Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2022: annex 4

Submission to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Canada reports on atmospheric emissions of air pollutants to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) through the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) pursuant to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and its associated protocols. Table A4–1 lists the atmospheric pollutants for which annual emissions are reported to the UNECE, along with the corresponding protocols under CLRTAP.

Table A4-1: Pollutant emissions reported to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and related protocols under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
Pollutant Relevant protocols under the CLRTAP Protocol obligation
SOx 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012)

1999 Gothenburg Protocol

1994 Oslo Protocol


1985 Helsinki Protocol
Reduction of SO2 emissions by 55% from 2005 levels by 2020

2010 emissions ceiling of 1.45 million tonnes

Maintain SOx emissions (excluding natural sources) in the regional Sulphur Oxides Management Area (SOMA) below 1.8 million tonnes

Reduction of SOx emissions by at least 30 percent from 1980 levels
NOx 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012)

1999 Gothenburg Protocol

1988 Sofia Protocol
Reduction of NOx emissions by 35% from 2005 levels by 2020

2010 emissions ceiling of 2.25 million tonnes

Stabilize (not exceed) 1987 NOx level
VOCs 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012)

1999 Gothenburg Protocol
Reduction of VOC emissions by 20% from 2005 levels by 2020

2010 emissions ceiling of 2.1 million tonnes
PM2.5 1999 Gothenburg Protocol (as amended in 2012) Reduction of PM2.5 emissions by 25% from 2005 levels by 2020 (excluding road dust, construction operations, and crop production)
NH3 1999 Gothenburg Protocol Emission reporting
Pb 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals 50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011
Cd 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals 50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011
Hg 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals 50% reduction of 1990 level by 2011
Dioxins and furans 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
B[a]p 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
B[b]f 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
B[k]f 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
I(cd)p 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level
HCB 1998 Aarhus Protocol on POPs Stabilize (not exceed) 1990 level

A4.1 Canada’s air pollution emissions relative to international commitments

This edition of the Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory (APEI) indicates that:

Irrespective of the downward trends observed in Canadian emissions, air quality issues may still arise when emissions sources are spatially concentrated. While the APEI provides valuable information on emissions within Canada, it does not distinguish localized sources of emissions within the provincial and territorial level aggregations.

A4.2 Overview of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe reporting template

The UNECE Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) categories correspond to the sectors described in the EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2019 (EEA, 2019). In addition to providing technical guidance for developing inventory methodologies, the 2019 EMEP/EEA guidebook includes instructions for attributing sectoral emissions to NFR codes.

Whereas the APEI report groups emissions by sectors (e.g. pulp and paper industry), the emissions in the UNECE are grouped by process and combustion sources. For example, the pulp and paper industry within the APEI includes both combustion and process emissions. The combustion component is mapped to NFR sector 1A2d (Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Pulp, Paper and Print). The process component is mapped to NFR sector 2H1 (Pulp and paper industry).

Table A4–2 illustrates the structure of the UNECE reporting template. The template, last revised November 18, 2019, can be found in its entirety on the CEIP website.

Notes:
BC = black carbon
GNFR = Gridded nomenclature for reporting
LPS = Large point source
NMVOC = Non-methane volatile organic compounds (refer to Annex 1 for more information)
TSP = Total suspended particles (equivalent to TPM in this report)

Table A4-2: Excerpt from United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Nomenclature for reporting template for 2022
(Annex 1: National sector emissions: Main pollutants, particulate matter, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants)

NFR aggregation
for gridding and LPS(GNFR)

NFR sectors to be reported – NFR Code NFR sectors to be reported
– Long name
NFR sectors to be reported – Notes Main pollutants
(from 1990) – NOx
(as NO2) (kt)
Main pollutants
(from 1990) – NMVOC (kt)
Main pollutants
(from 1990) – SOx
(as SO2) (kt)
Main pollutants
(from 1990) – NH3 (kt)
Particulate matter
(from 2000) – PM2.5 (kt)
Particulate matter
(from 2000) – PM10 (kt)
Particulate matter
(from 2000) – TSP (kt)
Particulate matter
(from 2000) – BC (kt)
Other
(from 1990) – CO (kt)

A_PublicPower

1 A 1 a

Public electricity and heat production

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 1 b

Petroleum refining

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 1 c

Manufacture of solid fuels and other energy industries

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 a

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Iron and steel

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 b

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-ferrous metals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 c

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Chemicals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 d

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Pulp, Paper and Print

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 e

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Food processing, beverages and tobacco

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 f

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Non-metallic minerals

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

I_Offroad

1 A 2 g vii

Mobile combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: (please specify in your IIR)

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

B_Industry

1 A 2 g viii

Stationary combustion in manufacturing industries and construction: Other (please specify in your IIR)

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

nil

A4.3 Mapping of Air Pollutant Emission Inventory emissions to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Nomenclature for Reporting categories

The mapping of APEI sector emissions to UNECE NFR categories involves dividing the sector emissions into their combustion and process components. Whereas certain sectors contribute solely a process component (in the case of road dust) or combustion component (in the case of transport sector), the majority of sectoral emissions are distributed over both components. In most sectors, this is accomplished using a split ratio, which, apart from a small number of exceptions, is assigned to a particular subsector and pollutant. For example, in the oil sands mining, extraction and upgrading subsector, a portion of the emissions are attributed to combustion and are accounted in manufacture of solid fuels and other energy industries, while another portion is attributed to the process emissions and are compiled in the fugitive emissions oil as illustrated in Table A4–3. The only exception for that subsector is ammonia (NH3), where all emissions are attributed to combustion activities. Finally, some in-house estimation methodologies produce detailed emissions by source, and emissions are assigned directly to the appropriate NFR code.

Table A4–3: Example of subsector mapping to a United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Nomenclature for Reporting category
APEI subsector UNECE NFR category – Combustion UNECE NFR category – Process Pollutant Split ratios (w/w)a – Combustion Split ratios (w/w)a – Process
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
B(a)p 0.998 0.002
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
B(b)f 0.834 0.166
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
B(k)f 0.998 0.002
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
Cd 0.970 0.030
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
CO 0.947 0.053
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
Hg 0.969 0.031
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
I(1,2,3-cd)p 0.999 0.001
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
NH3 1.000 0.000
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
NOx 0.996 0.004
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
Pb 0.990 0.010
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
PM10 0.442 0.558
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
PM2.5 0.646 0.354
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
SOx 0.998 0.002
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
TPM 0.293 0.707
Oil Sands Mining,
Extraction and Upgrading
1A1c: Manufacture of solid fuels
and other energy industries
1B2ai: Fugitive emissions oil:
Exploration, production,
transport
VOC 0.113 0.887

Note:
a. Data sources = ECCC (2017)

A4.4 Reporting international marine navigation and air transportation emissions

The APEI reports marine and aviation differently than NFR tables. While the overall total of emissions for these sectors are the same, the allocation into different categories are different.

The NFR table has five categories for marine: 1A3dii – National navigation (shipping), 1A4ciii – Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing: National fishing, 1A3di(i) – International maritime navigation, 1A3di(ii) – International inland waterways, and 1A5b – Other, Mobile (including military, land based and recreational boats). The APEI report includes all emissions occurring from domestic marine navigation (1A3dii), fishing vessels (1A4ciii) and military vessels (1A5b) in one category as those categories contribute to Canada’s national total. International marine navigation (excluding fishing and military operations) are reported in a separate table in the APEI report and the NFR table, as those emissions do not contribute to Canada’s national total. This is consistent with international reporting requirements. No values are reported under 1A3di(ii) – International inland waterways.

Similarly, the NFR table has five categories for aviation: 1A3ai(i) – International aviation landing/take-offs (LTO) (civil), 1A3ai(ii) – International aviation cruise (civil), 1A3aii(i) – Domestic aviation LTO (civil), 1A3aii(ii) – Domestic aviation cruise (civil), and 1A5b – Other, Mobile (including military, land based and recreational boats). The APEI report includes all emissions occurring from civil LTO cycles—1A3ai(i) and 1A3aii(i)—and military flights (1A5b) in one category as those categories contribute to Canada’s national total. The emissions attributed to the cruise phase for civil flights are reported separately in the APEI report and the NFR table, as those emissions do not contribute to Canada’s national total. This is consistent with international reporting requirements.

References, Annex 4, Submission to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2017. An Inventory of GHG, CAC and Other Priority Emissions by the Canadian Oil Sands Industry: 2003 to 2015. Prepared by Clearstone Engineering Ltd.

[EEA] European Environment Agency. 2019. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019. Technical guidance to prepare national emissions inventories. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union Technical Report No. 13/2019.

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