Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2013 model vehicles

Fleet average nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission performance of 2013 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

in relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

Transportation Division
Environment and Climate Change Canada

June 2016

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Disclaimer

This document provides a summary of data collected pursuant to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations. It does not in any way supersede or modify the requirements of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 or the Regulations made under that Act. In the event of an inconsistency between this document and the Act and/or the Regulations, the Act and the Regulations prevail.


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© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the Environment and Climate Chagne, 2016

1. Executive summary

Under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (hereafter referred to as the “Regulations”), each new light-duty vehicle, light-duty truck and medium-duty passenger vehicle is required to be certified by its manufacturer to one of the bins corresponding to those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency for which there are specific emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and other pollutants. Manufacturers and importers of these vehicles are required to report on their fleet average NOxemission performance for each model year.

This tenth annual performance report summarizes the fleet average NOx emission performance of the Canadian 2013 model year fleet of vehicles. A total of 21 companies submitted end of model year reports comprising a total of 1 673 027 vehicles manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale. This report includes the fleet average NOx value for each company as well as their number of emission credits or deficits. It also provides a comparison of the distribution of vehicles certified to the various emissions bins and compares the overall NOx performance with that of previous model years.

The average NOx value for the Canadian 2013 model year combined fleet of light-duty vehicles, light light-duty trucks, heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles is 0.06178583 grams/mile compared to the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Of those companies that submitted, each had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard and based on their reports, all complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the Regulations.

The average NOx value continued to decrease for the 2013 model year. This result is consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the Regulations.

2. Purpose

The purpose of this report is to summarize the fleet average NOx emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2013 model year (MY) and is based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports and any subsequent revisions; it is also to report on the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NOx emission program in achieving the environmental performance objectives.

3. Introduction

On January 1, 2004, the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999). These Regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines. The Regulations align Canada’s emission standards for light-duty vehiclesFootnote1 (LDVs), light light-duty trucksFootnote2 (LLDTs), heavy light-duty trucksFootnote3 (HLDTs), medium-duty passenger vehiclesFootnote4 (MDPVs), heavy-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines and on-road motorcycles with those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through incorporation by reference to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

Each new LDV, LLDT, HLDT and MDPV is required to be certified to a bin for which there are specific emission standards for NOx and other pollutants. A company’s choice of bin to which individual vehicle models are certified in a given model year is limited by the obligation to comply with the fleet average NOx standards associated with that model year. The current NOx standard is 0.07 grams/mile, which was introduced in the 2009 model year.

A company’s fleet average NOx value is the weighted average based on the number of vehicles certified to each bin. Though the emission bins, fleet average NOx standards, and methods of calculating fleet average NOx values are aligned with those of the U.S. EPA, there are differences in the structure of the NOx averaging program in Canada, which is designed to recognize vehicles that are sold concurrently in Canada and the U.S. The regulatory requirements are structured to deliver fleet average emissions comparable to those of the U.S. while minimizing the regulatory burden on companies and enabling the marketing of vehicles in Canada independently from the U.S.

The Regulations require that all companies submit a report to the Minister of the Environment and Climate Change no later than May 1 after the end of each model year. The end of model year report must contain detailed information concerning the company’s fleet(s) and/or groups of vehicles.

For more information regarding the calculation of fleet average NOx values and NOx emission credits or deficits, please refer to the Regulations, which can be found on the Environment and Climate Change Canada CEPA Environmental Registry. Reports for the 2004 to the 2012 model years can also be found on the CEPA Environmental Registry.

4. Company Fleet Average NOxEmission Performance for the 2013 Model Year

4.1 Scope of Company Reports

Table 1 presents a list of the companies that submitted an end of model year report for the 2013 model year in accordance with the requirements of the Regulations, including the vehicle makes and a summary of the data received.

Table 1: Summary of Company Reports
Company Makes Number of test groupsa Total number of vehicles Average NOx value (grams/mile)b Initial credit balancec 2013 balance
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited Aston Martin
2
35
0.070
0
0
BMW Group Canada BMW, Mini, Rolls-Royce
20
40 103
0.070000
913
913
Chrysler Canada Inc. Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep, Fiat
23
217 055
0.0400953
50 945
57 436
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited Ford, Lincoln
37
299 158
0.0598302
48 225
51 267
General Motors of Canada Limited Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC
22
182 061
0.0519304
86 220
89 510
Honda Canada Inc. Acura, Honda
15
143 816
0.0699479
20 206
20 213
Hyundai Auto Canada Corp. Hyundai
16
195 951
0.0697334
3 267
3 319
Jaguar Land Rover Canada,ULC Jaguar, Land Rover
7
6 230
0.07000
1 079
1 079
Kia Canada Inc. Kia
11
77 800
0.069312
4 826
4 880
Lotus Cars Limited Lotus
1
16
0.070
0
0
Maserati North America, Inc. Maserati
1
154
0.0700
0
0
Mazda Canada Inc. Mazda
11
62 157
0.070000
15 090
15 090
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc. Mercedes, Smart
23
34 225
0.066717
78
190
Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada, Inc. Mitsubishi
6
17 080
0.069799
103
106
Nissan Canada Inc. Infiniti, Nissan
23
81 939
0.069798
18 901
18 918
Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd. Porsche
12
3 579
See noted See noted See noted
Subaru Canada, Inc. Subaru
5
22 268
0.067439
2 750
2 807
Suzuki Canada Inc. Suzuki
2
1 260
0.07000
1 281
1 281
Toyota Canada Inc. Lexus, Scion, Toyota
36
193 245
0.0669882
27 780
28 362
Volkswagen Group Audi, Bentley, Lamborghini, Volkswagen
30
90 116
See noted See noted See noted
Volvo Cars of Canada Corp. Volvo
4
4 779
0.07000
3 538
3 538

a A test group is the basic classification unit that comprises LDV, LLDT, HLDT or MDPV having similar exhaust emission performances and that share all of the features described in section 1827, subchapter C, part 86 of the CFR.
b Fleet average NOx values are rounded to the same number of significant figures that are contained in the total number of vehicles in a company’s fleet.
c NOx emission credits/deficits are rounded to the nearest whole number. A negative sign (-) indicates a deficit.
d The average NOx value and credit balance for Porsche Cars Canada, Ltd. and Volkswagen Group are not included in this table due to an ongoing investigation regarding certain of their diesel vehicles. However, no adjustments were made to the total number of vehicles, the number of test groups, the distribution of vehicles by the NOx standard of each bin and the average NOx value for the Canadian fleet (Table 2).


A total of 21 companies submitted a report for the 2013 model year covering a total of 307 distinct test groups. It should be noted that certain test groups were common between companies that shared vehicle platforms or powertrains.

The company average NOx values ranged from 0.0400953 grams/mile to 0.070000 grams/mile for the fleet of LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs, and MDPVs, and no companies reported a fleet average NOx value that was above the standard of 0.07 grams/mile.

A total of 13 707 credits were generated by companies for the 2013 model year. No company incurred a deficit with respect to their fleet, and no company reported a deficit at the end of this model year. In addition, there were no credit transfers to or from companies for the 2013 model year.


4.2 Distribution of bins and total Canada NOx fleet average value

Table 2 summarizes the distribution of vehicles by the NOx standard of each bin. It also provides the calculated fleet average NOx value of the entire Canadian fleet for the 2013 model year.

Table 2: Distribution of vehicles by the NO x standard of each bin
Bin number NOx standard (grams/mile) Total number of vehicles in "bin" Percentage of vehicles in "bin"
8
0.20
6 812
0.407
7
0.15
0
0.00
6
0.10
0
0.00
5
0.07
1 224 367
73.183
4
0.04
420 639
25.142
3
0.03
18 557
1.109
2
0.02
2 169
0.130
1
0.00
483
0.29
Total Number of Vehicles in 2013 MY Fleet    
1 673 027
Total Canada NOx Fleet Average (grams/mile)    
0.06178583
Fleet Average NOx Standard (grams/mile)    
0.07

Note: Beginning in the 2009 model year, applicable standards are limited to bins 1 to 8 for all categories.

For the 2013 model year, almost all vehicles (99.6 % of the fleet) were certified to a bin at or below the fleet average NOx standard of 0.07 grams/mile. The average NOx value for the Canadian fleet was 0.06178583 grams/mile.


4.3 Fleet average NOx values trend

Figure 1 presents the average NOx values trend relative to the applicable standards since 2004 for both the LDV/LLDT and HLDT/MDPV fleets. Beginning in 2009, LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs, and MDPVs all conform to one NOx fleet average standard.

Figure 1: Fleet average NOx values and standards

Figure 1: Fleet average NOx values and standards (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 1
Fleet average NO x values and standards
Year LDV and LLDT
Fleet average NOx standards
LDV and LLDT
Fleet average NOx values
HLDT and MDPV
Fleet average NOx standards
HLDT and MDPV
Fleet average NOx values
LDV, LLDT, HLDT, and MDPV
Fleet average NOx standards
LDV, LLDT, HLDT, and MDPV
Fleet average NOx values
2004
0.25
0.2016463
0.53
0.321976
   
2005
0.19
0.1432473
0.43
0.334566
   
2006
0.13
0.1023669
0.33
0.256539
   
2007
0.07
0.06897626
0.2
0.160668
   
2008
0.07
0.07010463
0.14
0.12255
   
2009        
0.07
0.06743109
2010        
0.07
0.06487095
2011        
0.07
0.06454148
2012
0.07
     
0.07
0.06215957
2013
0.07
     
0.07
0.06178583


Overall, the fleet average NOx value for the combined fleet of LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs, and MDPVs decreased from 2004 to 2013. More specifically, the fleet average NOx value for the 2013 model year continues to decrease and is 11.7% below the standard of 0.07 grams/mile.

5. Conclusions

This is the tenth year that companies were subject to the fleet average NOx requirements under the Regulations. A total of 21 companies submitted reports for a total of 307 distinct test groups comprising 1 673 027 vehicles that were either manufactured in Canada or imported into Canada for the purpose of first retail sale.

The average NOx value for the Canadian 2013 model year combined fleet of LDVs, LLDTs, HLDTs and MDPVs is 0.06178583 grams/mile compared to the standard of 0.07 grams/mile. Each individual company had a fleet average NOx value that was at or below the standard, and all companies complied with the fleet averaging provisions of the Regulations based on their reports.

The average NOx value continued to decrease for the 2013 model year. This result is consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the Regulations.

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