Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: annex 4

Submission to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

A4.1 Introduction

Canada reports on atmospheric emissions of air pollutants to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) through the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) pursuant to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and its associated protocols. Table A4–1 lists the atmospheric pollutants for which annual emissions are reported to the UNECE, along with the corresponding protocols under CLRTAP.

Table A4-1: Pollutant emissions reported to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and related protocols under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
Pollutant Relevant protocols under the CLRTAP Protocol obligation
SOx 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012)

1999 Gothenburg Protocol

1994 Oslo Protocol


1985 Helsinki Protocol
Reduction of SO2 emissions by 63% from 2005 levels by 2020

2010 emissions ceiling of 1.45 million tonnes

Maintain SOx emissions (excluding natural sources) in the regional Sulphur Oxides Management Area (SOMA) below 1.8 million tonnes

Reduction of SOx emissions by at least 30 percent from 1980 levels
NOx 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012)

1999 Gothenburg Protocol

1988 Sofia Protocol
Reduction of NOx emissions by 41% from 2005 levels by 2020

2010 emissions ceiling of 2.25 million tonnes

Stabilize (not exceed) 1987 NOx level
VOCs 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012)

1999 Gothenburg Protocol
Reduction of VOC emissions by 19% from 2005 levels by 2020

2010 emissions ceiling of 2.1 million tonnes
PM2.5 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012) Reduction of PM2.5 emissions by 26% from 2005 levels by 2020 (excluding road dust, construction operations, and crop production)
NH3 1999 Gothenburg Protocol Emission reporting
Pb 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals 50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011
Cd 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals 50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011
Hg 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals 50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011
D/F 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
B(a)p 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
B(b)f 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
B(k)f 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
I(cd)p 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
HCB 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

This edition of the Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory (APEI) Report summarizes the most recent estimates of air pollutant emissions for 1990–2018 as of February 2020. The inventory indicates that 14 of the 17 reported air pollutants show decreases compared to historical levels, and specifically indicate that:

Despite significant decreases since 1990, emissions of some pollutants, including Pb and PM2.5 have begun to rise again in recent years.

In addition, a 39% increase in total particulate matter (TPM) and 30% increase in coarse particulate matter (PM10) emissions since 1990 contrast with the general trends described above. Another exception to the general downward trends is the steady increase in emissions of ammonia (NH3), which were 21% above 1990 levels in 2018; the upward trend in ammonia emissions is driven by fertilizer application and animal production.

Irrespective of the downward trends observed in Canadian emissions, air quality issues may still arise when emissions sources are spatially concentrated. While the APEI provides valuable information on emissions within Canada, it does not distinguish localized sources of emissions within the provincial and territorial level aggregations.

A4.2 Overview of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe reporting template

The UNECE Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) categories correspond to the sectors described in the EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2019 (EEA, 2019). In addition to providing technical guidance for developing inventory methodologies, the 2019 EMEP/EEA guidebook includes instructions for attributing sectoral emissions to NFR codes.

Whereas the APEI report groups emissions by sectors (e.g. pulp and paper industry), the emissions in the UNECE are grouped by process and combustion sources. For example, the pulp and paper industry within the APEI includes both combustion and process emissions. The combustion component is mapped to NFR sector 1A2d (Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Pulp, Paper and Print). The process component is mapped to NFR sector 2H1 (Pulp and paper industry).

Table A4–2 illustrates the structure of the UNECE reporting template. The template in its entirety can be found on the CEIP website.

Table A4-2:  Excerpt from United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Nomenclature for Reporting 14 reporting template for 2019
(Annex 1: National sector emissions: Main pollutants, particulate matter, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants )

NFR Aggregation
for gridding and LPS1 (GNFR)2

NFR sectors to be reported – NFR Code NFR sectors to be reported
– Longname
NFR sectors to be reported – Notes Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – NOx
(as NO2) (kt)
Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – NMVOC (kt)
Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – SOx
(as SO2) (kt)
Main Pollutants
(from 1990) – NH3 (kt)
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – PM2.5 (kt)
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – PM10 (kt)
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – TSP (kt)
Particulate Matter
(from 2000) – BC (kt)
Other
(from 1990) – CO (kt)
Other
(from 1990)
– HCB (kg)

A_PublicPower

1 A 1 a

Public electricity and heat production

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 1 b

Petroleum refining

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 1 c

Manufacture of solid fuels and other energy industries

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 a

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Iron and steel

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 b

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 c

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Chemicals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 d

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Pulp, Paper and Print

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 e

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Food processing, beverages and tobacco

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 f

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-metallic minerals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

I_Offroad

1 A 2 g vii

Mobile combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: (please specify in your IIR)

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 g viii

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Other (please specify in your IIR)

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

Notes:

1. LPS = large point source

2. GNFR = gridded nomenclature for reporting

A4.3 Mapping of Air Pollutant Emission Inventory emissions to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Nomenclature for Reporting categories

The mapping of APEI sector emissions to UNECE NFR categories involves dividing the sector emissions into their combustion and process components. Whereas certain sectors contribute solely a process component (in the case of road dust) or combustion component (in the case of mobile sources), the majority of sectoral emissions are distributed over both components. This is accomplished using a split ratio, which, apart from a small number of exceptions, is assigned to a particular subsector and pollutant. For example, in the alumina production sector, all Hg, CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and VOC emissions are attributed to combustion activities, while the remaining pollutants are attributed to both the bauxite refining process and combustion activities (Table A4–3).

Table A4-3: Example of Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Subsector mapping to a United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Nomenclature for Reporting Category
APEI Subsector UNECE NFR Category – Combustion UNECE NFR Category – Process Pollutant Split ratios (w/w) – Combustion Split ratios (w/w) – Process

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

TPM

0.229

0.771

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

PM10

0.290

0.710

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

PM2.5

0.352

0.648

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

SOx

1.000

0.000

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

NOx

0.746

0.254

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

CO

1.000

0.000

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

VOCs

1.000

0.000

Alumina (Bauxite Refining)

1A2b: Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

2C3: Aluminium production

Hg

1.000

0.000

A4.4 Reporting international marine and aviation transportation emissions

The APEI reports marine and aviation differently than NFR tables.  While the overall total of emissions for these sectors are the same, the allocation into different categories are different. 

Marine values in this report include all emissions occurring in one category since they occur within Canadian waters (i.e. 200 nautical mile from Canada’s coastline). However, in the NFR table fishing operations are reported under 1A4ciii - Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: National fishing and, military operations are reported under 1A5b - Other, Mobile (including military, land based and recreational boats). All other marine activity is reported under 1A3dii - National navigation (shipping) regardless if it is a domestic or international voyage. No values are reported under 1A3di(ii) - International inland waterways and 1A3di(i) - International maritime navigation.

Similarly, the NFR table has five categories for aviation:  1a3ai(i) - International aviation landing/take-offs (LTO) (civil), 1A3ai(ii) - International aviation cruise (civil), 1A3aii(i) - Domestic aviation LTO (civil), 1A3aii(ii) - Domestic aviation cruise (civil), and 1A5b - Other, Mobile (including military, land based and recreational boats). Only the civil LTO cycles (1A3ai(i) and 1A3aii(i)) and military flights (1A5b) are included in this report. The emissions attributed to the cruise phase for civil flights are reported in the NFR table as memo items.

A4.5 References

[EEA] European Environment Agency. (2019.) EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019. Technical guidance to prepare national emissions inventories. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union Technical Report No. 13/2019.

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