Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: chapter 2.10

2.10 Dioxins and Furans

In 2018, emissions of dioxins and furans (D/F) in Canada totalled approximately 73 grams of toxicity equivalent (gTEQ) (Table 2–12). Incineration and waste sources accounted for the largest share of these emissions (33% or 24 gTEQ), with waste incineration accounting for 28% (21 gTEQ). Transportation and mobile equipment contributed 29% (21 gTEQ) of 2018 D/F emissions, 27% (20 gTEQ) of which are attributed to marine transportation. Ore and mineral industries collectively accounted for 22% (16 gTEQ) of 2018 D/F emissions. Commercial/residential/institutional sources were also significant contributors (10% and 7.5 gTEQ).

Between 1990 and 2018, D/F emissions decreased by 84% (377 gTEQ) (Figure 2–10). This decrease is due to large reductions in emissions from waste incineration.

The most significant changes in D/F emissions from 1990 to 2018 include:

Figure 2–10: Major contributors to national dioxins/furans trends

Figure 2-10 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–10

Figure 2–10 is a stacked area graph displaying the four major contributors to national D/F trends. The four contributors are the following: Marine Transportation, Home Firewood Burning, Waste Incineration, and Other. The following table displays the contributions (gTEQ) for the years 1990 to 2018.

Figure 2–10: Major contributors to national dioxins/furans trends (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Waste Incineration 345 192 198 202 194 197 193 190 147 103 146 145 127 87 81 43 40 39 38 39 31 26 22 21 20 21 20 21 21
Sector 2 - Marine Transportation 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 28 26 25 24 22 21 26 31 35 40 18 19 19 20
Sector 3 - Home Firewood Burning 9.0 8.9 8.5 8.9 9.1 8.7 8.6 8.2 8.8 8.4 8.2 7.6 8.3 7.2 7.1 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.5 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0
Sector 4 - Other 77 81 83 85 82 82 81 78 84 56 60 54 52 60 57 36 27 25 20 18 23 17 17 15 21 21 20 18 26

Table 2–12: National summary of annual dioxins/furans emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 45 28 9.0 3.8 6.7 7.3 5.7 6.3 16
Aluminium Industry 3.0 4.0 -* - - - - - -
Asphalt Paving Industry 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cement and Concrete Industry 3.0 1.8 2.6 0.54 1.9 1.6 0.61 0.22 8.3
Foundries - 0.07 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.00
Iron and Steel Industry 35 17 4.0 2.9 4.4 5.2 4.7 5.6 7.1
Iron Ore Industry - - - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mineral Products Industry 1.0 1.0 1.0 - - - - - -
Mining and Rock Quarrying - - 0.50 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.02
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 3.0 3.3 1.3 0.38 0.29 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.42
Oil and Gas Industry (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry - - - - - - - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry - - - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 3.0 6.2 5.5 1.7 2.0 1.9 2.9 2.2 1.5
Coal 2.3 3.1 3.9 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.6 0.95
Diesel -* - - - - - - - -
Natural Gas 0.46 1.0 1.2 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.00
Waste Materials 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.16 0.01 0.01
Other (Electric Power Generation) 0.23 2.1 0.43 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.75 0.60 0.52
Manufacturing (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 17 16 13 3.7 3.0 2.9 4.0 3.2 2.5
Abrasives Manufacturing -* - 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Bakeries - - - - - - - - -
Biofuel Production - - - - - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 2.0 0.10 0.07 0.13 0.27 0.26 0.31 0.33 0.00
Electronics - - - - - - - - -
Food Preparation - - 0.07 - - - - - -
Glass Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Grain Industry - - - - - - - - -
Metal Fabrication 2.0 7.1 5.0 1.1 0.90 0.87 0.92 0.92 0.81
Plastics Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Pulp and Paper Industry 11 5.2 4.9 1.8 1.1 1.1 2.1 1.3 1.1
Textiles - - - - - - - - -
Vehicle Manufacturing (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) - 1.3 0.44 - - - - - -
Wood Products 1.8 2.7 2.5 0.62 0.66 0.64 0.64 0.59 0.57
Other (Manufacturing) - - 0.12 - - - - - -
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 21 26 29 37 42 20 20 21 21
Air Transportation -* - - - - - - - -
Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Heavy-duty Gasoline Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Heavy-duty LPG/NG Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-duty Diesel Trucks 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-duty Diesel Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-duty Gasoline Trucks 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-duty LPG/NG Trucks 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Light-duty LPG/NG Vehicles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Marine Transportation 20 25 28 35 40 18 19 19 20
Motorcycles 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Rail Transportation 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.4
Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.45
Animal Production -* - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Fuel Use 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.45
Commercial / Residential / Institutional (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 11 10 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.8 7.7 7.5 7.5
Cigarette Smoking1 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 0.37 0.37 0.33 0.26 0.45 1.3 0.27 0.23 0.18
Commercial Cooking -* - - - - - - - -
Construction Fuel Combustion 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Home Firewood Burning 9.0 8.2 6.7 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0
Human1 - - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling - - - - - - - - -
Residential Fuel Combustion 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.64 0.58 0.44 0.39 0.26 0.28
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Miscellaneous) - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 350 150 47 23 23 24 24 24 24
Crematoriums 1.1 1.6 2.1 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3
Waste Incineration 350 150 43 21 20 21 20 21 21
Waste Treatment and Disposal -* 3.8 1.9 - - - - - -
Paints and Solvents (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing - - - - - - - - -
Surface Coatings - - - - - - - - -
Dust (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 7.6 1.5 0.92 0.68 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.1 0.53
Prescribed Burning 7.6 1.5 0.92 0.68 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.1 0.53
Structural Fires -* - - - - - - - -
Totals (gTEQ)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Ore and Mineral Industries 45 28 9.0 3.8 6.7 7.3 5.7 6.3 16
Oil and Gas Industry -* - - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 3.0 6.2 5.5 1.7 2.0 1.9 2.9 2.2 1.5
Manufacturing 17 16 13 3.7 3.0 2.9 4.0 3.2 2.5
Transportation and Mobile Equipment 21 26 29 37 42 20 20 21 21
Agriculture 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.45
Commercial / Residential / Institutional 11 10 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.8 7.7 7.5 7.5
Incineration and Waste 350 150 47 23 23 24 24 24 24
Paints and Solvents - - - - - - - - -
Dust - - - - - - - - -
Fires 7.6 1.5 0.92 0.68 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.1 0.53
Grand Total 450 240 110 79 88 68 66 66 73

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

1. Cigarette Smoking as well as Infant Diapered Waste (which is included within the Human sector) are being considered for removal from future inventories. If you have any questions, please contact us at ec.iepa-apei.ec@canada.ca or 1-877-877-8375.

* - = no emission

0.00 Indicates emissions truncated due to rounding

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