Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: chapter 2.12

2.12 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

In 2018, approximately 8.8 kg of HCB were emitted in Canada (Table 2–14). Waste incineration was the largest contributor in 2018 with 56% (4.9 kg) of total HCB emissions. The ore and mineral industries were the second-largest contributor, with 35% (3.1 kg) of total emissions, largely attributed to iron and steel industries, which represented 13% (1.1 kg) of the national total.

Overall, HCB emissions decreased by 91% (89 kg) from 1990 to 2018. HCB emissions decreased between 1990 and 2014; since 2014 HCB emissions have been stable (Figure 2–12). Most of the decrease is due to a drop in emissions from waste incineration since 1998, specifically as a result of a decline in the use of batch incinerators for municipal waste incineration. For example, Newfoundland and Labrador has had a steady decline in the use of conical burners (Newfoundland Municipal Affairs and Environment, 2017). Emission reductions were also observed as a result of the phasing out of coal electricity generation in Ontario between 2000 and 2014.Footnote 1

The most significant changes in HCB emissions from 1990 to 2018 include:

Figure 2–12: Major contributors to national HCB trends

Figure 2-12 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–12

Figure 2–12 is a stacked area graph displaying the four major contributors to national HCB trends. The four contributors are the following: Waste Incineration, Coal (Electric Power Generation), Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry, and Other. The following table displays the contributions (kg) for the years 1990 to 2018.

Figure 2–12: Major contributors to national HCB trends (kg)
Section 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Section 1 - Waste Incineration 73 55 57 58 55 56 55 54 17 17 27 30 12 8.7 8.5 7.8 7.4 7.2 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.4 5.2 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.0 4.9
Section 2 - Coal (Electric Power Generation) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 16 8.5 8.4 4.5 4.5 3.9 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.3 1.3 1.1 0.20 0.19 0.24 0.43 0.43 0.36 0.30
Section 3 - Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 11 19 6.6 5.0 5.6 4.5 1.9 2.7 0.72 0.94 0.94 0.66 0.73 0.53 0.70 0.83 1.0 1.1
Section 4 - Other 12 15 15 16 16 15 14 14 13 14 13 5.6 13 8.6 5.6 4.2 3.3 3.5 2.6 1.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.5

Table 2–14: National summary of annual HCB emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 5 500 5 700 8 100 2 300 1 900 2 100 2 300 2 400 3 100
Aluminium Industry -* - - - - - - - -
Asphalt Paving Industry - - - - - - - - -
Cement and Concrete Industry 1 600 2 100 880 420 280 290 410 300 900
Foundries - - - - 29 23 24 6.0 0.00
Iron and Steel Industry 1 100 980 1 500 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 000 1 100 1 100
Iron Ore Industry - - - - - - - - -
Mineral Products Industry - - - - - - - - -
Mining and Rock Quarrying - - 44 13 12 17 12 7.5 6.5
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 2 700 2 600 5 600 730 530 700 830 1 000 1 100
Oil and Gas Industry (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 1.3 1.6 -* - - - - - -
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry - - - - - - - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry 1.3 1.6 - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 11 000 17 000 4 100 350 400 600 570 460 400
Coal 10 000 16 000 3 900 190 240 430 430 360 300
Diesel -* - - - - - - - -
Natural Gas 640 1 300 170 140 140 150 120 84 81
Waste Materials 4.8 - - - - - - - -
Other (Electric Power Generation) - 190 - 25 23 16 17 16 17
Manufacturing (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 8 600 8 200 1 500 330 360 350 280 350 330
Abrasives Manufacturing -* - - - - - - - -
Bakeries - - - - - - - - -
Biofuel Production - - - - - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 680 330 480 - - - - - -
Electronics - - - - - - - - -
Food Preparation - 2.9 3.0 - - - - - -
Glass Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Grain Industry - - - - - - - - -
Metal Fabrication 450 470 52 230 290 210 190 240 230
Plastics Manufacturing - - 0.00 - - - - - -
Pulp and Paper Industry 140 180 310 94 73 140 88 110 100
Textiles - - - - - - - - -
Vehicle Manufacturing (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 7 000 6 700 - - - - - - -
Wood Products 340 580 620 1.9 0.26 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.09
Other (Manufacturing) - - - - - - - - -
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Air Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Diesel Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Gasoline Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty LPG/NG Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Marine Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Motorcycles - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Rail Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.82
Animal Production - - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Fuel Use - - - 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.82
Commercial / Residential / Institutional (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 1.6 4.4 1.3 0.68 0.58 0.31 0.23 -* 0.05
Cigarette Smoking1 - - - - - - - - -
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 0.11 3.0 0.01 - - - - - -
Commercial Cooking - - - - - - - - -
Construction Fuel Combustion - - - - - - - - -
Home Firewood Burning - - - - - - - - -
Human1 - - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling - - - - - - - - -
Residential Fuel Combustion 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.68 0.58 0.31 0.23 - 0.05
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Miscellaneous) - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 73 000 27 000 7 900 5 200 4 900 4 900 5 200 5 000 4 900
Crematoriums 10 14 18 24 26 27 28 28 29
Waste Incineration 73 000 27 000 7 800 5 200 4 800 4 900 5 200 5 000 4 900
Waste Treatment and Disposal -* 230 96 0.76 0.47 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.22
Paints and Solvents (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing - - - - - - - - -
Surface Coatings - - - - - - - - -
Dust (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Prescribed Burning - - - - - - - - -
Structural Fires - - - - - - - - -
Totals (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Ore and Mineral Industries 5 500 5 700 8 100 2 300 1 900 2 100 2 300 2 400 3 100
Oil and Gas Industry 1.3 1.6 -* - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 11 000 17 000 4 100 350 400 600 570 460 400
Manufacturing 8 600 8 200 1 500 330 360 350 280 350 330
Transportation and Mobile Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture - - - 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.82
Commercial / Residential / Institutional 1.6 4.4 1.3 0.68 0.58 0.31 0.23 - 0.05
Incineration and Waste 73 000 27 000 7 900 5 200 4 900 4 900 5 200 5 000 4 900
Paints and Solvents - - - - - - - - -
Dust - - - - - - - - -
Fires - - - - - - - - -
Grand Total 98 000 58 000 22 000 8 200 7 600 8 000 8 400 8 200 8 800

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

1. Cigarette Smoking as well as Infant Diapered Waste (which is included within the Human sector) are being considered for removal from future inventories. If you have any questions, please contact us at ec.iepa-apei.ec@canada.ca or 1-877-877-8375.

* - = no emission

0.00 Indicates emissions truncated due to rounding

References

[AER] Alberta Energy Regulator. (2019a). AER Compliance Dashboard – Incidents. [accessed 2019 Jul 5].

[AER] Alberta Energy Regulator. (2019b). Upstream Petroleum Industry Flaring and Venting Report. [PDF]

[BCOGC] British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission. (2019). Drilling Kicks and Blowouts by Area. [accessed 2019 Jul 5].

[CNLOPB] Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. (2019). Environment Statistics – Spill Frequency and Volume Annual Summary. [revised 2019 Jan 15; accessed 2019 Jul 5]. [PDF]

[EC] Environment Canada. (2001). Environmental Code of Practice for Integrated Steel Mills – CEPA 1999 Code of Practice.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2014). Annual Public Report of Environmental Performance Agreement Concerning Atmospheric Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons between Environment and Climate Change Canada and Rio Tinto Alcan.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2017). 2015 Progress Report: Pollution Prevention Planning by Base Metals Smelters and Refineries and Zinc Plants.

[MB] Manitoba Government. (2019). Petroleum Industry Spill Statistics. [revised 2019 Apr 11; accessed 2019 Jul 5].

Newfoundland Municipal Affairs and Environment. (2017). Solid Waste Management Strategy Performance Monitoring Report. [PDF]

[SK MER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources. (2019a). Saskatchewan Upstream Oil and Gas IRIS Incident Report. [revised 2019 Jul 3; accessed 2019 Jul 3].

[SK MER] Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources. 2019b. Saskatchewan Fuel, Flare and Vent. [revised 2019 Feb; accessed 2019 Jul 5].

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