Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2020: chapter 2.8

2.8 Cadmium (Cd)

Approximately 7.1 t of Cd were emitted in Canada in 2018 (Table 2–10). Ore and mineral industries accounted for 69% (4.8 t) of national emissions, with the non-ferrous refining and smelting industry contributing 60% (4.2 t) of the total. Commercial/residential/institutional sources contributed 16% (1.1 t) of total Cd emissions.

From 1990 to 2018, national Cd emissions decreased by 92% (81 t) (Figure 2–8). This trend is almost entirely driven by the non-ferrous refining and smelting industry. Emissions from this industry fluctuated greatly between 1990 and 2006, but decreased steadily from 2007 onward. As with lead emissions, reductions in Cd emissions coincide with the closure of outdated smelters and implementation of pollution prevention plans (ECCC, 2017). Fluctuations in emissions prior to 2010 are almost entirely driven by emissions from a single smelter in Manitoba.

The most significant changes in Cd emissions from 1990 to 2018 include:

Figure 2–8: Major contributors to national Cd trends

Figure 2-8 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–8

Figure 2–8 is a stacked area graph displaying the two major contributors to national Cd trends. The two contributors are the following: Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry and Other. The following table displays the contributions (t) for the years 1990 to 2018.

Figure 2–8: Major contributors to national Cd trends (t)
Sector 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sector 1 - Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 78 68 69 12 72 17 24 40 42 36 34 65 35 24 26 29 35 22 17 16 12 4.8 6.2 5.3 4.6 5.0 5.1 4.3 4.2
Sector 2 - Other 10 9.4 8.8 8.2 8.1 7.8 6.9 6.4 5.3 4.9 3.9 3.9 4.8 7.4 7.4 6.4 6.3 6.6 5.6 5.4 4.4 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.2 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.9

Table 2–10: National summary of annual Cd emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 79 000 34 000 32 000 6 000 5 400 5 400 5 500 4 700 4 800
Aluminium Industry 1.0 1.0 -* - - - - - -
Asphalt Paving Industry 26 24 25 21 23 19 19 18 18
Cement and Concrete Industry 47 46 44 16 13 14 12 9.0 10
Foundries 2.0 2.0 26 1.7 62 21 0.75 21 21
Iron and Steel Industry 150 160 310 230 300 220 210 200 230
Iron Ore Industry - - - 69 88 83 82 84 49
Mineral Products Industry - - - - - - - - -
Mining and Rock Quarrying - 550 2 900 320 330 50 52 53 250
Non-Ferrous Mining and Smelting Industry 78 000 34 000 29 000 5 300 4 600 5 000 5 100 4 300 4 200
Oil and Gas Industry (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 130 190 190 240 210 220 220 250 260
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry 110 150 130 100 110 94 95 98 95
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry 25 38 61 140 110 130 120 150 160
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 130 130 250 360 160 140 160 120 98
Coal 87 91 170 300 94 43 100 78 62
Diesel -* - - - - - - - -
Natural Gas 29 30 56 47 43 52 35 27 24
Waste Materials - - - - - 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.09
Other (Electric Power Generation) 14 14 27 20 27 45 25 16 11
Manufacturing (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 1 100 950 940 640 590 580 600 560 590
Abrasives Manufacture -* - - - - - - - -
Bakeries - - - - - - - - -
Biofuel Production - - - - - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 140 130 71 7.7 7.3 7.9 8.1 7.8 8.2
Electronics - - - - - - - - -
Food Preparation - - - - - - - - -
Glass Manufacturing 1.0 1.0 1.9 - - - - - -
Grain Industry - - - - - - - - -
Metal Fabrication 460 410 290 340 330 320 310 290 310
Plastics Manufacturing 5.0 6.0 3.6 0.18 - - - - -
Pulp and Paper Industry 370 190 320 210 200 200 210 200 200
Textiles - - - - - - - - -
Vehicle Manufacture (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 2.0 88 1.1 - - - - 0.00 -
Wood Products 130 130 110 83 58 51 63 59 77
Other (Manufacturing) - - 140 0.19 0.68 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.11
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 300 370 410 230 180 92 85 91 91
Air Transportation -* - - - - - - - -
Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Diesel Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Gasoline Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty LPG/NG Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Marine Transportation 190 280 320 160 110 36 34 33 32
Motorcycles - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Rail Transportation 100 98 95 71 66 57 51 58 59
Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 51 54 64 88 87 84 92 92 89
Animal Production -* - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Fuel Use 51 54 64 88 87 84 92 92 89
Commercial / Residential / Institutional (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 1 100 1 200 1 200 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100
Cigarette Smoking1 6.0 5.1 3.9 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 340 510 480 470 480 470 480 480 480
Commercial Cooking -* - - - - - - - -
Construction Fuel Combustion 11 7.0 10 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.0 10
Home Firewood Burning 200 180 150 160 160 150 150 150 150
Human1 - - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling - - 47 2.3 1.2 0.50 2.2 2.3 2.5
Residential Fuel Combustion 540 500 500 480 490 460 440 450 480
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Miscellaneous) - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total 7 000 200 45 34 36 36 34 36 36
Crematoriums 0.34 0.48 0.61 0.79 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.96 0.98
Waste Incineration 7 000 200 44 31 33 32 31 32 28
Waste Treatment and Disposal -* - 1.2 2.1 2.0 3.5 2.3 3.0 7.2
Paints and Solvents (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - 0.01 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.14 0.14
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing - - 0.01 - - - - - -
Surface Coatings - - - 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.14 0.14
Dust (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Sub-total -* - - - - - - - -
Prescribed Burning - - - - - - - - -
Structural Fires - - - - - - - - -
Totals (kg)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Ore and Mineral Industries 79 000 34 000 32 000 6 000 5 400 5 400 5 500 4 700 4 800
Oil and Gas Industry 130 190 190 240 210 220 220 250 260
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 130 130 250 360 160 140 160 120 98
Manufacturing 1 100 950 940 640 590 580 600 560 590
Transportation and Mobile Equipment 300 370 410 230 180 92 85 91 91
Agriculture 51 54 64 88 87 84 92 92 89
Commercial / Residential / Institutional 1 100 1 200 1 200 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 100
Incineration and Waste 7 000 200 45 34 36 36 34 36 36
Paints and Solvents -* - 0.01 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.14 0.14
Dust - - - - - - - - -
Fires - - - - - - - - -
Grand Total 88 000 37 000 35 000 8 700 7 800 7 700 7 700 6 900 7 100

Notes:

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

1. Cigarette Smoking as well as Infant Diapered Waste (which is included within the Human sector) are being considered for removal from future inventories. If you have any questions, please contact us at ec.iepa-apei.ec@canada.ca or 1-877-877-8375.

* - = no emission

0.00 Indicates emissions truncated due to rounding

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