Facility greenhouse gas reporting: overview of 2018 reported emissions
A report that provides information on the latest greenhouse gas emission data reported by Canadian facilities and their trends over the years. Results are presented as key data tables.
- 1706 facilities reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2018 to Environment and Climate Change Canada, totalling 295 megatonnes (Mt)Footnote 1 of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.).
- The 2018 reporting cycle is the second year of the expansion to the federal GHG reporting program (GHGRP)—under the expansion to date, the reporting threshold was lowered to 10 kilotonnes (kt) CO2 eq (in 2017) and facilities in 14 industry sectors were also required to provide additional data and use prescribed methods to determine emissions.Footnote 2
- 1066 facilities reported emission levels in the 10 to 50 kt range, accounting for 8% (23 Mt) of the total facility-reported emissions for 2018—largely from the oil and gas and manufacturing sectors.
- The reported emissions are largely distributed across three sectors: (i) Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (38%), (ii) Manufacturing (30%), and (iii) Utilities (25%)—amongst all facilities, those engaged in oil/gas extraction and electricity generation account for 59% of the total.
- 540 facilities reported emitting 50 kt of CO2 eq. or more in 2018 for a total of 271 Mt, 0.6% higher than the 2017 total.
- Since 2005, total emissions from the larger emitting facilities (50 kt or more) in the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors declined by 51 Mt and 9 Mt respectively, while reported emissions increased by 52 Mt from the larger emitting facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. These sectoral trends mirror those reported in Canada’s National GHG Inventory.
- The reported emissions reduction in Utilities (51 Mt) since 2005 were primarily from the Electricity sector in Ontario and Alberta, driven by the reduced use of fossil fuels to generate electricity and increased use of renewable energy sources. The reported decrease from the Manufacturing sector (9 Mt) since 2005 were mostly attributed to manufacturers of aluminium, chemicals and cement, as well as petroleum refining.
- The GHG emissions data reported by facilities represents 40% of Canada’s total GHG emissions (729 Mt in 2018) and 65% of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions as reported in Canada’s National GHG Inventory.ootnote 3
- Environment and Climate Change Canada is continuing the expanded reporting requirements under the GHGRP for the 2019 data year, which aims to facilitate the direct use of the facility data in the National GHG Inventory, thus better reflecting emission changes occurring at individual facilities and improving the granularity, consistency and comparability of GHG data across Canada.
1 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) has completed the collection of GHG emissions information from Canadian facilities for the 2018 calendar year. Any facility with annual GHG emissions of 10 kilotonnes (kt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) or higher is required to report to the program.
The Government of Canada established the GHGRP in March 2004 under the authority of section 46 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) to collect GHG emissions information annually from the largest emitting Canadian facilities. To date, facility-reported GHG information has been collected and published through Environment and Climate Change Canada’s GHGRP for the period of 2004 to 2018. This program is part of Canada’s ongoing effort to develop, in collaboration with Canadian provinces and territories, a harmonized and efficient mandatory GHG reporting system that minimizes duplication and reporting burden for industry and governments. Key objectives of the program are to provide Canadians with consistent information on GHG emissions, inform the development of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and support regulatory initiatives. The data collected are also shared with provinces and territories.
In December 2016, the Government of Canada published a Notice of Intent to inform stakeholders of its intent to expand the GHGRP. It is pursuing this expansion in order to: enable the direct use of the reported data in Canada’s National GHG Inventory, increase the consistency and comparability of GHG data across jurisdictions, and obtain a more comprehensive picture of Canadian facility emissions. The 2017 data reporting cycle represented Phase 1 of the GHGRP expansion. In this phase, the reporting threshold was lowered to require all facilities emitting 10 kt or more of GHGs (in CO2 eq. units) to report. Facilities in targeted industry sectors were also required to use prescribed methods to quantify their emissions and to report additional information on their calculations. These sectors were cement, lime, aluminium, iron and steel producers as well as facilities engaged in CO2 capture, transport, and geological storage activities.
The Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2018Footnote 4 represented the second year of the phased expansion to the GHGRP. Under Phase 2 of the expansion, the reporting threshold was 10 kt CO2 eq. (from 2017) and facilities in 9 industry sectors were also required to provide additional data and use prescribed methods to determine emissions. These sectors were mining, ethanol production, electricity and heat generation, ammonia production, nitric acid production, hydrogen production, petroleum refineries, pulp and paper production, and base metal production. Environment and Climate Change Canada will continue to assess further expansion in future years.
The 2018 Notice, published in the Canada Gazette on January 19, 2019, reflects the federal reporting requirements for 2018 data, submitted by facilities to Environment and Climate Change Canada in 2019. The data used in this overview report are current as of November 14, 2019. Subsequent company updates or new reports received will be included in future data releases.
The Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2019Footnote 5 was published in the Canada Gazette on February 1, 2020. The 2019 Notice sets out the federal reporting requirements for 2019 data, scheduled to be submitted by facilities to Environment and Climate Change Canada by June 1, 2020. The 2019 Notice does not incorporate significant changes in reporting requirements.
2 Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions
For the purposes of the GHGRP, a facilityFootnote 6 is defined as an integrated facility, pipeline transportation system, or offshore installation. An integrated facility is defined as all buildings, equipment, structures, on-site transportation machinery, and stationary items that are located on a single site, on multiple sites or between multiple sites that are owned or operated by the same person or persons and that function as a single integrated site, excluding public roads.
A total of 1706 facilities reported their GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada for the 2018 calendar year, collectively emitting a total of 295 Mt of GHGsFootnote 7 (Figure 1). Of these facilities, 339 reported GHG emission levels greater than 100 kt, accounting for 87% (257 Mt) of the total reported emissions, and 58 emitted more than 1 Mt, accounting for 56% (166 Mt) of the total reported emissions (Figure 2). Those with emissions over 1 Mt fall within several industrial sectors such as electric power generation, oil sands extraction, petroleum refineries and primary metal manufacturing (e.g. iron, steel and aluminum). Facilities with emissions falling below the reporting threshold of 10 kt per year can voluntarily report their GHG emissions; 100 facilities did so this year, representing 0.1% (0.3 Mt). All voluntarily reported emissions are included in this report and in the data set published by Environment and Climate Change Canada.
Among all reported facilities, 1066 reported GHG emission levels in the 10 to 50 kt range, accounting for 8% (23 Mt) of the total reported emissions. These facilities belong to a number of sectors, such as oil and gas extraction (563 facilities), food manufacturing (54 facilities), and waste treatment and disposal (61 facilities).
Figure 1: 2018 facility greenhouse gas emissions reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada
Map excludes pipeline transportation systems.
Map is provided by the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program, available online.
Long description for Figure 1
Figure 1 is a map of facilities that reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada in 2018. The map excludes pipeline transportation systems. As shown, the distribution of facilities is uneven across the country, reflecting the concentration of large industrial facilities in certain provinces relative to others. Facilities are highly aggregated in Alberta and in the Windsor (Ontario) to Quebec City (Quebec) corridor. The map indicates a lower number of facilities located in Manitoba, Maritime provinces and territories.
Figure 2: Contribution of facilities in various emission ranges to total reported emissions (2018)
Facilities in the 0-10 kt range voluntarily reported their emissions.
Totals may not add up due to rounding.
Long description for Figure 2
Figure 2 is a column and scatter chart showing the number of facilities falling within various emissions ranges and their combined contribution to the total emissions reported to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program in 2018. While 1066 facilities reported 10 to 50 kilotonnes of GHG emissions, their combined total accounted for only 8% of total reported emissions. There were 58 facilities with annual GHG emissions greater than 1 megatonne, accounting for 56% of the total reported emissions.
2.1 Emission calculation methods
A facility may choose among a number of available methods to calculate its GHG emissions. The methods selected by reporting facilities must be consistent with the methodological guidelines developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the preparation of national GHG inventories. Reporting facilities must indicate the types of methods used to determine the quantities of emissions reported. Such methods may include monitoring or direct measurement, mass balance, emission factors, and/or engineering estimates.
As specified in section 1, facilities in 14 industry sectors/activities covered under phases 1 and 2 of the GHGRP expansion were required to use specific quantification methods, described in Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Quantification Requirements.
Overall, methods incorporating the use of emission factors were the approach preferred by most facilities (Figure 3). An emission factor is a statistical measure of the rate at which a GHG is released into the atmosphere due to a given activity, such as burning a specific fuel type or producing a specific industrial product. The emission factors used may be general or technology-specific. Many facilities used more than one calculation method to determine their emissions.
Figure 3: Types of methods used by facilities
Long description for Figure 3
Figure 3 is a pie chart showing the types of calculation methods and their percent usage by facilities to estimate their GHG emissions. The most common method (at 63%) was that using emissions factors, followed by engineering estimates (at 17%) and mass balance (at 13%). The remaining method is monitoring or direct measurements, used 8% of the time.
2.2 Greenhouse gases and global warming potentials
GHGs are not equal in their effect on the atmosphere. Each GHG has its own average atmospheric lifetime and heat-trapping potential. GHG emissions are often calculated and reported in terms of how much CO2 would be required to produce a similar warming effect over a given time horizon. This is called the CO2 eq. value and is calculated by multiplying the amount of the gas by its associated global warming potential (GWP) (Table 1). Environment and Climate Change Canada uses the GWP values from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report adopted by the UNFCCC, a complete list of which can be found in the Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2019. The GWP values used by the GHGRP are consistent with those used in Canada’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.
|Greenhouse Gas||100-year GWPsTable 1 Notea|
|Carbon dioxide (CO2)||1|
|Nitrous oxide (N2O)||298|
|Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)||22 800|
|Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 13 species||Ranges from 92 to 14 800|
|Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 7 species||Ranges from 7 390 to 12 200|
Table 1 Note a GWPs were updated in 2013 and applied to all years in the data published by the GHGRP.
2.3 Reported greenhouse gase emissions by gas and by source
CO2 represented the majority (93%) of the total reported emissions in 2018, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions contributed 5% and 1%, respectively (Figure 4). Facilities are also required to report emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) stemming from industrial processes or industrial product use. The combined emissions of these gases accounted for the remaining 0.4% (1 Mt).
Figure 4: Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions by gas (295 megatonnes of CO2 eq.)
Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.
Long description for Figure 4
Figure 4 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the reported 2018 GHG emissions by gas. Facilities reported 295 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2018. Carbon dioxide (CO2) represented the majority of the total emissions at 93%, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions each contributed an additional 5% and 1% respectively. The combined emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) accounted for the remaining 0.4%.
When reporting to the GHGRP, facilities are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O under the following source categories:Footnote 8 stationary fuel combustion, industrial processes and industrial product use, fugitive sources including venting, flaring and leakage, on-site transportation, waste and wastewater.Footnote 9 Stationary fuel combustion is the largest source of reported emissions, representing 75% of the total (Figure 5). This source includes emissions resulting from the burning of fuels for the purpose of producing energy (e.g., to generate electricity, heat or steam), but does not include emissions from combustion engines in vehicles or mobile equipment, which are grouped under On-site Transportation. Any waste material burned or incinerated at a facility to produce energy is also included in stationary combustion. Industrial process emissions, the second-largest source of reported emissions at 14%, refer to emissions stemming from specific industrial processes involving chemical or physical reactions other than combustion. Such reactions occur, for example, in the processes of mineral production (e.g., lime, cement), metal production (e.g., iron, steel, aluminium) and chemical production (e.g., nitric acid and ammonia production).
Figure 5: Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions by source
Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.
Long description for Figure 5
Figure 5 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2018 GHG emissions by emission source category. Facilities reported 295 megatonnes of total CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 emissions in 2018. Stationary fuel combustion was the largest source of emissions at 75%. Industrial processes accounted for 14%, venting accounted for 3% , flaring, leakage, and waste each accounted for 2%, on-site transportation accounted for 3%, while wastewater accounted for 0.2%.
2.4 Reported greenhouse gase emissions by province/territory
Facilities in the province of Alberta accounted for the largest share of reported emissions, with approximately 53% of the total, followed by facilities in Ontario (15%), Saskatchewan (10%) and Quebec (7%) (Table 2). The number of facilities, the quantity and type of fuel consumed, and the predominant industry largely explain this ranking.
|Province / territory||Number of facilities||Total emissions (kt CO2 eq)||Percentage of total emissions|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||16||5 434||2%|
|Prince Edward Island||5||96||0.03%|
|Nova Scotia||25||7 636||3%|
|New Brunswick||18||6 982||2%|
|British Columbia||185||17 236||6%|
|Total||1 706||294 530||100%|
Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.
2.5 Reported greenhouse gase emissions by sector
When completing a report for the GHGRP, a reporter is required to identify the main activities occurring at its facility using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).Footnote 10 In 2018, three NAICS defined industry sectors accounted for the majority of GHG emissions: the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, representing 38% (113 Mt) of total reported emissions; the Manufacturing sector, accounting for 30% (89 Mt); and the Utilities sector, primarily facilities generating electricity from fossil fuels, accounting for 25% (74 Mt) (Figure 6). The remaining 7% (19 Mt) of emissions captured under “Other” were reported by various types of facilities, mainly natural gas transportation pipelines (10 Mt) and waste management (7 Mt).
Figure 6: Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions by industry sector (295 Mt CO2 eq.)
a. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.
Long description for Figure 6
Figure 6 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2018GHG emissions by main industry sector. Facilities reported 295 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2018. Facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector accounted for 38%, Utilities for 25%, and Manufacturing for 30%. The Other category, accounting for the remaining 6% of emissions, includes facilities that fall into industry sectors other than those already mentioned, such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities.
Activities of reporting facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector can be further broken down into three main categories (Figure 7):
- oil sands extraction, the dominant sub-category which includes oil sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading (64%)
- oil and gas extraction (27%)
- mining of metal ore (e.g., iron) (4%), coal (2%), and non-metallic minerals (e.g., potash and diamonds) (3%)
Figure 7: Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (113 Mt CO2 eq.)
Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.
Long description for Figure 7
Figure 7 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the 2018 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sectors. Facilities of these subsectors reported 113 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2018. Non-conventional oil extraction and conventional oil and gas extraction accounted for the majority of these emissions at 64% and 27% respectively. Metal ore mining accounted for an additional 4%, coal mining for 2%, and non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying for the remaining 3%.
The Manufacturing sector includes a wide range of industrial activities, with important contributors to the reported 2018 emissions being (Figure 8):
- petroleum and coal product manufacturing (20%)
- iron, steel and ferro-alloy manufacturing (18%)
- basic chemical manufacturing (e.g., ethylene, polyethylene, hydrogen gas) (15%)
- cement and concrete product manufacturing (13%)
Figure 8: Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of manufacturing (89 Mt CO2 eq.)
a. Non-Ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Production and Processing includes the production of base metals (e.g., copper, nickel, zinc).
b. “Other Manufacturing” represents other types of manufacturing, including electrical equipment, transportation equipment and furniture manufacturing.
Long description for Figure 8
Figure 8 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of 2018 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of the Manufacturing sector. Facilities in this sector reported 89 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2018. The top four contributors to reported emissions in the Manufacturing sector were petroleum and coal products at 20%, iron and steel mills and ferro-alloys at 18%, basic chemicals at 15%, and cement and concrete products at 13%. Alumina and aluminium production and processing accounted for 7% of emissions, pesticide, fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals for 7%, and wood products and paper for 9%. The remaining emissions for this sector break down as follows: lime and gypsum product manufacturing, 3%; food beverage manufacturing, 3%; non-ferrous metal (except aluminium) production and processing, 2%; and other manufacturing activities, 3%.
2.6 Reported emissions in the 10 to 50 kt Range
Starting with the 2017 data collection, the mandatory reporting threshold was lowered from 50 kt CO2 eq. to 10 kt CO2 eq. This means any facility emitting 10kt or more of GHGs in the calendar year must report to the program. The threshold change resulted in a significant increase in the number of facilities reporting. Of all 1 706 reported facilities in 2018, 1 066 facilities’ emissions are in the range of 10 kt to 50 kt, accounting for 62% of the total number of reported facilities. The emissions from these 1 066 facilities are 23 Mt, representing 8% of the 2018 total reported emissions. Over half (55%) of the 23 Mt of GHGs emitted by facilities of 10–50 kt range, come from the Mining, Quarrying and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, where a total 629 facilities are reporting (Figure 9). The Manufacturing sector is the second largest contributor (226 facilities reporting), accounting for 23% of the emissions reported by the facilities in this range. Many landfills, universities and hospitals were required to report because of the 10 kt threshold.
Figure 9: Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions from facilities in the 10 to 50 kt range by sector
(23 Mt CO2 eq.)
a. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as wholesale trade and transportation and warehousing.
Long description for Figure 9
Figure 9 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of 2018 GHG emissions reported by main industry sectors of facilities in the 10 to 50 kt range. Facilities in this range reported 23 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2018. Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction and Manufacturing accounted for the majority of these emissions at 55% and 23% respectively. Waste Management and Remediation Services accounted for 8%, Utilities for 5%, and Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting for 3%. The remaining emissions break down as follows: Educational Services and Public Administration, 2% each; and Health Care and Social Assistance and Other Activities, 1% each.
The reporting threshold change from 50 kt CO2 eq. to 10 kt CO2 eq. resulted in 1 066 facilities reporting in this range across Canada in 2018 (Figure 10). Alberta experienced the highest number of reporters in this range with a total 469 reported facilities (44% of the total number of new reporting facilities), followed by 198 in Ontario (19%), 120 in Saskatchewan (11%) and 112 in British Columbia (11%). Facilities in this range accounted for 23 Mt of total reported facility emissions for 2018, with the highest share being in Alberta (10 Mt), followed by Ontario (4 Mt), Saskatchewan (2.4 Mt) and British Columbia (2.4 Mt).
Figure 10: Reported 2018 greenhouse gas emissions for facilities between 10 kt to 50 kt CO2 eq. by province/territory
Long description for Figure 10
Figure 10 is a column chart comparing 2018 distribution of GHG emissions reported by facilities in the 10 to 50 kt range. Facilities in this range accounted for 23 Mt of total reported facility emissions for 2018. Alberta has experienced the highest number of reporters in this range with 469 reporters, followed by 198 in Ontario, 120 in Saskatchewan and 112 in British Columbia.
3 Trends in reported greenhouse gas emissions
The number of facilities reporting GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada can change from year to year. The lowering of the mandatory reporting threshold from 50 kt to 10 kt resulted in an increase in the number of facilities reporting. Changes in production levels, processes and technologies, the types of fuels used at a facility, facility start-ups/closures and unplanned events can all result in a change in the annual emissions, so that a facility may fall below or attain the reporting threshold from one year to the next. The number of voluntary reporters may also change, affecting the number of reporting facilities.
Since the reporting threshold was lowered from 50 kt to 10 kt in 2017, facilities with emissions below 50 kt were excluded from the trend analysis presented in section 3. This exclusion is necessary to remove the impact of lowering the reporting threshold on observed changes in emission levels from 2005 through 2018. Over the 2005–2018 period, the number of reporting facilities increased from 337 to 540 (Table 3), while emissions from these facilities decreased by 2% (7 Mt) since 2005.
3.1 National-level trends
Total reported GHG emissions for facilities emitting 50 kt of CO2 eq. or more were 271 Mt in 2018, compared to 270 Mt for 2017 (Table 3).Footnote 11 Over the 2005–2018 period, the number of reporting facilities in this range increased from 337 to 540, while emissions from these facilities decreased by 2% (7 Mt). In contrast with this overall trend, total emissions since 2011 increased by 7% (17 Mt), with some levelling out between 2012 and 2016.
While the number of facilities reporting their emissions has steadily increased over the last several years, overall GHG emissions did not increase accordingly: their variations are mainly driven by the evolution of important industry sectors and the influence of the largest emitters (i.e. emissions above 100 kt) (Figure 2).
|Total facility-reported greenhouse gas emissions||2005||2009Table 3 Note a||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017Table 3 Note a||2018Table 3 Note a|
|Number of facilities||337||464||475||489||500||500||490||504||525||540|
|GHG emissions (kt CO2 eq)||277 997||252 158||254 352||257 862||259 582||262 111||262 549||261 998||269 821||271 339|
|Annual change (%)||not applicable (N/A)||-4.13%||-3.02%||1.38%||0.67%||0.97%||0.17%||-0.21%||2.99%||0.56%|
|Change since 2005 (%)||N/A||-9%||-9%||-7%||-7%||-6%||-6%||-6%||-3%||-2%|
The complete data set (i.e. yearly data since 2004), is available on ECCC Website: Facility-reported greenhouse gas data.
Only facilities with emissions above 50 kt were included in the analysis for 2009-2018.
a. The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt and, from 50 kt to 10 kt in 2017. For 2017 and 2018, emissions data for facilities between 10 kt to 50 kt CO2 eq. are not included.
N/A = not applicable.
3.2 Industry sector and provincial/territorial trends
The summary of facility-reported emissions by NAICS industry sector provides a picture of the types of facilities (mostly industrial operations) that report to the GHGRP in response to the annual GHG reporting requirements (Figure 11 and Table 4). The provincial breakdown of each main industry sector highlights the regional presence of key industries accounting for the reported emissions (e.g., large component of emissions from the Manufacturing sector in Ontario, Quebec and Alberta) (Table 5). Only facilities that emitted 50 kt or more were used for the analysis presented in this section: this is to remove the impact of changing the reporting threshold on observed emission changes from 2005 through 2018.
Overall, GHG emissions reported by the Utilities sector have steadily decreased over the last decade. On the other hand, the Mining, Quarrying, Oil and Gas Extraction sector has experienced a sustained increase in emissions since 2005, surpassing those reported by Utilities in 2015 (Figure 11). Emissions from the Manufacturing sector have recently risen, exhibiting a 6 Mt increase since 2016 although the sector’s emissions had significantly decreased between 2005 and 2009. Trends observed from facility-reported sector emissions are similar to trends observed in the National GHG Inventory. Various factors have led to these trends and are further discussed in this section.
Figure 11: Long-term sectoral trend, 2005 to 2018
Note: Other—not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports and institutional facilities (universities, hospitals and public administration buildings).
Long description for Figure 11
Figure 11 is a line chart grouping facilities in four main industrial sectors between 2005 and 2018. This chart shows the changes in facility-reported GHG emissions for facilities over the 50 kt range. In 2005, the Utilities sector was the highest GHG emitting sector, followed by the Manufacturing sector, and the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. There is an overall increasing trend in emissions from the Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction sector while emissions from the Manufacturing sector and Utilities have generally levelled off or decreased since 2005. From 2015 onwards, the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector became the highest GHG-emitting sector, surpassed those reported by the Manufacturing sector and the Utilities sector. Other sectors include various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities.
|NAICSTable 4 Note a Industry Sector (Units: Mt CO2 eq.)||2005||2009Table 4 Note b||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017Table 4 Note b||2018Table 4 Note b|
|TotalTable 4 Note c||278||252||254||258||260||262||263||262||270||271|
|21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionTable 4 Note c||48||62||71||77||82||83||87||86||96||100|
|Oil and gas extraction||14||15||15||14||15||15||14||15||19||19|
|Oil sands extractionTable 4 Note d||28||42||49||55||59||61||65||64||69||72|
|Metal ore mining||3||2||3||3||4||3||3||4||4||4|
|Non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying||1||1||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||3|
|Support activities for mining, and oil and gas extraction||not applicable (N/A)||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||0.06||N/A||N/A|
|22 - UtilitiesTable 4 Note c||123||103||94||90||88||88||85||84||80||72|
|Electric power generation||122||101||91||88||86||86||84||83||78||71|
|Natural gas distribution||1||2||2||2||2||2||1||1||1||1|
|Water, sewage and other systemsTable 4 Note e||0||0.49||0.38||0.36||0.43||0.43||0.42||0.41||0.37||0.44|
|31-33 ManufacturingTable 4 Note c||92||74||77||79||76||76||76||77||79||83|
|Food, beverages, and tobacco products||0.34||0.65||0.72||0.69||0.91||1||1||1||1||1|
|Wood products and paper||5||4||4||5||5||5||5||5||5||6|
|Petroleum and coal products||20||19||17||18||17||17||17||17||18||18|
|Pesticide, fertilizer, other agricultural chemicals||6||5||6||6||6||6||6||6||6||6|
|Cement and concrete products||13||9||10||11||10||10||11||10||11||11|
|Lime and gypsum products||3||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|Iron and steel mills and ferro-alloys||17||11||14||15||13||14||13||14||14||16|
|Primary production of alumina and aluminium||10||8||8||8||7||7||7||7||7||6|
|Non-ferrous metal (except alum.) smelting and refining||3||2||1||2||2||2||2||2||1||1|
|Other manufacturingTable 4 Note f||0||1||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|OtherTable 4 Note c, g||15||13||12||12||14||15||15||15||15||15|
|Pipeline transportation of natural gas||12||7||7||6||8||9||9||9||9||10|
|Waste management and remediation services||3||5||5||5||5||5||5||5||6||5|
Table 4 Note a Facilities required to report to the GHGRP provide a primary NAICS code that describes the main activities occurring at the facility.
Table 4 Note b The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt and in 2017 from 50 kt to 10 kt. The analysis for 2009-2017 only includes emissions information for facilities that emit ≥ 50kt of CO2 eq.
Table 4 Note c Totals may not add up due to rounding.
Table 4 Note d Includes facilities engaged in oils sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading.
Table 4 Note e Includes sewage treatment facilities, heating and steam generation plants.
Table 4 Note f Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by facilities engaged in other types of manufacturing such as Electrical Equipment, Transportation Equipment, Furniture Manufacturing and others.
Table 4 Note g Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and institutional facilities.
Table 4 Note N/A = not available
|Industry Sector Province/Territory (Units: Mt CO2 eq.)||2005||2009Table 5 Note a||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017Table 5 Note a||2018Table 5 Note a|
|TotalTable 5 Note b||278||252||254||258||260||262||263||262||270||271|
|21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas ExtractionTable 5 Note b||48||62||71||77||82||83||87||86||96||100|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||3||3||3||3||3||3||3||3||3||3|
|Nova Scotia||not applicable (N/A)||0.3||0.2||0.2||0.4||0.5||0.4||0.4||0.3||0.2|
|22 - UtilitiesTable 5 Note b||123||103||94||90||88||88||85||84||80||72|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||1||0.8||0.7||0.7||0.8||1||1||1||1||1.0|
|31-33 ManufacturingTable 5 Note b||92||74||77||79||76||76||76||77||79||83|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||1||1||0.9||1||0.9||1.0||1||1||1||1|
|Prince Edward Island||0.10||0.07||0.07||N/A||0.06||0.06||0.05||0.06||0.06||0.06|
|OtherTable 5 Note b,c||15||13||12||12||14||15||15||15||15||15|
a. The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt and in 2017 from 50 kt to 10 kt. The analysis for 2009-2018 only includes emissions information for facilities that emit ≥ 50 kt of CO2 eq.
b. Totals may not add up due to rounding
c. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.
N/A = not applicable
Note: For the complete data set (i.e. yearly data since 2004), visit the ECCC Website Facility-reported greenhouse gas data.
3.2.1 Short-term changes
The 3.4% (9 Mt) increase in total reported emissions over the last five years is mostly due to the 20% increase in emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector (i.e. 17 Mt increase from 2014 to 2018) (Table 4), largely in Alberta (Table 5). Oil sands extraction experienced an 11-Mt increase in emissions, consistent with observed increases in synthetic crude oil production (11%) and in non-upgraded bitumen production (47%) during this period.Footnote 12 Saskatchewan facilities also contributed to the increase, mainly due to the increased emissions reported from potash mines and oil and gas extraction sectors.
The sustained increase in the above sector is offset by emission reductions in the Utilities sector (Figure 11). Electric power generation experienced an 16 Mt decrease in emissions since 2014 (Table 4), where 50% of this decrease (8 Mt) occurred in the past year (from 2017 to 2018)in Alberta. The Utilities sector in Ontario also experienced a 4 Mt decrease in emissions from 2014 to 2018. The reduced emissions in this sector over the last five years are attributed to the reduced use of fossil fuels for electricity generation and the increased reliance on renewable electricity sources in Ontario and Alberta.Footnote 13
Overall emissions from the larger emitters (i.e. 50+ kt) in the Manufacturing sector largely remained stable throughout 2014 to 2016, while more recently have shown an 8% increase (6 Mt) from 2016 to 2018. This increase is mainly observed in the iron and steel, chemical, and wood products and paper manufacturing sectors (Table 4).
3.2.2 Long-term trends
The major long-term emission trends have shown a declining overall in the Utilities and Manufacturing sectors since 2005, while emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector have steadily increased.
Up to and including the year 2014, the Utilities sector consistently accounted for the largest portion of reported emissions (Figure 11), with electric power generation being the main contributor. However, emissions from fossil-fuel electric power generation fell significantly (51 Mt) throughout 2005 to 2018 (Table 4), largely from the discontinuation of coal-fired electricity production in Ontario as well as emission reductions in Alberta, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.(Table 5) Fuel switching (e.g., from coal to natural gas or other lower carbon fuel) and increased reliance on hydro, nuclear and renewable sources of generation are also contributors to the decrease in utility emissions.Footnote 14
Overall emissions from the Manufacturing sector remain below (10%, or 9 Mt) their 2005 levels (Figure 11) between 2005 and 2018, with Ontario and Quebec facilities showing the largest decreases in GHG emissions from the Manufacturing sector. Ontario facilities saw a net decrease of 7 Mt (Table 5) compared to 2005, largely observed in iron/steel, cement, and chemical manufacturing (e.g., halted adipic acid production in 2009) (Table 4). Quebec facilities showed an overall decrease in emissions of 4 Mt from 2005 to 2018 (Table 5), with aluminium production and petroleum refining facilities contributing the most to this change (Table 4). Emission decreases resulted from technological change in aluminum production,Footnote 15, Footnote 16, Footnote 17 the closure of aluminium smelters in Quebec, and the conversion of a petroleum refinery to a storage terminal.
The Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas extraction sector has shown an increasing trend over the last decade (Figure 11). Most of the increase (52 Mt between 2005 and 2018) was driven by oil sands extraction facilities in Alberta (47 Mt growth since 2005) and Saskatchewan, reflecting this sector’s steady growth trend.
4 Facility-reported emissions and the national greenhouse gas inventory
The total facility-reported GHG emissions for 2018 collected under the GHGRP represent 40% of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2018 (729 Mt) and 65% of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions.Footnote 18 The GHGRP applies to large GHG-emitting facilities (mostly industrial) and does not cover diffuse sources of GHG emissions such as road transportation and agricultural sources, whereas the National GHG Inventory is a complete accounting of all GHG sources and sinks in Canada.
When comparing the provincial and territorial breakdown of the facility-reported emissions to the corresponding information in the National GHG Inventory, the distribution of emissions by province shows a similar pattern (Figure 12). Alberta has the highest emissions, followed by Ontario. Saskatchewan accounted for the third largest portion of total reported emissions in the GHGRP while Quebec is the third major contributor to the total emissions of the National GHG Inventory. This pattern of industrial emissions reflects the regional concentration of large industrial facilities and trends in the use of fossil fuels for energy production.
Figure 12: Provincial/territorial contribution to 2018 facility-reported greenhouse gas reporting program total and the national inventory total
Long description for Figure 12
Figure 12 is a column chart comparing the provincial/territorial distribution of the GHG emissions from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report. The two distributions follow a similar pattern, with Alberta contributing the largest quantity of emissions by province, followed by Ontario.
Although the facility-reported emissions may capture 65% of industrial GHG emissions nationally, the degree of coverage at the provincial level varies from province to province (Figure 13), due to the size and number of industrial facilities in each province that have emissions above the 10 kt CO2 eq. reporting threshold. The degree of coverage are fairly high for some provinces and territories, for example, the reported emissions in 2018 captured approximately 82% of industrial emissions in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), and 98% of total industrial emissions in Yukon (YT) and the Northwest Territories (NT).
Figure 13: 2018 Facility-reported emissions as a percentage of national and provincial/territorial industrial greenhouse gas emissions from the national inventory*
a. In this overview report, Canada’s industrial GHG emissions include the following GHG categories from the National Inventory Report 1990–2018: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.
*Nunavut is not included due to the lack of data.
Long description for Figure 13
Figure 13 is a column-stacked chart showing the percentages of industrial GHG emissions from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report, accounted for by the facility-reported data from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). The degree of coverage by the GHGRP at the national and provincial/territorial level ranges from 26% in Prince Edward Island to 82% in Newfoundland and Labrador, with the coverage of industrial emissions nationally at 65%. In this overview report, Canada’s industrial greenhouse gas emissions include the following categories from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 1990–2017: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.
Where appropriate, the facility-reported emissions data are used by Environment and Climate Change Canada to confirm estimates in the national GHG inventory developed largely from national and provincial statistics and internationally-recognised emission estimation methodologies. The extent to which the facility-reported GHG emissions data could be fully integrated into the national inventory is dependent on the level of detail and type of data available. This integration of the facility-reported data is a key objective for the recent expansion to reporting under the GHGRP.
5 Additional information about the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
5.1 Data quality
Facilities that meet the GHG reporting requirements under the GHGRP must ensure that the reported data are reliable. Facilities are required by law to submit information that is true, accurate and complete to the best of their knowledge. CEPA sets out penalties for companies that fail to report or that knowingly submit false or misleading information. Reporters have a legal obligation to keep copies of the information submitted, along with any calculations, measurements and other data on which the information is based. All information must be kept for a period of three years from the date on which it was required to be reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada.
The data provided in this report are for information purposes only. Environment and Climate Change Canada conducted a number of data quality checks of the submitted data for compliance purposes and for completeness, and it will continue to analyze the data, which may result in periodic updates.
5.2 Public access
The GHGRP provides public access to information from all facilities that reported GHG emissions to the program through an annual online publication. In addition to this summary report, the facility-level data are presented in the form of tables, a searchable database and a downloadable format. Users can search by emissions of a specific gas or emissions of all gases, by facility name or GHGRP identification number, by National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) identification number, by reporting company, by province/territory or city, or by industry sector, using the NAICSFootnote 19 code. Users can also access a web-based mapping tool on the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators website, which shows where reporting facilities are located in Canada.
To access the data or obtain further information on the GHGRP or National Greenhouse Gas Inventory program, consult the following websites:
5.3 Links to other programs
The GHGRP is similar to, yet distinct from, the NPRI. Although both programs are delivered by Environment and Climate Change Canada under the authority of section 46 of CEPA, the NPRI collects data from facilities on pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling, whereas the GHGRP collects data from facilities on GHG emissions. Facilities reporting to the GHGRP are asked to report their NPRI identification number to facilitate searching and comparison of emissions from facilities that report to both programs.
A number of provincial jurisdictions also require facilities to report GHG emissions information annually under specific provincial regulations. Efforts have been undertaken to streamline the reporting process between the national and various provincial jurisdictions, resulting in the launch of a single-window reporting system to help reduce the reporting burden on industry and the overall cost to government. This single-window system allows one-time entry for information commonly required at both levels, while accommodating requirements that are jurisdiction-specific. Provinces currently using this reporting system include Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan.
6 Contact us
If you have questions about this report or for more information about its content, please contact the GHGRP:
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
Place Vincent Massey, 7th Floor
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3
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