Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report 2022: chapter 2.12

2.12 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

In 2020, approximately 8.1 kg of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were emitted in Canada (Table 2–14). Waste Incineration was the largest contributor in 2020 with 61% (5.0 kg) of total HCB emissions. Ore and Mineral Industries was the second-largest contributor, with 33% (2.7 kg) of total emissions, attributed to the Iron and Steel Industry sector, which represented 11% (0.89 kg) of the national total. Within the same category, the Cement and Concrete Industry and Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry sectors contributed to 9.5% (0.77 kg) and 8.9% (0.72 kg), respectively, of the total HCB emissions.

Overall, HCB emissions decreased by 81% (34 kg) from 1990 to 2020. HCB emissions decreased between 1990 and 2014 and have remained relatively stable since 2014 (Figure 2–12). The decrease is partly due to a drop in emissions from Waste Incineration since 1998, specifically as a result of a decline in the use of batch incinerators for municipal waste incineration. For example, the use of conical burners has declined steadily in Newfoundland and Labrador (Newfoundland Municipal Affairs and Environment, 2017). 

Emission reductions were also observed in the Electric Power Generation (Utilities) category as a result of reduced HCB emissions reported at several coal plants. Between 2019 and 2020, Ore and Mineral Industries experienced a decrease in HCB emissions of 40 % (1.8 kg), mostly due to a decrease in Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry of 73% (2.0 kg), in part owed to the permanent closure of a non-ferrous metal smelter in December 2019.

The most significant changes in HCB emissions from 1990 to 2020 include:

Figure 2–12: Trends in Canadian HCB emissions (1990 to 2020)

Figure 2-12 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 2–12

Figure 2–12 is a stacked area graph displaying the four major contributors to national HCB trends that are: Coal (Electric Power Generation), Waste Incineration, Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry, and Other. The figure shows that emissions from all sources reduced significantly between 1990 and 2020. The following table displays the contributions (kg) for the years 1990 to 2020.

Figure 2–12: Trends in Canadian HCB emissions (1990 to 2020) (kg)
Section 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Waste Incineration 15 16 16 17 18 18 17 17 17 17 17 18 13 7.4 7.1 8.5 7.9 7.7 6.1 5.7 5.2 5.5 5.2 5.0 4.5 4.7 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9
Non-Ferrous Refining and Smelting Industry 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 11 19 6.6 5.0 5.6 4.5 1.9 2.7 0.72 0.94 0.94 0.66 0.73 0.53 0.70 0.83 1.0 1.1 2.7 0.72
Coal (Electric Power Generation) 10 9.7 10 10 9.8 10 9.9 9.6 10 10 16 8.5 8.4 4.5 4.5 3.9 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.3 1.3 1.1 0.20 0.19 0.24 0.43 0.43 0.36 0.30 0.26 0.20
Other 14 17 16 17 17 16 17 17 16 16 15 5.3 13 8.5 5.5 4.1 3.3 3.5 2.6 1.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.2 2.3

Table 2–14: National summary of annual HCB emissions

Notes:
Totals may not add up due to rounding.
0.00 Indicates emissions were truncated due to rounding.
- Indicates no emissions

Ore and Mineral Industries (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total 5 500 5 700 8 100 2 200 2 300 2 400 3 100 4 500 2 700
Aluminium Industry - - - 35 35 35 35 35 35
Asphalt Paving Industry - - - - - - - - -
Cement and Concrete Industry 1 600 2 100 880 290 410 300 900 790 770
Foundries 0.11 0.20 - 23 24 6.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
Iron and Steel Industry 1 100 980 1 500 1 100 1 000 1 100 1 100 1 000 890
Iron Ore Pelletizing - - - - - - - - 280
Mineral Products Industry - - - - - - - - -
Mining and Rock Quarrying - - 44 17 12 7.5 6.5 9.8 9.7
Non-Ferrous Mining and Smelting Industry 2 700 2 600 5 600 700 830 1 000 1 100 2 700 720
Oil and Gas Industry (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total 1.3 1.6 - - - - - - -
Downstream Oil and Gas Industry - - - - - - - - -
Upstream Oil and Gas Industry 1.3 1.6 - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total 11 000 17 000 4 100 600 570 460 400 310 240
Coal 10 000 16 000 3 900 430 430 360 300 260 200
Diesel - - - - - - - - -
Natural Gas 640 1 300 170 150 120 84 81 45 35
Waste Materials 4.8 - - - - - - - -
Other (Electric Power Generation) - 190 - 16 17 16 17 8.1 4.1
Manufacturing (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total 10 000 9 900 1 500 350 270 350 330 260 220
Abrasives Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Bakeries - - - - - - - - -
Biofuel Production - - - - - - - - -
Chemicals Industry 680 330 480 - - - - - -
Electronics 0.20 0.21 - - - - - - -
Food Preparation - 2.9 3.0 - - - - - -
Glass Manufacturing - - - - - - - - -
Grain Industry - - - - - - - - -
Metal Fabrication 460 480 52 210 190 240 230 190 160
Plastics Manufacturing - 0.00 0.00 - - - - - -
Pulp and Paper Industry 140 180 310 140 85 110 100 67 64
Textiles - - - - - - - - -
Vehicle Manufacturing (Engines, Parts, Assembly, Painting) 8 800 8 400 - - - - - - -
Wood Products 340 580 620 0.11 0.11 0.088 0.090 0.072 0.086
Other (Manufacturing) - 0.00 - - - - - - -
Transportation and Mobile Equipment (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total - - - - - - - - -
Air Transportation (LTO) - - - - - - - - -
Domestic Marine Navigation, Fishing and Military - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Heavy-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Diesel Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Gasoline Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Trucks - - - - - - - - -
Light-Duty LPG/NG Vehicles - - - - - - - - -
Motorcycles - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Diesel Vehicles and Equipment  - - - - - - - - -
Off-Road Gasoline/LPG/NG Vehicles and Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Rail Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Tire Wear and Brake Lining - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total - - - 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.82 0.78 0.52
Animal Production - - - - - - - - -
Crop Production - - - - - - - - -
Agricultural Fuel Combustion - - - 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.82 0.78 0.52
Commercial/Residential/Institutional (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total 1.6 4.4 1.3 0.31 0.23 - - - -
Commercial and Institutional Fuel Combustion 0.11 3.0 0.00 - - - - - -
Commercial Cooking  - - - - - - - - -
Construction Fuel Combustion  - - - - - - - - -
Home Firewood Burning  - - - - - - - - -
Human - - - - - - - - -
Marine Cargo Handling  - - - - - - - - -
Residential Fuel Combustion 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.31 0.23 - - - -
Service Stations - - - - - - - - -
Other (Miscellaneous) - - - - - - - - -
Incineration and Waste (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total 15 000 17 000 8 500 4 700 5 100 4 900 4 800 4 900 5 000
Crematoriums 10 14 18 27 28 29 30 31 34
Waste Incineration 15 000 17 000 8 500 4 700 5 000 4 800 4 800 4 900 4 900
Waste Treatment and Disposal - 81 39 - - - - - -
Paints and Solvents (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total - - - - - - - - -
Dry Cleaning - - - - - - - - -
General Solvent Use - - - - - - - - -
Printing - - - - - - - - -
Surface Coatings - - - - - - - - -
Dust (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total - - - - - - - - -
Coal Transportation - - - - - - - - -
Construction Operations - - - - - - - - -
Mine Tailings - - - - - - - - -
Paved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Unpaved Roads - - - - - - - - -
Fires (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Sub-total - - - - - - - - -
Prescribed Burning - - - - - - - - -
Structural Fires - - - - - - - - -
Totals (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Ore and Mineral Industry 5 500 5 700 8 100 2 200 2 300 2 400 3 100 4 500 2 700
Oil and Gas Industry 1.3 1.6 - - - - - - -
Electric Power Generation (Utilities) 11 000 17 000 4 100 600 570 460 400 310 240
Manufacturing 10 000 9 900 1 500 350 270 350 330 260 220
Transportation and Mobile Equipment - - - - - - - - -
Agriculture - - - 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.82 0.78 0.52
Commercial/Residential/Institutional 1.6 4.4 1.3 0.31 0.23 - - - -
Incineration and Waste 15 000 17 000 8 500 4 700 5 100 4 900 4 800 4 900 5 000
Paints and Solvents - - - - - - - - -
Dust - - - - - - - - -
Fires - - - - - - - - -
Grand Total 42 000 50 000 22 000 7 800 8 300 8 100 8 700 10 000 8 100

Note:
Refer to Annex 4.4 for more information on international marine navigation and air transportation reporting emissions.

Other emissions estimated in the APEI (g)
Sector 1990 2000 2005 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Domestic Air Transportation (Cruise) - - - - - - - - -
International Air Transportation (Cruise) - - - - - - - - -
International Marine Navigation - - - - - - - - -

References, Chapter 2, 2020 Emissions and trends

[AB] Government of Alberta. 2018. Methane Emission Reduction Regulation. A.R. 244/2018. [2018 Dec 12]

[BC] British Columbia Government. 2021. Oil and Gas Activities Act - Drilling and Production Regulation. B.C. Reg. 282/2010. [Amended 2021 Mar 4].

[EC] Environment Canada. 2001. Environmental Code of Practice for Integrated Steel Mills – CEPA 1999 Code of Practice

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2014. Annual Public Report of Environmental Performance Agreement Concerning Atmospheric Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons between Environment and Climate Change Canada and Rio Tinto Alcan

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2017. 2015 Progress report: pollution prevention planning by ase metals smelters and refineries and zinc plants

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2018a. Base metal smelters sector: environmental performance agreements overview. Gatineau (QC).

[ECCC] Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2018b. Regulations respecting reduction in the release of methane and certain volatile organic compounds (upstream oil and gas sector) (SOR/2018-66)

 Newfoundland Municipal Affairs and Environment. 2017. Solid Waste Management Strategy Performance Monitoring Report. [PDF]

[SK] Government of Saskatchewan. 2020. The Oil and Gas Emissions Management Regulations (OGEMR) [Amended 2020]. 

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