Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2022: chapter 1


1.1 Background on the Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory

Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory (APEI) is a comprehensive inventory of air pollutant emissions at the national, and provincial and territorial levels. The APEI is prepared and published by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) and serves many purposes, mainly by:

The first national inventory of air pollutant emissions in Canada was compiled in 1973, with national, provincial, and territorial estimates of emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons and particulate matter (PM) for the year 1970. Since then, air pollutant emissions estimates for Canada have continued to be published on a regular basis.

Today, the APEI includes emissions data for 17 air pollutants that contribute to smog, acid rain and diminished air quality, including:

The reporting format for the APEI organizes emissions into 11 source categories that are further broken down into 73 sectors and 73 associated subsectors (Table 1–1). The APEI is compiled and published on an annual basis. The time series of annual emissions contained in this report is updated from 1990 to the most recent inventory year, to ensure the trends in emissions are based on consistent and current methodological approaches and data.

The APEI is compiled from many different data sources. Emissions data reported by individual facilities to ECCC’s National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) are supplemented with well-documented, science-based estimation tools and methodologies to quantify total emissions. Together, these data sources provide a comprehensive coverage of air pollutant emissions across Canada.

Table 1–1 Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory sector descriptions

Ore and Mineral Industries
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Aluminium Industry Alumina production through bauxite refining, primary aluminium production through smelting and refining and secondary aluminium production in which aluminium is recovered from aluminium-containing scrap.
Asphalt Paving Industry Asphalt concrete (or hot-mix asphalt) manufacturing. Emissions are from permanent and portable hot-mix asphalt installations.
Cement and Concrete Industry Entire process of cement production in rotary kilns, as well as the preparation of concrete and ready-mix concrete, lime manufacture and concrete batching and products.
Foundries Castings of various types of ferro-alloys as well as small iron and steel foundries not associated with integrated iron and steel facilities. The types of foundries include: open ferrous, electric arc and induction.
Iron and Steel Industry Steel production, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, sintering, direct reduction of iron, hot forming and semi-finishing, and coke production.
Iron Ore Pelletizing Iron ore induration of fired pellets.
Mineral Products Industry Manufacture of brick, clay products such as pipes, liner and tiles and other mineral products such as gypsum and glass products.
Mining and Rock Quarrying Overburden removal, drilling in rock, blasting, crushing of rock, loading of materials, transporting raw materials by conveyors, scraping, bulldozing, grading, open storage pile losses and wind erosion from exposed areas.
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry Primary copper and nickel production using pyrometallurgical operations, lead ore crushing, concentrating and metallurgic processing and zinc metal production through electrolytic processes. Also includes much smaller non-ferrous refining and smelting sources, such as those from magnesium, cobalt and uranium industry processes.
Oil and Gas Industry
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry Refining and processing of crude oil to make fuels or other products such as solvents or asphalt. Storage and distribution of refined petroleum products, natural gas distribution and liquid natural gas (LNG) processing.
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Drilling, testing and servicing of wells, conventional oil and gas production, in situ bitumen extraction and open-pit mining, oil sands upgrading, natural gas processing, crude oil transmission, natural gas transmission and storage.
Electric Power Generation (Utilities)
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Coal Electric power generation from combustion of coal by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sales and/or private use.
Diesel Electric power generation from combustion of diesel by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sales and/or private use.
Natural Gas Electric power generation from combustion of natural gas by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sales and/or private use.
Waste Materials Electric power generation from combustion of waste materials by utilities (both publicly and privately) for commercial sales and/or private use.
Other (Electric Power Generation) Electric power generation from other energy sources by utilities (both publicly and privately owned) for commercial sales and/or private use.
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Abrasives Manufacturing Manufacturing of abrasive grinding wheels, abrasive-coated materials and other abrasive products.
Bakeries Manufacturing of bakery products, including frozen baked products.
Biofuel Production Production of ethanol for fuel or oils for biodiesel.
Chemicals Industry Large number of different product industries including fertilizer manufacturing, plastic resins, paints and varnishes, petrochemicals, inorganic chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The raw materials, processes used and products produced are in many cases unique to individual plants.
Electronics Manufacturing of electronics, such as communications equipment, semiconductors and electronic components, navigational and guidance instruments, electric lamp bulbs and parts, transformers, switchgear, relay and industrial control.
Food Preparation Activities related to food production for human or animal consumption, such as: manufacturing of dog and cat food; sugar and confectionery products; frozen food; dairy products; meat products; beverage products; seafood product preparation and packaging; fruit and vegetable canning; pickling and drying; and snacks, dressing, and tobacco products. This excludes grain-handling-related activities, such as malting and flour making.
Glass Manufacturing Making of glass from sand and cullet as well as the remelting, pressing, blowing or otherwise shaping purchased glass.
Grain Industry Primary, process, terminal and transfer elevators, as well as manufacturing or processing grain for use in other products.
Metal Fabrication Activities related to metal fabrication, such as: ferro-alloy manufacturing; production of iron and steel pipes and tubes, cold-rolling steel bars, sheets, strips and other steel shapes; steel wire drawing; copper rolling, drawing, extruding and alloying; forging; stamping; and other metal manufacturing.
Plastics Manufacturing Manufacturing of: plastic bags; plastic film and sheet; unlaminated plastic profile shapes; plastic pipes and pipe fittings; laminating plastic profile shapes (plates, sheets and rods); polystyrene foam products; urethane; and other foam products.
Pulp and paper Industry Chemical, mechanical, recycling and semi-chemical mills, including the production of energy through the combustion of spent pulping liquor, biomass and fossil-fuel combustion. Also includes fugitive emissions from wood refining, screening and drying, and various steps in chemical recovery systems.
Textiles Textile product-related activities, including: fibre, yarn, and thread manufacturing; textiles and fabric finishing; fabric coating; carpet and rug manufacturing; clothing knitting; as well as clothing accessories and other clothing manufacturing.
Vehicle Manufacturing (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) Activities related to: vehicle manufacturing (manufacturing of motor vehicles plastic parts, engine and power transmission equipment, automobile and light-duty motor vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, truck trailers, motor vehicle brake systems, seating and interior trim, and vehicle parts); urban transit systems; and support activities for rail transportation.
Wood Products Sawmills, panelboard mills (veneer, plywood, waferboard, particle board and medium-density fiberboard mills), and other wood products manufacturing establishments (furniture and cabinet makers, wood treating plants, wood pellet mills and Masonite manufacturers).
Other (Manufacturing) Manufacturing and processing industries that are not included under a specific industrial sector, such as: asphalt shingle and coating activities; rubber manufacturing; and ship building and repair.
Transportation and Mobile Equipment
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Air Transportation (LTO) Landing and takeoff (LTO) cycles from piston and turbine aircraft used for commercial and private operations. LTO cycles and cruise modes cycles from piston and turbine aircraft used for military operations.
Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise) Cruise modes from aircraft used for domestic commercial and private operations.
Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military Marine vessels engaged in domestic navigation, fishing, or military operations within Canadian waters.
International Air Transportation (Cruise) Cruise modes from aircraft used for international commercial and private operations.
International Marine Navigation Marine vessels engaged in international navigation within Canadian waters.
Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles Diesel vehicles over 3 856 kilograms.
Heavy-Duty Gasoline Vehicles Gasoline vehicles over 3 856 kilograms.
Heavy-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles Propane and natural gas vehicles over 3 856 kilograms.
Light-Duty Diesel Trucks Diesel trucks under 3 856 kilograms.
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles Diesel vehicles under 3 856 kilograms.
Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks Gasoline trucks under 3 856 kilograms.
Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles Gasoline vehicles under 3 856 kilograms.
Light-Duty LPG/NG Trucks Propane and natural gas trucks under 3 856 kilograms.
Light-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles Propane and natural gas vehicles under 3 856 kilograms.
Motorcycles Motorcycles.
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment Off-road vehicles and mobile equipment using diesel fuel in mining, construction, agriculture, commercial purposes, logging, railway maintenance, and airport ground support; lawn and garden equipment using diesel fuel; and recreational vehicles using diesel fuel.
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment Off-road vehicles and mobile equipment using gasoline, liquid petroleum gas, and compressed natural gas in mining, construction, agriculture, commercial purposes, logging, railway maintenance, airport ground support; lawn and garden equipment using gasoline, liquid petroleum gas, or compressed natural gas; and recreational vehicles using gasoline, liquid petroleum gas, and compressed natural gas.
Rail Transportation Freight and passenger trains, including yard switching activities.
Tire Wear and Brake Lining Tire and brake lining wear from all categories of road transportation.
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Agricultural Fuel Combustion Stationary combustion sources in agricultural facilities such as space and water heating and crop drying.
Animal Production Decomposition of animal feed, animal digestion, and manure in housing, storage, applied to agricultural soils, or deposited during grazing.
Crop Production Application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, biosolids, tillage, wind erosion and crop harvesting.
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion Combustion of fossil and biogenic fuels used for: space/water heating in commercial establishments; health and educational institutions; and government/public administration facilities.
Commercial Cooking Cooking meat and french fries in commercial food service operations.
Construction Fuel Combustion Combustion of fossil fuels used for space heating and the heating of construction materials, such as concrete.
Home Firewood Burning Burning of wood, pellets and manufactured logs as fuel for space heating and hot water. Includes emissions from fireplaces, wood stoves and wood-fired boilers.
Human Human respiration, perspiration, dental amalgams.
Marine Cargo Handling Handling, loading and unloading of materials, goods and merchandise between ships and docks.
Residential Fuel Combustion Combustion of fossil fuels used for space/water heating in residences.
Service Stations Fuel transfers and storage at service stations, as well as individuals refueling vehicles and off-road equipment.
Other (Miscellaneous) Hg in products and facility-reported data from sectors that are not included elsewhere.
Incineration and Waste
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Crematoriums Combustion of caskets and human bodies including dental amalgams, as well as companion animals.
Waste Incineration Incinerators used to combust municipal, sewage sludge, and other waste types including hazardous and medical waste; as well as residential waste burning.
Waste Treatment and Diposal Landfilling of waste, biological treatment of waste, specialized waste treatment and remediation, waste sorting and transfer as well as municipal wastewater treatment and discharge.
Paints and Solvents
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Dry Cleaning Dry cleaning of fabric and leather items.
General Solvent Use Broad range of applications occurring in residential, commercial, industrial and institutional locations. Industrial applications include uses such as: degreasing; adhesives and sealants; aerosols; blowing agents; and resin manufacturing. The use of consumer and commercial products, pesticides and personal care products are also included.
Printing Manufacturing or use of printing inks, which includes: flexographic; gravure; letterpress; lithographic; and other printing.
Surface Coatings Broad range of applications and industries, including individuals and companies engaged in use of paints and coatings.
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Coal Transportation Transportation of coal by train or truck.
Construction Operations Soil disturbance on construction sites (residential, industrial-commercial-institutional [ICI], engineering).
Mine Tailings Wind erosion at mine tailings ponds located on active and inactive mine sites.
Paved Roads Re-suspension of particulate matter by vehicles travelling on paved roads.
Unpaved Roads Re-suspension of particulate matter by vehicles travelling on unpaved roads.
Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory source/sector Sector descriptions
Prescribed Burning Controlled fires used for land management treatments such as reducing logging residues, managing forest production, controlling insects, and minimizing the potential for destructive wildfires. Excludes the burning of agricultural residues.
Structural Fires Vehicle fires (including trains and airplanes) and fires that burn buildings.

1.2 Reporting requirements

The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) endeavours to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce, and prevent air pollution. Since it was originally signed in 1979, the CLRTAP has been extended to a total of eight protocols, of which Canada has ratified seven. Six of these identify measures to be taken by Parties to achieve the Convention’s objectives and the seventh concerns financing. Canada is a Party to the following six protocols that identify measures under the Convention:

These protocols set specific emissions reduction targets for sulphur, NOx, Cd, Pb, Hg, dioxins and furans, PAHs, HCB, and VOCs. Parties are required to report emissions to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) each year by February 15. More information on the submission to the UNECE can be found in Annex 4.

In addition, Canada collects and publishes data on emissions of NH3, CO and three categories of PM (TPM, PM10 and PM2.5) and voluntarily reports the emissions of these five substances, along with the 12 substances for which there are protocols, to the UNECE annually. Canada has ratified the 1984 Geneva Protocol on Long-Term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe.

Canada and the United States work jointly to address shared concerns regarding transboundary air pollution. Under the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement, Canada monitors and reports emissions of SO2, NOx and VOCs other than methane.

1.3 Canada’s air emissions regulations and non-regulatory measures

Downward trends in emissions of air pollutants reflect the ongoing implementation of a wide range of regulatory and non-regulatory instruments that aim to reduce or eliminate pollutants in order to improve and maintain air quality in Canada. Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) related to the 17 APEI pollutants include, but are not limited to, the following:

A number of greenhouse gas regulations are also expected to achieve significant co-benefit reductions in air pollutants, including Canada’s Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-fired Generation of Electricity Regulations and Regulations Respecting Reduction in the Release of Methane and Certain Volatile Organic Compounds (Upstream Oil and Gas Sector).

Non-regulatory instruments include guidelines for new stationary combustion turbines, codes of practice, performance agreements, and/or pollution prevention planning notices for various sectors. These instruments address emissions from a number of sectors including aluminium, iron, steel and ilmenite, iron ore pellets, potash, base-metals smelting and refining, and pulp and paper.

All regulations administered under CEPA 1999 are available on the environmental registry and on the Department of Justice’s online consolidation of federal acts and regulations.

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