Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2022: annex 2.4

A2.4 Estimation methodologies for Transportation and Mobile Equipment by sector/subsector

Air Transportation (LTO)

Description

Air Transportation (landing and takeoffs [LTO]) covers emissions from aircraft but not airport support equipment (captured as off-road applications).

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, B[a]p, B[b]f, B[k]f, I(cd)p

Aircraft-specific activity (LTO) by province and territory is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

The emission estimates for Air Transportation are calculated using Aircraft Movement Statistics (Statistics Canada, n.d.[a]), a database developed by Statistics Canada based on flight-by-flight data recorded at airport towers operated by NAV Canada post-1996 and by Transport Canada pre-1996. The data are of the highest resolution available and are the only known aircraft movement data within Canada.

Emission factors (EF)

For aircraft using turbo aviation fuel, hydrocarbon (HC), CO and NOx emission factors are taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Engine Databank (ICAO, 2019) for LTO and derived from the Master emissions calculator 2019 spreadsheet from Annex 5 of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emissions inventory guidebook 2019 (EEA, 2019) for the cruise stage. Emission factors are mapped to representative aircraft on the basis of engine characteristics. SO2 is estimated as a sulphur balance, using data from the Sulphur in liquid fuels database (ECCC, 2020a). The NH3 emission factor is taken from Coe et al. (1996). Emissions of PM10 for jet engines during the LTO are based on a paper by Wayson et al. (2009), which relates the smoke number from the ICAO databank to an emission factor in g/kg fuel consumed. For turboprop/turboshaft engines, the emissions of PM10 are derived from the publication entitled Documentation for aircraft, commercial marine vessel, locomotive, and other non-road components of the national emissions inventory (U.S. EPA, 2005a). All PM from aircraft using turbo aviation fuel is considered to be less than or equal to 10 microns in diameter and, therefore, TPM is equal to PM10. Emissions of PM10 for jet engines during cruise are derived from the Master emissions calculator 2019 spreadsheet from Annex 5 of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emissions inventory guidebook 2019 (EEA, 2019). Emissions of PM10 for turboprop/turboshaft engines during cruise are derived from the Aircraft Particulate Matter Emission Estimation Through all Phases of Flight (Eurocontrol, 2005) and AERO2k Global Aviation Emissions Inventories for 2002 and 2025 (Eyers et al., 2004). The PM2.5, B[a]p, B[b]f, B[k]f and I(cd)p emission factors are taken from the Documentation for aircraft, commercial marine vessel, locomotive, and other non-road components of the national emissions inventory (U.S. EPA, 2005a). The VOC emission factor is taken from Procedures for Emission Inventory Preparation Volume IV Mobile Sources (U.S. EPA, 1992), which relates VOCs to total HC.

For aircraft using aviation gasoline, HC, CO, PM10 and NOx emission factors are taken from the Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA, 2007) for LTO and derived from the Master emissions calculator 2019 spreadsheet from Annex 5 of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emissions inventory guidebook 2019 (EEA, 2019) for the cruise stage. SO2 is estimated as a sulphur balance, using data from the Sulphur in liquid fuels database (ECCC, 2020a). The NH3 emission factor is taken from Coe et al. (1996). All PM from aircraft using turbo aviation gasoline is considered to be less than or equal to 10 microns in diameter and, therefore, TPM is equal to PM10. PM2.5, B[a]p, B[b]f, B[k]f and I(cd)p emission factors are taken from the Documentation for aircraft, commercial marine vessel, locomotive, and other non-road components of the national emissions inventory (U.S. EPA, 2005a). The VOC emission factor is taken from Procedures for Emission Inventory Preparation Volume IV Mobile Sources (U.S. EPA, 1992), which relates VOCs to total HC. The emission factor for Pb is based on an expert reviewFootnote 2 of the CGSB specification from the Ontario Alkyl Lead Inventory Study (Patriache and Campbell, 1999).

Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military

Description

Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military covers emissions from commercial marine vessels, but not recreational marine engines (captured as off-road applications).

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B[a]p, B[b]f, B[k]f, I(1,2,3-cd)p

Vessel-specific activity (movements) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

The main source of data is the Marine Emission Inventory Tool (MEIT) (ECCC, 2016, 2019, 2020b, 2020c, 2020d, 2020e) which provides emissions for NOx, CO, HC, SO2, TPM, PM10, PM2.5 and NH3. MEIT provides data for 1980, 1985, 1987, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and forecasts for 2020.

Emission factors (EF)

NOx, CO, HC, SO2, TPM, PM10, PM2.5 and NH3 are taken directly from MEIT. B[a]p, B[b]f, B[k]f, I(1,2,3-cd)p, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans are estimated as ratios of PM based on speciation profiles from the Documentation for the Commercial Marine Vessel Component of the National Emissions Inventory Methodology (U.S. EPA, 2009a). The correlation factor for HC to VOCs is taken from the Emission Factors for Locomotives document (U.S. EPA, 2009b).

On-Road Vehicles

Description

On-Road Vehicles include Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Heavy-Duty Gasoline Vehicles, Light-Duty Diesel Trucks, Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks, Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles, Propane and Natural Gas Vehicles, Motorcycles, and Tire Wear and Brake Lining.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B[a]p, B[b]f, B[k]f, I(cd)p

Vehicle-specific activity (vehicle kilometres travelled) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors in the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model (version MOVES2014 was used for this submission).

Refuelling VOC emissions are included in under Service Stations.

Activity data

Data on the vehicle fleet (counts), defined by fuel type, model-year and gross vehicle weight rating, originate from DAC (2017) and Polk & Co (2017) for light- and heavy-duty vehicles, respectively. Motorcycle populations originate from the publication Road motor vehicle, trailer and snowmobile registration (registrations) (Statistics Canada, n.d.[b], n.d.[c]). The Motorcycle, scooter & off-highway vehicle annual industry statistics report (MMIC, 2013) is used to estimate the age distribution of motorcycles by model year, based on motorcycle population data obtained from Statistics Canada. The activity level is represented by vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT). To arrive at estimates of VKT, vehicle counts are multiplied by mileage accumulation rates obtained from the publication by Stewart-Brown Associates (2012). For light-duty vehicles, VKT for calendar year 2020 was adjusted using the Light Vehicle Survey (DAC, 2020).

Emission factors (EF)

Emission factors for on-road vehicles are embedded in the MOVES model. More information on MOVES is available online in the U.S. EPA user guides (U.S. EPA, 2012; U.S. EPA, 2014) and in U.S. EPA technical guidance document (U.S. EPA, 2010).

Off-Road Vehicles and Equipment

Description

Off-Road Vehicles and Equipment consist of Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment and Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3

Application-specific activity (hours-of-use, load factor) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors in the NONROAD model.

Activity data

Data on the applications (vehicle/engine counts, load factor, hours-of-use), defined by fuel type, model year and source classification code, originate from (EC, 2011). The hours-of-use parameter was updated in 2018 for select equipment types. For example, snowmobile hours of use is now broken down by stroke type (ECCC, 2018a). Construction equipment populations used in oil sands mining operations are sourced from The Parker Bay Company (ECCC, 2018b).

Emission factors (EF)

Emission factors for off-road applications are embedded in the NONROAD model. For this iteration of the APEI, NONROAD version 2012C was used. This version is based on the U.S. EPA’s NONROAD2008, and modified by Environment and Climate Change Canada to exploit detailed activity data. The model is operated according to the user guide for NONROAD2005/2008 (U.S. EPA, 2005b), given that the functionality of the models is the same.

More information on the NONROAD model is available online.

Rail Transportation

Description

Rail transportation covers emissions from the fuel consumed by locomotive engines.

General inventory method

Pollutant(s) estimated:
TPM, PM10, PM2.5, SOx, NOx, VOCs, CO, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxins/furans, B[a]p, B[b]f, B[k]f, I(cd)p

Railway activity (fuel consumption) is multiplied by pollutant-specific emission factors.

Activity data

Data on provincial fuel consumption is obtained from the publications Railway industry diesel fuel consumption (Statistics Canada, n.d.[e]) and Railway industry diesel fuel consumption by Area (Statistics Canada, n.d.[f]). National fuel demand for the railway industry is obtained in the publication Report on Energy Supply and Demand (Statistics Canada, n.d.[d]).

Emission factors (EF)

HC, CO, SO2, PM10 and NOx emission factors are taken from the Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program 2011 report (Railway Association of Canada, 2013) and the Locomotive Emissions Monitoring Program 2018 report (Railway Association of Canada, 2021). The correlation factor for HC to VOCs and TPM to PM10 is taken from the Emission Factors for Locomotives document (U.S. EPA, 2009b). PM2.5, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, B[b]f, B[k]f, I(cd)p are estimated in relation to PM10 or VOCs, based on speciation profiles taken from the Documentation for Locomotive Component of the National Emissions Inventory Methodology (U.S. EPA, 2011). The dioxins and furans emission factor (0.54 ng/L) is taken from the report entitled An inventory of sources and environmental releases of dioxin-like compounds in the United States for the years 1987, 1995, and 2000 (U.S. EPA, 2006).

References, Annex 2.4, Estimation methodologies for Transportation and Mobile Equipment by sector/subsector

Coe DL, Main HH, Chinkin LR, Loomis C, Wilkinson J. 1996. Review of current methodologies for estimating ammonia emissions. Draft final report. Report No. STI-95310-1580-DFR. Santa Rosa (CA): Sonoma Technology. Prepared for California Air Resources Board.

[DAC] DesRosiers Automotive Consultants. 2017. Census of vehicles in operation in Canada. Unpublished report. Richmond Hill (ON): DAC. Prepared for Environment and Climate Change Canada.

[DAC] DesRosiers Automotive Consultants. 2020. Light Vehicle Survey. Unpublished report. Richmond Hill (ON): DAC. Prepared for Environment and Climate Change Canada.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2016. Marine Emission Inventory Tool (MEIT). V4.3.1. Gatineau (QC): Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2019. Marine Emission Inventory Tool - 2020 forecast [data processed Jul 07 2019]. Gatineau (QC): Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2020a. Sulphur in liquid fuels. Unpublished database. Gatineau (QC): Oil, Gas and Alternative Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2020b. Marine Emission Inventory Tool - 2015 calendar year [data processed 2020 Jun 11]. Gatineau (QC): Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2020c. Marine Emission Inventory Tool - 2016 calendar year [data processed 2020 Jun 13]. Gatineau (QC): Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2020d. Marine Emission Inventory Tool - 2017 calendar year [data processed 2020 Jun 15]. Gatineau (QC): Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2020e. Marine Emission Inventory Tool - 2018 calendar year [data processed 2020 Jun 16]. Gatineau (QC): Cross Sectoral Energy Division.

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2018a. Off-road equipment analysis - Oil sands mining equipment. Unpublished report. Prepared by B. Greenlaw, Pollutant Inventories and Reporting Division

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2018b. Off-road equipment analysis – Snowmobiles. Unpublished report. Prepared by B. Greenlaw, Pollutant Inventories and Reporting Division.

[EC] Environment Canada. 2011. Canadian off-road equipment population. Unpublished report. Report No. CA12-00333A. Mississauga (ON): Environment Canada.

[EEA] European Environment Agency. 2019. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emissions inventory guidebook 2019. Report No. 13/2019. Copenhagen (DK): European Environment Agency.

Eurocontrol. 2005. Aircraft particulate matter emission estimation through all phases of flight. EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre, France.

Eyers CJ, Norman P, Middel J, Plohr M, Michot S, Atkinson K, Christou RA. 2004. AERO2k global aviation emissions inventories for 2002 and 2025. Report No. QINETIQ/04/01113. Hampshire (UK): QinenetiQ.

[FOCA] Federal Office of Civil Aviation. 2007. Aircraft piston engine emissions summary report. Report No. 0/3/33/33-05-003.022. Swiss Confederation. [PDF]

[ICAO] International Civil Aviation Organization. 2019. ICAO Aircraft engine emissions databank (database).

[MMIC] Motorcycle & Moped Industry Council. 2013. Motorcycle, scooter & off-highway vehicle annual industry statistics report. Markham (ON): MMIC.

Patriarche J, Campbell I. 1999. Alkyl lead inventory study – Sources, uses and releases in Ontario, Canada. Preliminary review. Aurora (ON): Patriarche & Associates. Prepared for Environment Canada.

Polk & Co. 2017. Trucking industry profile database. Unpublished database. Polk & Co. Prepared for Environment Canada.

Railway Association of Canada. 2013. Locomotive emissions monitoring program 2011. Ottawa (ON): Railway Association of Canada.

Railway Association of Canada. 2021. Locomotive emissions monitoring program 2018. Ottawa (ON): Railway Association of Canada.

Statistics Canada. No date(a). Aircraft movement statistics (database). Statistics Canada data file transfer [last updated 2017 Aug 17].

Statistics Canada. No date(b). Table 405-0001 Road motor vehicle, trailer and snowmobile registration, CANSIM (database).

Statistics Canada. No date(c). Table 405-0004 Vehicle registrations, CANSIM (database).

Statistics Canada. No date(d). Report on energy supply and demand in Canada, annual. Catalogue No. 57 003 X.

Statistics Canada. No date(e). Table 23-10-0053-01 (formerly CANSIM 404-0012) Railway industry diesel fuel consumption (database).

Statistics Canada. No date(f). Table 23-10-0054-01 (formerly CANSIM 404-0013) Railway industry diesel fuel consumption by area (x 1,000) (database).

Stewart-Brown Associates. 2012. Kilometre Accumulation Rates in British Columbia and Ontario. Abbotsford (BC). Prepared for Environment Canada.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. Procedures for emissions inventory preparation. Report No. EPA420-R-92-009, Vol IV – Mobile Sources, Office of Transportation and Air Quality.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2005a. Documentation for aircraft, commercial marine vessel, locomotive, and other nonroad components of the national emissions inventory. Contract No. 68-D-02-063, Vol 1 – Methodology. Research Triangle Park (NC): U.S. EPA.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2005b. User's guide for the final NONROAD2005 model. Report No. EPA-420-R-05-013. Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. An inventory of sources and environmental releases of dioxin-like compounds in the United States for the years 1987, 1995, and 2000. Washington (DC): National Center for Environmental Assessment.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2009a. Documentation for the commercial marine vessel component of the national emissions inventory methodology. Contract No. EPA420-F-09-025. Morrisville (NC): Eastern Research Group. Prepared for the U.S. EPA.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2009b. Technical Highlights: Emission Factors for Locomotives. Report No. EPA420-F-09-025. Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Technical guidance on the use of MOVES2010 for emission inventory preparation in state implementation plans and transportation conformity. Report No. EPA-420-B-10-023. Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Documentation for locomotive component of the National Emissions Inventory Methodology. Contract No. EP-D-07-097. Morrisville (NC): Eastern Research Group for Emissions. Prepared for the U.S. EPA. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2012. User guide for MOVES2010b. Report No. EPA-420-B-12-001b. Washington (DC): Office of Transportation and Air Quality. [PDF]

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2013. Calculating piston-engine aircraft airport inventories for lead for the 2011 national emissions inventory. Report No. EPA-420-B-13-040. Office of Transportation and Air Quality.

[U.S. EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. User guide for MOVES2014. Report No. EPA-420-B-14-055. Washington (DC): U.S. EPA. [PDF]

Wayson RL, Fleming GG, Lovinelli R. 2009. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 59(1): 91–100.

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