Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2011 model vehicles

Fleet average nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission performance of 2011 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

in relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the
Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

Transportation Division

March 2014

For PDF version - 663 KB

Disclaimer

This document provides a summary of data collected pursuant to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations. It does not in any way supersede or modify the requirements of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 or the Regulations made under that Act. In the event of an inconsistency between this document and the Act and/or the Regulations, the Act and the Regulations prevail.


Cat. No.: En81-10/2011E-PDF

ISSN: 1927-2456

Unless otherwise specified, you may not reproduce materials in this publication, in whole or in part, for the purposes of commercial redistribution without prior written permission from Environment Canada's copyright administrator. To obtain permission to reproduce Government of Canada materials for commercial purposes, apply for Crown Copyright Clearance by contacting:

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Aussi disponible en français : Rendement des émissions moyennes de NOx du parc de véhicules légers, de camionnettes et de véhicules moyens à passagers pour l’année de modèle 2011.

1. Executive summary

Under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (hereafter referred to as the “Regulations”), each new light-duty vehicle, light-duty truck and medium-duty passenger vehicle is required to be certified by its manufacturer to one of the bins corresponding to those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency for which there are specific emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and other pollutants. In addition, manufacturers and importers of these vehicles are required to report on their fleet average NOx emission performance for each model year.

This report is the eighth annual performance report, and it summarizes the fleet average NOx emission performance of the Canadian 2011 model-year fleet of vehicles. A total of 23 companies submitted end-of-model-year reports comprising a total of 1 450 947 vehicles manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale. The report includes the fleet average NOx value for each company as well as their emission credits/deficits. It also provides a comparison of the distribution of vehicles certified to the various emissions bins and the overall NOx performance with that of previous model years (i.e., 2004 to 2010 model years).

The average NOx value for the Canadian 2011 model year combined fleet of light-duty vehicles, light light-duty trucks, heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles is 0.06454148 grams/mile compared to the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Each individual company had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard, and all companies complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the Regulations based on their reports.

The average NOx value continued to decrease for the 2011 model year. This result is consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the Regulations.

2. Purpose

The purpose of this report is to summarize the fleet average NOx emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2011 model year (MY) based on data submitted by companies in their end-of-model-year reports; furthermore, it is also to report on the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NOx emission program in achieving the environmental performance objectives.

3. Introduction

On January 1, 2004, the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999). These Regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines. The Regulations align Canada’s emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, medium-duty passenger vehicles, heavy-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines and on-road motorcycles with those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) through incorporation by reference to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

The Regulations also establish fleet average NOx standards for light-duty vehiclesFootnote 1 (LDV), light light-duty trucksFootnote 2 (LLDT), heavy light-duty trucksFootnote 3 (HLDT) and medium-duty passenger vehiclesFootnote 4 (MDPV). Each new LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV is required to be certified to one of the bins presented in Table 1, for which there are specific emission standards for NOx and other pollutants. A company’s choice of bin to which individual vehicle models are certified in a given model year is limited by the obligation to comply with the fleet average NOx standards associated with that model year. Table 2 presents the applicable fleet average NOx standards for a company’s fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV.

Table 1: LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV full useful life exhaust emission standards
(grams/mile)
Bin
Number
NOx NMOG CO Formaldehyde PM
11* 0.9 0.28 7.3 0.032 0.12
10* 0.6 0.156/0.230 4.2/6.4 0.018/0.027 0.08
9* 0.3 0.090/0.180 4.2 0.018 0.06
8 0.20 0.125/0.156 4.2 0.018 0.02
7 0.15 0.09 4.2 0.018 0.02
6 0.10 0.09 4.2 0.018 0.01
5 0.07 0.09 4.2 0.018 0.01
4 0.04 0.07 2.1 0.011 0.01
3 0.03 0.055 2.1 0.011 0.01
2 0.02 0.01 2.1 0.004 0.01
1 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.000 0.00

* These bins are no longer available.

Notes: 1)
The equivalent limits in units of grams/km are obtained by multiplying the grams/mile value by 0.621.
2)
Bins 8 through 10 contain additional temporary, less stringent standards for certain pollutants and for certain vehicles.
3)
Bin 11 was only available for MDPV for the 2004 to 2008 model years.
4)
Bins 9 and 10 were only available for LDV and LLDT for the 2004 to 2006 model years and for HLDT and MDPV for the 2004 to 2008 model years.
5)
Beginning in the 2009 model year, applicable standards are limited to bins 1 to 8 for all categories.

 

Table 2: Fleet average NO x standards
(grams/mile)
Model Year LDV/LLDT HLDT/MDPV
2004 0.25 0.53
2005 0.19 0.43
2006 0.13 0.33
2007 0.07 0.20
2008 0.07 0.14
2009 and subsequent model years 0.07 0.07


A company’s fleet average NOx value is the weighted average based on the number of vehicles certified to each bin. The emission bins, fleet average NOx standards, and methods of calculating fleet average NOx values are aligned with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). However, there are differences in the structure of the NOx averaging program in Canada, which is designed to recognize vehicles that are sold concurrently in Canada and the U.S. The regulatory requirements are structured to deliver fleet average emissions comparable to those of the U.S. while minimizing the regulatory burden on companies and enabling the marketing of vehicles in Canada independently from the U.S.

The Regulations require that all companies submit a report to the Minister of the Environment no later than May 1 after the end of each model year. The end-of-model-year report must contain detailed information concerning the company’s fleet(s) and/or groups of vehicles, including information related to the following:

  • statements of allowable elections made by the company in complying with the fleet average NOx requirements of the Regulations, if any;

  • the applicable fleet average NOx standard;

  • the fleet average NOx value achieved by the company;

  • the values used in calculating the company fleet average NOx value;

  • calculation of NOx emission credits and/or deficits, if any;

  • balance of credits or deficits;

  • credit transfers to or from the company, if any.

For more information regarding the calculation of fleet average NOx values and NOx emission credits or deficits, please refer to the Regulations, which can be found on the Environment Canada CEPA Registry. Reports for the 2004 to 2010 model years can also be found on the CEPA Registry.

4. Company fleet average NOx emission performance for the 2011 model year

4.1 Scope of company reports

Table 3 presents a list of the companies that submitted an end-of-model-year report for the 2011 model year in accordance with the requirements of the Regulations, including the vehicle makes as well as the number of test groups covered by their reports.

Table 3: Scope of company reports
Company Makes Number of test groups
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited Aston Martin 2
BMW Group Canada BMW, Mini, Rolls-Royce 20
Chrysler Canada Inc. Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep 20
Ferrari North America, Inc. Ferrari 2
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited Ford, Lincoln 32
General Motors of Canada Limited Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC 28
Honda Canada Inc. Acura, Honda 17
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp. Hyundai 16
Jaguar (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC) Jaguar 1
Kia Canada Inc. Kia 17
Land Rover (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC) Land Rover 2
Lotus Cars Limited Lotus 2
Maserati North America, Inc. Maserati 1
Mazda Canada Inc. Mazda 14
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc. Maybach, Mercedes, Smart 18
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc. Mitsubishi 9
Nissan Canada Inc. Infiniti, Nissan 25
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd. Porsche  13
Subaru Canada, Inc. Subaru 4
Suzuki Canada Inc. Suzuki 4
Toyota Canada Inc. Lexus, Scion, Toyota 35
Volkswagen Group Audi, Bentley, Lamborghini, Volkswagen 19
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp. Volvo 4
Notes:
A test group is the basic classification unit that comprises LDV, LLDT, HLDT or MDPV having similar exhaust emission performances and that share all of the features described in section 1827, subchapter C, part 86 of the CFR.


A total of 23 companies submitted a report for the 2011 model year covering a total of 305 distinct test groups. It should be noted that certain test groups were common between companies that shared vehicle platforms or powertrains.


4.2 Company fleet average NOx values

Table 4 summarizes the total number of vehicles and average NOx values for each company’s combined fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV.

Table 4: Summary of company average NO x values for the combined fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV
Fleet average NO x standard = 0.07 grams/mile
Company Total number of vehicles Average NOx value (grams/mile)
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited 83 0.070
BMW Group Canada 44 661 0.070000
Chrysler Canada Inc. 171 440 0.0539073
Ferrari North America, Inc. 164 0.0700
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited 246 820 0.0581502
General Motors of Canada Limited 248 938 0.0622566
Honda Canada Inc. 97 573 0.069479
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp. 100 516 0.0695722
Jaguar (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC) 1 022 0.07000
Kia Canada Inc. 65 034 0.069697
Land Rover (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC) 3 342 0.07000
Lotus Cars Limited 55 0.070
Maserati North America, Inc. 133 0.0700
Mazda Canada Inc. 66 565 0.069165
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc. 31 619 0.068793
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc. 21 882 0.070000
Nissan Canada Inc. 75 713 0.069870
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd. 2 334 0.07000
Subaru Canada, Inc. 22 529 0.068035
Suzuki Canada Inc. 7 601 0.06895
Toyota Canada Inc. 170 470 0.0686468
Volkswagen Group 66 209 0.070000
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp. 6 244 0.07000
Notes:
Fleet average NO x values are rounded to the same number of significant figures that are contained in the total number of vehicles in a company’s fleet.


The company average NOx values ranged from 0.0581502 grams/mile to 0.0700000 grams/mile for the fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV, and no companies reported a fleet average NOx value that was above the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Eleven out of 23 companies reported a fleet average NOx value that was equal to the fleet average NOx standard.


4.3 NOx Emission credits/deficits for the 2011 model year and end of model year balance

Table 5 summarizes the NOx emission credits/deficits obtained by each company for the 2011 model year. It also lists the balance of credits for each company. Companies were assigned “0” for the “Total 2011 MY Credits” if they did not report credits, had a fleet average NOx value that was equal to the standard, or elected to exclude their group of vehicles from compliance with the fleet average NOx standard.

Table 5: NO x Emission credits/deficits for the 2011 model year and end of model year balance
(vehicle-grams/mile)
Company Initial balancea Total 2011 MY creditsa New balancea
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited 0 0b 0
BMW Group Canada 913 0c 913
Chrysler Canada Inc. 44 997 2 759 47 756
Ferrari North America, Inc. 0 0d 0
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited 41 823 2 925 44 748
General Motors of Canada Limited 78 401 1 928 80 329
Honda Canada Inc. 20 129 51 20 180
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp. 3 163 43 3 206
Jaguar (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC) 126 0c 126
Kia Canada Inc. 4 721 20 4 741
Land Rover (Jaguar Land Rover Canada ULC) 953 0c 953
Lotus Cars Limited 0 0d 0
Maserati North America, Inc. 0 0d 0
Mazda Canada Inc. 15 034 56 15 090
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc. 40 38 78
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc. 76 0e 76
Nissan Canada Inc. 18 854 10e 18 864
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd. 456 0c 456
Subaru Canada, Inc. 2 665 44 2 709
Suzuki Canada Inc. 1 273 8 1 281
Toyota Canada Inc. 26 785 231 27 016
Volkswagen Group 0 0c 0
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp. 3 538 0c 3 538
Total 263 947 8 113 272 060

a NOx emission credits/deficits are rounded to the nearest whole number.
b The company elected not to calculate an average NOx value pursuant to subsection 25(1) of the Regulations, as every vehicle conforms to a NOx standard equal to or less than the applicable fleet average NOx standard for that model year.
c The company reported a fleet average NOx value that is equal to the fleet average NOx standard.
d The company elected to exclude its entire fleet, which is sold concurrently in Canada and the U.S., from compliance with the fleet average NOx standard pursuant to subsection 31(1) of the Regulations.
e The company elected to exclude only parts of its fleet that satisfied the election from compliance with the fleet average NOx standard pursuant to subsection 31(1) of the Regulations. However, the average NOx value for the group of vehicles not subject to the election was equal to the fleet average NOx standard. Therefore, the company did not incur a deficit.


A total of 8113 credits were generated by companies for the 2011 model year. No company incurred a deficit with respect to its 2011 model year fleet, and no company reported a negative balance of credits at the end of the 2011 model year. In addition, there were no transfers of credits to or from companies for the 2011 model year.


4.4 Distribution of bins and total Canada NOx fleet average value

Table 6 summarizes the distribution of vehicles by the NOx standard of each bin. It also provides the calculated fleet average NOx value of the entire Canadian fleet for the 2011 model year.

Table 6: Distribution of vehicles by the NO x standard of each bin
Bin number NOx standard (grams/mile) Total number of vehicles in "bin" Percentage of vehicles in "bin"
8 0.20 21 819 1.50
7 0.15 0 0.00
6 0.10 0 0.00
5 0.07 1 074 703 74.07
4 0.04 344 878 23.77
3 0.03 7 091 0.49
2 0.02 2 270 0.16
1 0.00 186 0.01
Total number of vehicles in 2011 MY fleet
1 450 947
Total canada NOx fleet average (grams/mile)
0.06454148
Fleet average NOx standard (grams/mile)
0.07


For the 2011 model year, almost all vehicles (98.5% of the fleet) were certified to a bin at or below the fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile. The average NOx value for the Canadian fleet was 0.06454148 grams/mile, which is 7.8 % below the standard. For the first time, the Canadian fleet contains vehicles that were certified to Bin 1 (0.01% of the fleet).

Figure 1 depicts the changing distribution of the combined Canadian fleet by the NOx standard of each bin across the 2004 to 2011 model years. In addition, Figure 2 presents this information on a percentage basis to facilitate year-to-year comparison.


Figure 1: Distribution of the Canadian fleet by number of vehicles in each bin

Distribution of the Canadian fleet (see long description below).
Description of figure 1

Figure 1 is a bar graph depicting the changing distribution of the Canadian fleet in absolute numbers of vehicles in each bin across the 2004 to 2011 model years.

 


Figure 2: Distribution of the Canadian fleet by the percentage of vehicles relative to the fleet in each bin

Distribution of the Canadian fleet (see long description below).
Description of figure 2

Figure 2 is a bar graph depicting the changing distribution of the Canadian fleet on a percentage basis in each bin across the 2004 to 2011 model years.


4.5 Fleet average NOx values trend

Figure 3 presents the average NOx values trend relative to the applicable standards since 2004 for both the LDV/LLDT and HLDT/MDPV fleets. The fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV is now subject to a single combined fleet average standard of 0.07 grams/mile instead of two different standards. As a result, the fleet average NOx values for the 2009 to 2011 model years are shown as single points.


Figure 3: Fleet average NOx values and standards

Fleet average NOx values and standards (see long description below).
Description of figure 3

Figure 3 is a graph presenting the average NOx values trend relative to the standard since 2004 for both the light-duty vehicle/light light-duty truck and heavy light-duty truck/medium-duty passenger vehicle fleets. Overall, the fleet average NOx value for the combined fleet of light-duty vehicles, light light-duty trucks, heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles decreased from 2004 to 2011. More specifically, the fleet average NOx value for the 2011 model year is 7.8% below the standard of 0.07 grams/mile.


Overall, the fleet average NOx value for the combined fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV decreased from 2004 to 2011. More specifically, the fleet average NOx value for the 2011 model year continues to decrease and is 7.8% below the standard of 0.07 grams/mile.

5. Conclusions

This is the eighth year that companies were subject to the fleet average NOx requirements under the Regulations. A total of 23 companies submitted reports for a total of 305 distinct test groups comprising 1 450 947 vehicles that were either manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale.

The average NOx value for the Canadian 2011 model year combined fleet of LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV is 0.06454148 grams/mile compared with the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Each individual company had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard, and all companies complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the Regulations based on their reports.

The average NOx value continued to decrease for the 2011 model year. This result is consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the Regulations.

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