Facility greenhouse gas reporting: overview of reported emissions 2016

Data on the latest emissions and changes in these emissions over the years. Results are presented as key data tables.

Highlights

For the 2016 calendar year, 596 facilities reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada, totalling 263 megatonnesFootnote 1  (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.), essentially unchanged from the 2015 total.

The reported emissions are, for the most part, evenly distributed across three sectors: (i) Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (33%), (ii) Utilities (32%), and (iii) Manufacturing (29%). Among all facilities, those engaged in electricity generation and oil/gas extraction account for 62% of the total.

Reported GHG emissions increased by 1% (4 Mt) in the last five years. Emissions from non-conventional oil extraction facilities increased by 10 Mt, but were partly offset by the 5 Mt decrease in emissions resulting largely from the discontinuation of coal-fired electric power generation in Ontario.

Since 2005, total emissions from all reporting facilities decreased by 5% (15 Mt). The Utilities and Manufacturing sectors experienced the largest declines (38 Mt and 15 Mt, respectively), while reported emissions increased by 39 Mt from facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, largely in Alberta (35 Mt).

The GHG emissions data collected from facilities represent just over one-third (37%) of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2016 (704 Mt) and 58% of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions as reported in Canada’s National Inventory Report (NIR).Footnote 2

Environment and Climate Change Canada has expanded the reporting requirements under the GHGRP with changes taking effect, starting with the 2017 data to be reported in 2018. This will facilitate the direct use of the expanded data in the National GHG Inventory, thus better reflecting emission changes occurring at individual facilities and improving the consistency and comparability of GHG data.

1.  Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program

Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) has completed the collection of GHG emissions information from Canadian facilities for the 2016 calendar year. Any facility with annual GHG emissions of 50 kt of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) or higherFootnote 3 is required to report to the program.

The Government of Canada established the GHGRP in March 2004 under the authority of section 46 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) to collect GHG emissions information annually from the largest emitting Canadian facilities. To date, facility-reported GHG information has been collected and published through Environment and Climate Change Canada’s GHGRP for the period 2004 to 2016. This program is part of Canada’s ongoing effort to develop, in collaboration with Canadian provinces and territories, a harmonized and efficient mandatory GHG reporting system that minimizes duplication and reporting burden for industry and governments. Key objectives of the program are to provide Canadians with consistent information on GHG emissions, confirm industrial emission estimates presented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and support regulatory initiatives. The data collected are also shared with provinces and territories. The data used in this overview report are current as of September 22, 2017. Subsequent company updates will be included in future data releases.

Environment and Climate Change Canada proposed the expansion of reporting requirements under the GHGRP in order to enable the direct use of the reported data in Canada’s National GHG Inventory, increase the consistency and comparability of GHG data across jurisdictions, and obtain a more comprehensive picture of Canadian facility emissions. Consultations on phase I of the expansion took place throughout 2017. The Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2017Footnote 4  (the 2017 Notice) represents the first year of the phased expansion to the GHG reporting requirements for industrial facilities in Canada. It contains the following key changes:

  1. The reporting threshold has been lowered from 50 kilotonnes to 10 kilotonnes. All facilities emitting the equivalent of 10 kilotonnes or more of GHGs in carbon dioxide equivalent units in 2017 are required to submit a report.
  2. Requirements to provide additional data related to GHG emissions and apply specific quantification methods to determine emissions. These requirements are specific to: manufacturers of cement, lime, iron & steel and aluminum, as well as facilities engaged in carbon capture, transport and storage activities.

The 2017 Notice, published in the Canada Gazette on December 30, 2017, sets out the federal reporting requirements for 2017 data, scheduled to be submitted by facilities to Environment and Climate Change Canada by June 1, 2018.

2.  Reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions

For the purposes of the GHGRP, a facility is defined as an integrated  facility, pipeline transportation system, or offshore installationFootnote 5. An integrated facility is defined as all buildings, equipment, structures, on-site transportation machinery, and stationary items that are located on a single site, on multiple sites or between multiple sites that are owned or operated by the same person or persons and that function as a single integrated site, excluding public roads.

A total of 596 facilities reported their GHG emissionsFootnote 6 to Environment and Climate Change Canada for the 2016 calendar year, collectively emitting a total of 263 Mt of GHGs (Figure 1). Of these facilities, 310 reported GHG emission levels greater than 100 kt, accounting for 94% (248 Mt) of the total reported emissions, and 58 emitted more than 1 Mt, accounting for 63% (166 Mt) of the total reported emissions (Figure 2). Those with emissions over 1 Mt fall within several industrial sectors such as electric power generation, non-conventional oil extraction, petroleum refineries and natural gas transportation pipelines. Facilities with emissions falling below the reporting threshold of 50 kt per year can voluntarily report their GHG emissions; 105 facilities did so this year, representing 0.8% (2 Mt). All voluntarily reported emissions are included in this report and in the data set published by Environment and Climate Change Canada.

Twenty-one facilities reported their GHG emissions for the first time: they belong to  a number of sectors, such as conventional oil and gas extraction (8 facilities), non-conventional oil extraction (2 facilities), and electricity generation (3 facilities). The combined emissions from these new reporters are close to 2 Mt, contributing about 1% to the total reported emissions. These new reporters include facilities that began operation in 2016 (4 facilities) and facilities which have been in operation previous to 2016, and whose emissions have met or exceeded 50 kt CO2 eq. in 2016 reporting year (17 facilities).

Figure 1: 2016 facility greenhouse gas emissions reported to Environment and Climate Change CanadaFigure 1Notea, Figure 1 Noteb

Figure 1: 2016 Facility GHG Emissions Reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada

Notes:

Long Description

Figure 1 is a map of facilities that reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada in 2016. The map excludes pipeline transportation systems. As shown, the distribution of facilities is uneven across the country, reflecting the concentration of large industrial facilities in certain provinces relative to others. Facilities are highly aggregated in Alberta and in the Windsor (Ontario) to Quebec City (Quebec) corridor. The map indicates a lower number of facilities located in British Colombia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Maritime provinces.

Figure 1: 2016 facility greenhouse gas emissions reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada (kt CO2 eq.)
Province/Territory Below < 50 50 to < 100 100 to < 500 500 to < 1 000 1 000 to < 2 000 Over > 2 000 Total
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 2 2 3 2 0 10
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Nova Scotia 1 4 3 2 2 1 13
New Brunswick 6 5 2 2 0 2 17
Quebec 18 23 27 10 3 0 81
Ontario 23 43 44 12 8 3 133
Manitoba 2 5 3 1 0 0 11
Saskatchewan 3 15 16 7 4 2 47
Alberta 37 51 68 14 12 18 200
British Columbia 11 30 27 6 1 0 75
Yukon 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Northwest Territories 1 1 2 0 0 0 4
Nunavut 1 1 1 0 0 0 3
Total 105 181 195 57 32 26 596

Figure 2: contribution of facilities in various emission ranges to total reported emissions (2016)

Figure 2: Contribution of Facilities in Various Emission Ranges to Total Reported Emissions (2016)

Note: Facilities in the range “below < 50 kt” voluntarily reported their emissions.

Long Description

Figure 2 is a column and scatter chart showing the number of facilities falling within various emissions ranges and their combined contribution to the total emissions reported to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program in 2016. While 181 facilities reported 50 to 100 kilotonnes of GHG emissions, their combined total accounted for only 5% of total reported emissions. There were 58 facilities with annual GHG emissions greater than 1 megatonne, accounting for 63% of the total reported emissions.

Figure 2: contribution of facilities in various emission ranges to total reported emissions (2016)
Reported Emissions (kt CO2 eq.) Number of Facilities Percentage of Total Emissions (263 Mt)
Below < 50 105 1%
50 to < 100 181 5%
100 to < 250 130 8%
250 to < 1 000 122 24%
Over 1 000 58 63%
Total 596 101%

2.1  Calculation methods

A facility may choose among a number of available methods to calculate its GHG emissions. The methods selected by reporting facilities must be consistent with the methodological guidelines developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the preparation of national GHG inventories. Reporting facilities must indicate the types of methods used to determine the quantities of emissions reported. Such methods may include monitoring or direct measurement, mass balance, emission factors, and/or engineering estimates.

Overall, methods incorporating the use of emission factors were the approach preferred by most facilities (Figure 3). An emission factor is a measure that indicates the rate at which a GHG is released into the atmosphere due to a given activity, such as burning a specific fuel type or producing a specific industrial product. The emission factors used may be general or technology-specific. Many facilities used more than one calculation method to determine their emissions.

Figure 3: types of methods used by facilities

Figure 3: Types of Methods Used by Facilities

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Long Description

Figure 3 is a pie chart showing the types of calculation methods and their percent usage by facilities to estimate their GHG emissions. The most common method (at 63%) was that using emissions factors, followed by mass balance (at 16%) and engineering estimates (at 13%). The remaining method is monitoring or direct measurements, used 9% of the time.

Figure 3: types of methods used by facilities
Method Percentage of Use
Emission Factors 63%
Mass Balance 16%
Engineering Estimates 13%
Monitoring / Direct Measurement 9%
Total 100%

2.2  Greenhouse gases and global warming potentials

GHGs are not equal in their effect on the atmosphere. Each GHG has its own average atmospheric lifetime and heat-trapping potential. GHG emissions are often calculated and reported in terms of how much CO2 would be required to produce a similar warming effect over a given time horizon. This is called the CO2 eq. value and is calculated by multiplying the amount of the gas by its associated global warming potential (GWP) (Table 1). Environment and Climate Change Canada uses the GWP values from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report adopted by the UNFCCC, a complete list of which can be found in the Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2015.Footnote 7  The GWP values used by the GHGRP are consistent with those used in Canada’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

Table 1: global warming potential values for the main greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gas 100-year GWPsTable 1 Notea
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1
Methane (CH4) 25
Nitrous oxide N2O 298
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 22 800
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 13 species Ranges from 92 to 14 800
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 7 species Ranges from 7 390 to 12 200

Note: Table 1 Note a GWPs were updated in 2013 and applied to all years.

2.3  Reported greenhouse gas emissions by gas and by source

CO2 represented the majority of the total reported emissions (94%) in 2016, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions contributed 4% and 1%, respectively (Figure 4). Facilities are also required to report emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) stemming from industrial processes or industrial product use. The combined emissions of these gases accounted for the remaining 0.5% (1 Mt).

Figure 4: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by gas (263 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 4: Reported 2016 GHG Emissions by Gas (263&nbsp;Mt CO   <sub>2</sub> eq)

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Long Description

Figure 4 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the reported 2016 GHG emissions by gas. Facilities reported 263 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2016. Carbon dioxide (CO2) represented the majority of the total emissions at 94%, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions each contributed an additional 4% and 1% respectively. The combined emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) accounted for the remaining 0.5%.

Figure 4: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by gas (263 Mt CO2 eq.)
Gas Percentage of Total Emissions (263 Mt)
CO2 94%
CH4 4%
N2O 1%
HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 0.5%
Total 100%
When reporting to the GHGRP, facilities are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O according to the following eight source categories:Footnote 8  stationary fuel combustion, industrial processes, venting, flaring, fugitive sources, on-site transportation, waste and wastewaterFootnote 9 . Stationary fuel combustion is the largest source of reported emissions, representing 77% of the total (Figure 5). This source includes emissions resulting from the burning of fuels for the purpose of producing energy (e.g., to generate electricity, heat or steam), but does not include sources like combustion engines in vehicles. Any waste material burned or incinerated at a facility to produce energy is also included in stationary combustion. Industrial process emissions, the second-largest source of reported emissions at 14%, refer to emissions stemming from specific industrial processes involving chemical or physical reactions other than combustion. Such reactions occur, for example, in the processes of mineral production (e.g., lime, cement), metal production (e.g., iron, steel, aluminium) and chemical production (e.g., nitric acid and ammonia production).

Figure 5: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by source (CO2, CH4 and N2O Included)

Figure 5: Reported 2016 GHG Emissions by Source (CO2, CH4 and N2O Included)

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Long Description

Figure 5 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2016 GHG emissions by emission source category for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Facilities reported 263 megatonnes of total CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in 2016. Stationary fuel combustion was the largest source of emissions at 77%. Industrial processes accounted for 14%, venting , fugitive,  waste, and on-site transportation each accounted for 2%, while flaring accounted for 1% and wastewater accounted for 0.2%.

Figure 5: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by source
Emission Source Category Percentage of CO2, CH4 and N2O Emissions (263 Mt)
Stationary Fuel Combustion 77%
Industrial Processes 14%
Venting 2%
Flaring 1%
Fugitive Sources 2%
On-site Transportation 2%
Waste 2%
Wastewater 0.2%
Total 100%

2.4  Reported greenhouse gas emissions by province/territory

Facilities in the province of Alberta accounted for the largest share of reported emissions, with approximately 53% of the total, followed by facilities in Ontario (16%), Saskatchewan (9%) and Quebec (7%) (Table 2). The number of facilities, the quantity and type of fuel consumed, and the predominant industry largely explain this ranking.

Table 2: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by province/territory
Province/Territory Number of Facilities Total Emissions
(kt CO2 eq.)
Percentage of Total Emissions
Newfoundland and Labrador 10 5 308 2%
Prince Edward Island 1 55 0.02%
Nova Scotia 13 7 795 3%
New Brunswick 17 7 793 3%
Quebec 81 19 340 7%
Ontario 133 41 319 16%
Manitoba 11 1 822 1%
Saskatchewan 47 24 872 9%
Alberta 200 140 712 53%
British Columbia 75 13 455 5%
Yukon 1 12 0.00%
Northwest Territories 4 513 0.2%
Nunavut 3 260 0.1%
Total 596 263 256 100%

2.5  Reported greenhouse gas emissions by sector

When completing a report for the GHGRP, a reporter is required to identify the main activities occurring at its facility using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).Footnote 10  In 2016, three NAICS‑defined industry sectors accounted for the majority of GHG emissions: the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, representing 33% (87 Mt); the Utilities sector, primarily facilities generating electricity from fossil fuels, accounting for 32% (85 Mt); and the Manufacturing sector, accounting for 29% (77 Mt) (Figure 6). The remaining 6% (15 Mt) of emissions captured under “Other” were reported by various types of facilities, mainly natural gas transportation pipelines (9 Mt) and solid waste landfills (5 Mt).

Figure 6: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by industry sector (263 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 6: Reported 2016 GHG Emissions by Industry Sector (263 Mt CO2 eq.)
  • Note: Figure 6 Note a “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.
Long Description

Figure 6 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2016 GHG emissions by main industry sector. Facilities reported 263 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2016. Facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector accounted for 33%, Utilities for 32%, and Manufacturing for 29%. The Other category, accounting for the remaining 6% of emissions, includes facilities that fall into industry sectors other than those already mentioned, such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities.

Figure 6: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by industry sector (263 Mt CO2 eq.)
Industry Sector Percentage of Total Emissions (263 Mt)
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction 33%
Utilities 32%
Manufacturing 29%
OtherFigure 6 Note a 6%
Total 100%

Activities of reporting facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector can be further broken down into three main categories (Figure 7):

  1. non-conventional oil extraction, the dominant sub-category which includes oil sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading (75%)
  2. conventional extraction of oil and natural gas (17%)
  3. mining of metal ore (e.g., iron) (4%), coal (2%), and non-metallic minerals (e.g., potash and diamonds) (2%)

 

Figure 7: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction (87 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 7: Reported 2016 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (87 Mt CO2 eq.)
Long Description
Figure 7 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the 2016 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sectors. Facilities of these subsectors reported 87 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2016. Non-conventional oil extraction and conventional oil and gas extraction accounted for the majority of these emissions at 75% and 17% respectively. Metal ore mining accounted for an additional 4%, coal mining for 2%, and non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying for the remaining 2%.
Figure 7: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction Subsector Percentage of Total Sector Emissions (87 Mt)
Non-Conventional Oil Extraction 75%
Conventional Oil and Gas Extraction 17%
Metal Ore Mining 4%
Coal Mining 2%
Non-Metallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying 2%
Total 100%

The Manufacturing sector includes a wide range of industrial activities, with important contributors to the reported 2016 emissions being (Figure 8):

    1. petroleum and coal product manufacturing (22%)

    2. iron, steel and ferro-alloy manufacturing (18%)

    3. basic chemical manufacturing (e.g., ethylene, polyethylene, hydrogen gas) (15%)

    4. cement and concrete product manufacturing (13%)

 

Figure 8: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of manufacturing (77 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 8: Reported 2016 GHG Emissions by Subsectors of Manufacturing (77 Mt CO2 eq.)

Notes:

  • Figure 8 Note a Non-ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Production and Processing includes the production of base metals (e.g. copper, nickel, zinc).
  • Figure 8 Note b “Other Manufacturing” represents other types of manufacturing, including electrical equipment, transportation equipment and furniture manufacturing.
Long Description

Figure 8 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of 2016 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of the Manufacturing sector. Facilities in this sector reported 77 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2016. The top four contributors to reported emissions in the Manufacturing sector were petroleum and coal products at 22%, iron and steel mills and ferro-alloys at 18%, basic chemicals at 15%, and cement and concrete products at 13%. Alumina and aluminium production and processing accounted for 9% of emissions, pesticide, fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals for 8%, and wood products and paper for 7%. The remaining emissions for this sector break down as follows: lime and gypsum product manufacturing and other manufacturing activities, 3%; non-ferrous metal (except aluminium) production and processing, 2%; and food beverage manufacturing, 1%.

Figure 8: reported 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of manufacturing
Manufacturing Subsector Percentage of Total Sector Emissions (77 Mt)
Petroleum and Coal Products 22%
Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloys 18%
Basic Chemicals 15%
Cement and Concrete Products 13%
Alumina and Aluminium Production and Processing 9%
Pesticide, Fertilizer, Other Agricultural Chemicals 8%
Wood Products and Paper 7%
Lime and Gypsum Products 3%
Other ManufacturingFigure 8 Note b 3%
Non-Ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Production and ProcessingFigure 8 Note a 2%
Food, Beverage and Tobacco Products 1%
Total 100%

3.  Trends in reported greenhouse gas emissions

The number of facilities reporting GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada can change from year to year. Changes in production levels, processes and technologies, the types of fuels used at a facility, and facility start-ups/closures can all result in a change in the annual emissions, so that a facility may fall below or attain the reporting threshold of 50 kt CO2 eq. from one year to the next. The number of voluntary reporters may also change each year, which can also affect the number of reporting facilities.

Over the 2005–2016 period, the number of reporting facilities increased from 337 to 596 (Table 3). Since 2009, facilities with emissions under 100 kt have accounted, on average, for just over 5% of the total reported emissions. Consequently, emissions from these facilities do not contribute significantly to the observed trends in total reported emissions at the national level; however, these facilities may affect the observed trends at the provincial/territorial levels.

3.1  Overall national-level trends

Total reported GHG emissions in 2016, at 263 Mt, were essentially unchanged from 2015 (Table 3).Footnote 11  Over the 2005-2016 period, total facility-reported emissions decreased overall by 5% (15 Mt), from 278 to 263 Mt. In contrast with this trend, total emissions since 2011 increased by 3% (8 Mt) and more recently have leveled out.

The number of facilities reporting their emissions has consistently increased over the last several years, following an initial increase of more than 50% in 2009 when the reporting threshold was changed from 100 to 50 kt. However, overall GHG emissions did not increase accordingly: their variations are mainly driven by the evolution of important industry sectors and the influence of the largest emitters (i.e. emissions above 100 kt) (Figure 2).

Table 3: total facility-reported greenhouse gas emissions, selected years
nil 2005 2009Table 3 Note a 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Number of facilities 337 538 544 547 561 574 577 566 596
GHG emissions (kt CO2 eq.) 277 997 253 117 263 614 255 800 259 599 261 090 263 948 264 314 263 256
Annual change (%) N/A -4% 4% -3% 1% 1% 1% 0.1% -0.4%
Change since 2005 (%) N/A -9% -5% -8% -7% -6% -5% -5% -5%

Notes:

N/A = not applicable.

For the complete data set, visit our website.

  • Table 3 Note a The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt.

3.2  Industry sector and provincial/territorial trends

The summary of facility-reported emissions by NAICS industry sector provides a picture of the types of facilities (mostly industrial operations) that report to the GHGRP in response to the annual GHG reporting requirements (Figure 9 and Table 4). The provincial breakdown of each main industry sector highlights the regional presence of key industries accounting for the reported emissions (e.g., large component of emissions from the Manufacturing sector in Ontario, Quebec and Alberta) (Table 5).

GHG emissions reported by the Mining, Quarrying, Oil and Gas Extraction sector have increased over the last decade, surpassing those reported by Utilities in 2015 (Figure 9). On the other hand, the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors have reported reduced emissions since 2005 (Figure 9). Various factors have led to these trends and are further discussed in this section.

Figure 9: long-term sectoral trend, 2005-2016Figure 9 Notea

Figure 9: Long-Term Sectoral Trend, 2005-2016

Note: Figure 9 Note a Other - not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports and institutional facilities (universities, hospitals and public administration buildings).

Long Description

Figure 9 is a line chart showing the changes in facility-reported GHG emissions in the four main industrial sectors between 2005 and 2016. In 2005, Utilities was the highest GHG emitting sector, followed by the Manufacturing sector, and the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. There is an overall increasing trend in emissions from the Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction sector while emissions from the Manufacturing sector and Utilities have generally decreased since 2005. In 2015, the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector became the highest GHG-emitting sector, followed by Utilities and the Manufacturing sector. Other sectors include various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities. GHG emissions from these other sectors remained stable between 2005 and 2016.

Figure 9: long-term sectoral trend, 2005-2016 reported greenhouse gas emissions
(Reported GHG Emissions (Mt CO2 eq.))
Year Mining, Quarrying, and
Oil and Gas Extraction
Utilities Manufacturing Other
2005 48 123 92 15
2006 53 116 89 14
2007 55 122 87 14
2008 55 113 84 12
2009 62 103 74 13
2010 69 106 77 12
2011 72 94 78 12
2012 78 90 79 13
2013 82 89 76 14
2014 84 89 76 15
2015 88 86 76 15
2016 87 85 77 15
Table 4: reported greenhouse gas emissions by North American Industry Classification System industry sector, selected years
NAICSTable 4 Note a Industry Sector (Units: Mt CO2 eq.) 2005 2009Table 4 Note b 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
TotalTable 4 Note c 278 254 264 256 260 261 264 264 263
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionTable 4 Note c 48 62 69 72 77 82 84 87 87
Conventional oil and gas extraction 14 15 15 15 14 15 16 15 15
Non-conventional oil extractionTable 4 Note d 28 42 47 49 55 59 61 65 65
Coal mining 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
Metal ore mining 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 4
Non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying 0.9 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
Support activities for mining, and oil and gas extraction N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6
22 - UtilitiesTable 4 Note c 123 103 106 94 90 89 89 86 85
Electric power generation 122 101 103 92 88 86 87 84 83
Natural gas distribution 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
Water, sewage and other systemsTable 4 Note e 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4
31-33 ManufacturingTable 4 Note c 92 75 78 79 79 77 77 76 77
Food, beverages, and tobacco products 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.9 1 0.9 1
Wood products and paper 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5
Petroleum and coal products 20 19 18 17 18 17 17 17 17
Basic chemicals 14 11 11 12 11 11 11 11 11
Pesticide, fertilizer, other agricultural chemicals 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Cement and concrete products 13 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11
Lime and gypsum products 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 2
Iron and steel mills and ferro-alloys 17 11 14 14 15 13 14 13 14
Primary production of alumina and aluminium 10 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7
Non-ferrous metal (except alum.) smelting and refining 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Other manufacturingTable 4 Note f 0.4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
OtherTable 4 Note c, g 15 13 12 12 13 14 15 15 15
Pipeline transportation of natural gas 12 7 6 7 6 8 9 9 9
Waste management and remediation services 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Institutional facilities N/A 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5
MiscellaneousTable 4 Noteh N/A 0.1 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.09

Notes:

N/A = not applicable.

  • Table 4 Note a Facilities required to report to the GHGRP provide a primary NAICS code that describes the main activities occurring at the facility.
  • Table 4 Note b The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt.
  • Table 4 Note c Totals may not add up due to rounding.
  • Table 4 Note d Includes facilities engaged in oils sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading.
  • Table 4 Note e Includes sewage treatment facilities, heating and steam generation plants.
  • Table 4 Note f Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by facilities engaged in other types of manufacturing such as electrical equipment, transportation equipment and furniture manufacturing.
  • Table 4 Note g Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports and institutional facilities (universities, hospitals and public administration buildings).
  • Table 4 Note h Includes smaller facilities reporting under various NAICS codes.

 

Table 5: reported greenhouse gas emissions by industry sector and by province/territory, selected years
Industry Sector
Province/Territory
(Units: Mt CO2 eq.)
2005 2009Table 4 Note a 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
TotalTable 4 Note b 278 253 264 256 260 261 264 264 263
21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionTable 4 Note b 48 62 69 72 77 82 84 87 87
Newfoundland and Labrador 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Nova Scotia N/A 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4
New Brunswick N/A N/A 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.02 N/A 0.06 N/A
Quebec 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Ontario 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Manitoba N/A 0.06 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.08 0.08 0.06
Saskatchewan 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5
Alberta 35 50 54 56 62 65 67 71 70
British Columbia 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 5
Northwest Territories 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5
Nunavut N/A N/A 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
22 - UtilitiesTable 4 Note b 123 103 106 94 90 89 89 86 85
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 1 1 1
Nova Scotia 11 9 9 9 8 8 7 7 7
New Brunswick 9 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4
Quebec 0.5 1 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Ontario 36 20 25 18 18 15 10 10 9
Manitoba 0.6 0.2 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.07 0.1 N/A
Saskatchewan 15 16 16 15 16 15 15 16 15
Alberta 50 48 48 46 44 44 49 47 47
British Columbia 2 2 2 0.9 0.9 1 1 0.8 0.9
Yukon N/A 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Northwest Territories N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.06 N/A
31-33 ManufacturingTable 4 Note b 92 74 77 78 79 77 77 76 77
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 1 0.9 1 0.9 1 1 1
Prince Edward Island 0.1 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.06
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.3
New Brunswick 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4
Quebec 20 18 18 17 18 17 17 17 16
Ontario 38 26 28 28 29 27 28 27 28
Manitoba 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Saskatchewan 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
Alberta 18 17 17 18 18 19 18 19 19
British Columbia 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
OtherTable 4 Note b 15 13 12 12 13 14 15 15 15
Nova Scotia N/A 0.06 0.04 0.04 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.01
New Brunswick N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.01
Quebec 0.3 0.9 1 0.8 1 1 1 1 1
Ontario 5 4 3 4 3 4 4 5 4
Manitoba 1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8
Saskatchewan 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Alberta 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5
British Columbia 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Notes:

N/A = not applicable.

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

For the complete data set, visit our website.

  • Table 5 Note a The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt.
  • Table 5 Note b “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

3.2.1  Short-term changes

The 1.4% (4 Mt) increase in total reported emissions over the last five years is mostly due to the 13% increase in emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector (10 Mt from 2012 to 2016) (Table 4), largely in Alberta (Table 5). Non-conventional oil extraction experienced a 10-Mt increase in emissions, consistent with observed increases in synthetic crude oil production (2%) and in non-upgraded bitumen production (67%) during this period. The 2016 Fort McMurray wildfires resulted in decreased production at several facilities directly impacted by the wildfires as companies wound down operations to evacuate employees. Consequently, emissions from some facilities decreased as they were not in operation for the full year. These decreases were somewhat offset by increased production and emissions at those facilities outside of the impacted area.Footnote 12   Saskatchewan facilities also contributed to the increase, with several new facilities (potash mines, oil and gas extraction) reporting to the program for the first time in the last few years (Table 5).Footnote 13

The sustained increase in the above sector is offset by emission reductions in the Utilities sector (Figure 9). Electric power generation had a 5 Mt decrease in emissions since 2012 (Table 4), attributed to the closure of coal-fired plants in Ontario and to lower fuel consumption due to energy efficiency improvements.Footnote 14

Overall emissions from the Manufacturing sector have remained largely stable during the last 5 years, with only minor variations in emission levels in certain subsectors (e.g., iron and steel, cement manufacturing) (Table 4).

3.2.2  Long-term trends

Over the 2005-2016 period, total reported emissions decreased by 5% (15 Mt). The major long-term trends are similar to the short-term trends in that, since 2005, emissions from facilities in the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors have declined overall, while emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector have steadily increased (Figure 9).

Up to and including the year 2014, the Utilities sector consistently accounted for the largest portion of reported emissions (Figure 9), with electric power generation being the main contributor. However, emissions from fossil-fuel electric power generation fell significantly (39 Mt) over this period (Table 4), largely the result of the discontinuation of coal-fired electricity production in Ontario as well as emission reductions in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Alberta (Table 5). Fuel switching (i.e., from coal to natural gas, a lower carbon fuel) and increased reliance on hydro, nuclear and renewable sources of generation are also contributors to the decrease in utility emissions.Footnote 15

Emissions from the Manufacturing sector remain well below (16% or 15 Mt) their 2005 levels. (Figure 9) The industry continues to rebound from the reduced production and slowdowns associated with the 2009 recessionFootnote 16 , with manufacturing sales steadily increasing and surpassing 2006 levels in 2014.Footnote 17  Between 2005 and 2016, Ontario and Quebec showed the largest decreases in GHG emissions from the Manufacturing sector. Ontario saw a net decrease of 10 Mt (Table 5), largely observed in iron/steel, cement, and chemical manufacturing (e.g., halted adipic acid production in 2009) (Table 4). Quebec showed an overall decrease in emissions of 4 Mt from 2005 to 2016 (Table 5), with aluminium production and petroleum refining facilities contributing the most to this provincial change (Table 4). Emission decreases resulted from technological change in aluminum production,Footnote 18 Footnote 19 Footnote 20  the closure of aluminium smelters in Quebec, and the conversion of a petroleum refinery to a storage terminal.

The Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas extraction sector has shown an increasing trend over the last decade (Figure 9). Most of the increase (39 Mt between 2005 and 2016) was driven by non-conventional oil extraction facilities in Alberta (35 Mt growth since 2005), and Saskatchewan, reflecting this sector’s steady growth trend.

4.  Facility-reported emissions and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

The total facility-reported GHG emissions for 2016 collected under the GHGRP represent just over one third (37%) of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2016 (704 Mt) and over half (58%) of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions.Footnote 21  The GHGRP applies to large GHG-emitting facilities (mostly industrial) and does not cover other sources of GHG emissions (e.g., road transportation, agricultural sources), whereas the NIR is a complete accounting of all GHG sources and sinks in Canada.

When comparing the provincial and territorial contribution to the facility-reported total from the GHGRP with the national total from the NIR, the distribution of emissions by province shows a similar pattern (Figure 10). Alberta has the highest emissions, followed by Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan. This pattern of industrial emissions reflects the regional concentration of large industrial facilities and trends in the use of fossil fuels for energy production.

Figure 10: provincial/territorial contribution to 2016 facility-reported (Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program) total and National Inventory Report total

Figure 10: Provincial/Territorial Contribution to 2016 Facility-Reported (GHGRP) Total and NIR Total
Long Description

Figure 10 is a column chart comparing the provincial/territorial distribution of the GHG emissions from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report. The two distributions follow a similar pattern, with Alberta contributing the largest quantity of emissions by province, followed by Ontario.

Figure 10: provincial/territorial contribution to 2016 facility-reported (Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program) total and National Inventory Report totalFigure 10 Note a
(GHG Emissions (kt CO2 eq.))
Province/Territory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program National Inventory Report
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 308 10 751
Prince Edward Island 55 1 813
Nova Scotia 7 795 15 581
New Brunswick 7 793 15 285
Quebec 19 340 77 243
Ontario 41 319 160 554
Manitoba 1 822 20 935
Saskatchewan 24 872 76 627
Alberta 140 712 262 485
British Columbia 13 455 60 452
Northwest Territories 513 1 644
Nunavut 260 700
Yukon 12 255
Total 263 256 704 325

Although the facility-reported emissions may capture 58% of industrial GHG emissions nationally, the degree of coverage at the provincial level varies significantly from province to province (Figure 11), due to the size and number of industrial facilities in each province that have emissions above the 50 kt CO2 eq. reporting threshold.

 

Figure 11: 2016 facility-reported emissions as a percentage of national and provincial/territorial industrial greenhouse gas emissionsFigure 11 Notea (from the National Inventory Report)

Figure 11: 2016 Facility-Reported Emissions as a Percentage of National and Provincial/Territorial Industrial GHG Emissions (from the NIR)

Note: Figure 11 Note a In this overview report, Canada’s industrial GHG emissions include the following GHG categories from the National Inventory Report, Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada 1990–2016: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.

Long Description

Figure 11 is a column-stacked chart showing the percentages of industrial GHG emissions from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, accounted for by the facility-reported data from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). The degree of coverage by the GHGRP at the national and provincial/territorial level ranges from 15% in Prince Edward Island to 82% in Nova Scotia, with the coverage of industrial emissions nationally at 58%. In this overview report, Canada’s industrial greenhouse gas emissions include the following categories from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990–2016: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.

Figure 11: 2016 facility-reported emissions as a percentage of national and provincial/territorial industrial greenhouse gas emissionsFigure 11 Note a (from the National Inventory Report) (Percentage of Total Industrial Emissions)
Province/Territory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program National Inventory Report
Newfoundland and Labrador 80% 20%
Prince Edward Island 15% 85%
Nova Scotia 82% 18%
New Brunswick 76% 24%
Quebec 54% 46%
Ontario 51% 49%
Manitoba 27% 73%
Saskatchewan 48% 52%
Alberta 68% 32%
British Columbia 40% 60%
Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut 51% 49%
National 58% 42%

Note: a In this overview report, Canada’s industrial GHG emissions include the following GHG categories from the National Inventory Report, Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada 1990–2016: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.

Where appropriate, the facility-reported emissions data are used by Environment and Climate Change Canada to confirm national GHG inventory (NIR) estimates developed largely from national and provincial statistics and internationally-recognised emission estimation methodologies. The extent to which the facility-reported GHG emissions data could be fully integrated into the NIR is dependent on the level of detail and type of data available (the integration of facility data into the NIR is a key objective for the recent expansion to reporting under the GHGRP).

5.  Additional information about the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program

5.1  Data quality

Facilities that meet the GHG reporting requirements under the GHGRP must ensure that the reported data are reliable. Facilities are required by law to submit information that is true, accurate and complete to the best of their knowledge. CEPA sets out penalties for companies that fail to report or that knowingly submit false or misleading information. Reporters have a legal obligation to keep copies of the information submitted, along with any calculations, measurements and other data on which the information is based. All information must be kept for a period of three years from the date on which it was required to be reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada.

The data provided in this report are for information purposes only. Environment and Climate Change Canada conducted a number of data quality checks of the submitted data for compliance purposes and for completeness, and it will continue to analyze the data, which may result in periodic updates.

5.2  Public access

The GHGRP provides public access to information from all facilities that reported GHG emissions to the program through an annual online publication. In addition to this summary report, the facility-level data are presented in the form of tables, a searchable database and a downloadable format. Users can search by emissions of a specific gas or emissions of all gases, by facility name or National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) identification number, by reporting company, by province/territory or city, or by industry sector, using the NAICSFootnote 22  code. Users can also access a web-based mapping tool on the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators website, which shows where reporting facilities are located in Canada.

To access the data or obtain further information on the GHGRP or National Greenhouse Gas Inventory program, consult the following websites:

5.3  Links to other programs

The GHGRP is similar to, yet distinct from, the NPRI. Although both programs are delivered by Environment and Climate Change Canada under the authority of section 46 of CEPA, the NPRI collects data from facilities on pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling, whereas the GHGRP collects data from facilities on GHG emissions. Facilities reporting to the GHGRP are asked to report their NPRI identification number to facilitate searching and comparison of emissions from facilities that report to both programs.

A number of provincial jurisdictions also require facilities to report GHG emissions information annually under specific provincial regulations. Efforts have been undertaken to streamline the reporting process between the national and various provincial jurisdictions, resulting in the launch of a single-window reporting system to help reduce the reporting burden on industry and the overall cost to government. This single-window system allows one-time entry for information commonly required at both levels, while accommodating requirements that are jurisdiction-specific. Provinces currently using this reporting system include Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and New Brunswick.

6.  Contact us

If you have questions about this report or for more information about its content, please contact the GHGRP:

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
Place Vincent Massey, 7th Floor
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3

GHG Helpline: 1-819-938-3258
Toll free: 1-877-877-8375
E-mail: ec.ges-ghg.ec@canada.ca
Website: Facility Greenhouse Gas Reporting

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