Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: chapter 2.5

2.5 Carbon monoxide (CO)

In 2018, approximately 5.8 Mt of CO were released in Canada (Table 2–7). Transportation and mobile equipment accounted for 56% (3.2 Mt) of total emissions, with light-duty gasoline vehicles and trucks contributing 23% (1.3 Mt) and off-road gasoline/Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)/Natural Gas (NG) vehicles and equipment contributing 21% (1.2 Mt) of total CO emissions. The next-largest contributors are commercial/residential/institutional sources, which in 2018 also accounted for 21% (1.2 Mt) of emissions, mostly due to contributions from home firewood burning. The upstream oil and gas industry and aluminium industry were the largest-emitting industrial contributors, accounting for 9% (568 kt) and 7% (380 kt) of CO emissions, respectively.

Between 1990 and 2018, CO emissions decreased by 54% (6.6 Mt) (Figure 2–5). Of the many contributors to the overall decrease in emissions, two in particular—light-duty gasoline trucks and vehicles, and off-road gasoline/LPG/NG vehicles and equipment (spark ignition engines)—had the largest impact on emission reductions. The decreasing emission trend in these sectors is due to increasingly stringent engine and vehicle regulations. Emissions from home firewood burning gradually decreased across the time series, resulting from improved combustion efficiency in modern fireplace inserts, stoves and fireplaces and from a reduction in the use of wood as heating fuel.

The most significant changes in CO emissions from 1990 to 2018 include:

Figure 2–5: Major contributors to national CO trends

Figure 2-5 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–5

Figure 2–5 is a stacked area graph displaying the four major contributors to national CO trends. The four contributors are the following: Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment, Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks and Vehicles, Home Firewood Burning, and Other. The following table displays the contributions (kt) for the years 1990 to 2018.

Figure 2–5: Major contributors to national CO trends (kt)
Sector 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Home Firewood Burning 2 365 2 299 2 356 2 401 2 404 2 429 2 412 2 320 2 275 2 284 2 116 1 757 1 826 1 825 1 956 1 797 1 823 1 813 1 728 1 666 1 644 1 417 1 282 1 270 1 296 1 257 1 136 1 183 1 236
Sector 2 - Off-road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment 1 660 1 636 1 565 1 638 1 669 1 593 1 574 1 503 1 597 1 522 1 473 1 364 1 483 1 279 1 248 1 180 1 145 1 147 1 161 1 121 1 194 1 204 1 214 1 206 1 198 1 190 1 195 1 188 1 180
Sector 3 - Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks and Vehicles 4 488 4 231 4 181 4 140 4 067 3 871 3 705 3 582 3 479 3 348 3 342 3 155 2 906 2 741 2 491 2 016 1 816 1 757 1 681 1 550 1 484 1 371 1 288 1 258 1 196 1 201 1 250 1 252 1 292
Sector 4 - Other 3 888 4 017 3 912 4 174 4 235 4 283 4 099 4 004 4 037 3 987 3 934 3 745 3 620 3 671 3 267 3 003 2 698 2 599 2 551 2 417 2 359 2 271 2 244 2 191 2 130 2 079 2 096 2 101 2 043

Table 2-7: National summary of annual CO emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 390 000 400 000 500 000 550 000 510 000 510 000 560 000 590 000 530 000
Aluminium Industry 240 000 250 000 310 000 410 000 380 000 380 000 420 000 430 000 380 000
Asphalt Paving Industry 4 200 4 200 4 500 3 700 4 000 3 200 3 100 2 900 2 900
Cement and Concrete Industry 16 000 23 000 27 000 14 000 12 000 10 000 13 000 16 000 16 000
Foundries 55 000 48 000 49 000 49 000 49 000 49 000 49 000 49 000 49 000
Iron and Steel Industry 43 000 48 000 64 000 23 000 24 000 21 000 21 000 27 000 28 000
Iron Ore Industry 18 000 9 600 23 000 20 000 20 000 20 000 18 000 19 000 16 000
Mineral Products Industry 3 900 3 400 3 200 670 580 640 660 610 550
Mining and Rock Quarrying 14 000 14 000 10 000 14 000 15 000 13 000 14 000 26 000 19 000
Non-Ferrous Mining and Smelting Industry 280 360 13 000 11 000 13 000 13 000 17 000 15 000 15 000
Oil and Gas Industry (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 340 000 440 000 490 000 560 000 550 000 560 000 540 000 550 000 570 000
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry 29 000 23 000 21 000 42 000 16 000 22 000 16 000 21 000 29 000
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry 310 000 420 000 470 000 520 000 530 000 530 000 520 000 530 000 540 000
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 50 000 43 000 52 000 35 000 40 000 40 000 38 000 43 000 36 000
Coal 41 000 18 000 25 000 13 000 15 000 16 000 16 000 19 000 15 000
Diesel 370 1 200 1 300 1 200 1 400 1 600 1 400 1 500 1 800
Natural Gas 4 400 17 000 17 000 16 000 15 000 15 000 12 000 14 000 13 000
Waste Materials 82 390 250 180 340 230 270 330 230
Other (Electric Power Generation) 4 400 7 200 8 500 4 500 7 900 7 200 7 900 7 700 6 100
Manufacturing (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 1 300 000 1 100 000 530 000 180 000 160 000 140 000 140 000 140 000 140 000
Abrasives Manufacturing 610 240 240 -* - - - - -
Bakeries 7.0 6.0 0.44 0.35 0.34 0.30 0.30 0.32 -
Biofuel Production - - - 8.7 - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 27 000 30 000 18 000 14 000 15 000 15 000 16 000 16 000 14 000
Electronics 26 39 19 - - - 0.26 - -
Food Preparation 1 200 1 400 1 600 1 000 980 1 200 1 200 1 300 1 300
Glass Manufacturing 490 570 690 260 280 300 280 300 300
Grain Industry 1 900 2 700 610 370 390 370 390 420 330
Metal Fabrication 8 800 8 700 7 700 2 400 1 900 1 200 1 100 1 200 1 300
Plastics Manufacturing 220 350 220 0.42 10 9.0 10 11 13
Pulp and Paper Industry 180 000 150 000 98 000 56 000 64 000 69 000 73 000 78 000 82 000
Textiles 45 78 53 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.10
Vehicle Manufacture (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 3 800 4 000 2 900 940 930 750 880 920 930
Wood Products 1 100 000 790 000 390 000 100 000 73 000 51 000 43 000 40 000 36 000
Other (Manufacturing) 31 000 61 000 11 000 590 530 560 610 550 540
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 8 100 000 7 300 000 5 100 000 3 300 000 3 200 000 3 100 000 3 000 000 3 100 000 3 200 000
Air Transportation 51 000 36 000 31 000 37 000 34 000 37 000 39 000 38 000 36 000
Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles 34 000 63 000 91 000 75 000 70 000 63 000 61 000 65 000 68 000
Heavy-duty Gasoline Vehicles 590 000 1 100 000 830 000 490 000 410 000 380 000 400 000 410 000 420 000
Heavy-duty LPG/NG Vehicles 130 000 310 000 67 000 1 300 630 640 860 1 500 1 500
Light-duty Diesel Trucks 13 000 15 000 20 000 12 000 13 000 16 000 17 000 20 000 21 000
Light-duty Diesel Vehicles 29 000 17 000 9 300 8 800 8 700 9 200 8 600 8 600 8 300
Light-duty Gasoline Trucks 1 600 000 1 600 000 1 100 000 700 000 680 000 690 000 730 000 750 000 790 000
Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles 2 900 000 1 700 000 950 000 560 000 520 000 510 000 520 000 500 000 500 000
Light-duty LPG/NG Trucks 140 000 54 000 24 000 360 270 240 260 310 310
Light-duty LPG/NG Vehicles 14 000 6 000 2 300 10 7.7 7.3 8.9 12 12
Marine Transportation 13 000 17 000 19 000 18 000 18 000 18 000 19 000 19 000 20 000
Motorcycles 12 000 14 000 15 000 13 000 13 000 13 000 13 000 14 000 14 000
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment 220 000 240 000 170 000 100 000 93 000 88 000 69 000 75 000 81 000
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment 2 400 000 2 100 000 1 800 000 1 300 000 1 300 000 1 300 000 1 100 000 1 200 000 1 200 000
Rail Transportation 16 000 15 000 15 000 18 000 18 000 17 000 16 000 18 000 18 000
Tire Wear and Brake Lining -* - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 630 690 520 1 300 1 400 1 300 1 300 1 300 1 300
Animal Production -* - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Fuel Use 630 690 520 1 300 1 400 1 300 1 300 1 300 1 300
Commercial / Residential / Institutional (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 1 700 000 1 500 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000
Cigarette Smoking1 3 800 3 300 2 500 1 900 1 900 1 700 1 700 1 800 1 800
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 15 000 19 000 19 000 18 000 19 000 18 000 18 000 20 000 20 000
Commercial Cooking 5 700 6 400 7 100 6 900 6 700 6 300 6 300 6 400 6 400
Construction Fuel Combustion 670 360 460 450 440 440 450 460 480
Home Firewood Burning 1 700 000 1 500 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000
Human1 -* - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling 0.16 0.05 - - - - - - -
Residential Fuel Combustion 13 000 13 000 13 000 13 000 13 000 13 000 11 000 12 000 13 000
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Miscellaneous) - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 45 000 27 000 25 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 18 000
Crematoriums 7.4 10 12 16 17 18 18 19 19
Waste Incineration 42 000 25 000 21 000 13 000 14 000 14 000 14 000 14 000 14 000
Waste Treatment and Disposal 3 300 2 800 3 700 2 800 2 700 2 600 2 400 2 400 3 400
Paints and Solvents (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - 6.4 0.47 0.46 0.37 - - -
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing - - 6.4 0.47 0.46 0.37 - - -
Surface Coatings - - - - - - - - -
Dust (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 440 000 78 000 52 000 34 000 140 000 130 000 120 000 52 000 24 000
Prescribed Burning 440 000 76 000 51 000 33 000 140 000 130 000 120 000 51 000 23 000
Structural Fires 2 100 1 700 1 500 1 600 1 200 1 100 1 200 1 200 1 200
Totals (tonnes)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Ore and Mineral Industries 390 000 400 000 500 000 550 000 510 000 510 000 560 000 590 000 530 000
Oil and Gas Industry 340 000 440 000 490 000 560 000 550 000 560 000 540 000 550 000 570 000
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 50 000 43 000 52 000 35 000 40 000 40 000 38 000 43 000 36 000
Manufacturing 1 300 000 1 100 000 530 000 180 000 160 000 140 000 140 000 140 000 140 000
Transportation and Mobile Equipment 8 100 000 7 300 000 5 100 000 3 300 000 3 200 000 3 100 000 3 000 000 3 100 000 3 200 000
Agriculture 630 690 520 1 300 1 400 1 300 1 300 1 300 1 300
Commercial / Residential / Institutional 1 700 000 1 500 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000 1 200 000
Incineration and Waste 45 000 27 000 25 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 18 000
Paints and Solvents -* - 6.4 0.47 0.46 0.37 - - -
Dust - - - - - - - - -
Fires 440 000 78 000 52 000 34 000 140 000 130 000 120 000 52 000 24 000
Grand Total 12 000 000 11 000 000 8 000 000 5 900 000 5 800 000 5 700 000 5 700 000 5 700 000 5 800 000

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

1. Cigarette Smoking as well as Infant Diapered Waste (which is included within the Human sector) are being considered for removal from future inventories. If you have any questions, please contact us at ec.iepa-apei.ec@canada.ca or 1-877-877-8375.

* - = no emission

0.00 Indicates emissions truncated due to rounding

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