disturbance areas for 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018 using supervised classification of landsat-5, Landat-8 and Sentinel satellite imagery (Fuentes et al., 2019).

The emission factors calculations have been corrected: an error in the Thornthwaite P-E index in the original source (Evans and Cooper, 1980) and a unit error in calculations have been corrected.

The emission factor climate correction factor, C, has been updated to include annually and provincially resolved climate correction factors (formerly static eastern/western Canada). The emission factor calculations also now include a correction for snow cover.

1990: TPM changed from 58 000 to 1 300 t, PM10 changed from 4 600 to 1 100 t, PM2.5 changed from 1 200 to 270 t (decreases of 41% to 97%, varying by pollutant).

2016: TPM changed from 32 000 to 2 900 t PM10 changed from 2 600 t to 2 300 PM2.5 changed from 700 to 580 t (decreases of 17% to 90%, varying by pollutant).

Paved Roads TPM, PM10, PM2.5

Previously, the emissions were last estimated for 2002 and were carried forward to 2017. The method used up to 2002 was based on the 1995 version of the US EPA AP-42 road dust model (Section 13.2.1 of U.S. EPA, 1995)

The method has been updated to the most recent AP-42 model, the 2011 update (Section 13.2.1 of U.S. EPA, 2011), which includes the removal of tailpipe, break-wear and tire-wear emissions from the road dust model. The application of silt-load factors based on traffic volumes of different road types, see Annex 2.2 for a further description of the update.

1990: TPM changed from 2 982 000 t to 495 000 t (83% decrease), PM10 changed from 470 000 to 95 034 (80% decrease), PM2.5 changed from 112 000 to 22 992 (7% decrease).

2017: TPM changed from 2 982 000 t to 412 109  t (86% decrease). PM10 changed from 572 000 t to 79 104 (86% decrease), PM2.5 changed from 137 000 t to 19 138 (86% decrease).

Unpaved Roads TPM, PM10, PM2.5

See Paved Roads for a description of the method change. The contribution of dust from unpaved private roads and private parking areas remains unchanged—it is the reported values from the NPRI.

1990: TPM changed from 5 999 000 to 8 181 421 t (27% increase). PM10 changed from 1 902 000 to 2 312 132 t (18% increase). PM2.5 changed from 283 000 to 230 197 t (19% decrease).

2017: TPM changed from 7 935 000 to 8 181 421 t (3% increase). PM10 changed from 2 489 000 to 4 070 851 t (64% increase). PM2.5 changed from 364 000 to 405 329 t (11% increase).

Table A3–10: Recalculations for Solvent Related Sectors
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
General Solvent Use VOCs Facilities under the NPRI were reviewed and re-distributed as needed by sector in 2019 for the APEI, from 2005 forward.

At the national level the recalculation did not result in more than ± 10% change in 2005. A 16% increase was observed for 2017.

Printing VOCs Facilities under the National Pollutant Release Inventory were reviewed and re-distributed as needed by sector in 2019 for the APEI, from 2005 forward.

At the national level the recalculation did not result in more than ± 10% change in 2005. A 16% increase was observed for 2017.

Surface Coatings VOCs

Facilities under the National Pollutant Release Inventory were reviewed and re-distributed as needed by sector in 2019 for the APEI, from 2005 forward.

At the national level the recalculation did not result in more than ± 10% change in 2005. A 16% increase was observed for 2017.

Dry Cleaning VOCs Facilities under the National Pollutant Release Inventory were reviewed and re-distributed as needed by sector in 2019 for the APEI, from 2005 forward. At the national level the recalculation did not result in more than ± 10% change in 2005. A 16% increase was observed for 2017.
Table A3–11: Recalculations for Silica Production
Sector/subsector Pollutant(s) Description Impact on emissions
Silica Production TPM, PM10, PM2.5 The activity data that is used to estimate emissions for this sector is provided in part from Natural Resources Canada. In some cases, the data is suppressed for provinces or territories due to confidentiality reasons. In the past, the missing data was estimated by using employment sector data from Statistics Canada. For this submission, the missing data was estimated based on a population distribution for the full time series to reduce the complexity of this estimation methodology.

At the national level the recalculations did not result in a significant change.  

References—Annex 3

[CAPP] Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. (2019). Statistical Handbook - Operating wells, [cited 2019 Sep 11].

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019). Environment statistics: Spill frequency and volume annual summary, [revised 2019 Jan 15; cited 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

Evans and Cooper. (1980). An Inventory of Particulate Emissions from Open Sources, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 30:12, 1298-1303, DOI: 10.1080/00022470.1980.10465188.

Fuentes M, Millard K, Laurin E. (2019). Big geospatial data analysis for Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory (APEI): using google earth engine to estimate particulate matter from exposed mine disturbance areas, GIScience & Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/15481603.2019.1695407.

Murray et al. (1977). PIT SLOPE MANUAL, Supplement 10-1, Reclamation by Vegetation, Vol 2 – Mine Waste Inventory by Satellite Imagery. Mining Research Laboratories, Energy Mines and Resources Canada.

[SKMER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources. (2019). Saskatchewan upstream oil and gas IRIS incident report, [revised 2019 Jul 3; cited 2019 Jul 3].

Statistics Canada. (2019). Gas Pipeline Distance, by Province. Unpublished data.

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Report on energy supply and demand in Canada (Annual), Catalogue No. 57 003 X.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1995). Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, 5th Edition. Research Triangle Park (NC): Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. 

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth Edition, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources, Section 13.2.1, Paved Roads. Research Triangle Park, NC. January 2011.

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