Impacts of climate change

Over the period 1948 to 2013, the average annual temperature in Canada has warmed by 1.6 °C (relative to the 1961-1990 average), a higher rate of warming than in most other regions of the world. Increased winter and spring temperatures have contributed to this warming trend to a greater degree than other seasons. Warming trends are seen consistently across Canada, but the regions showing the strongest warming trends are found in the far north. Strong warming in high-latitude regions is a robust characteristic of projections of future climate change as well. This indicates that the climate of Canada, particularly in the North, to which Canadians have been accustomed and to which we have adapted our activities, is expected to undergo substantial change in the future. Future warming will be accompanied by other changes, including the amount and distribution of rain, snow, and ice and the risk of extreme weather events such as heat waves, heavy rainfalls and related flooding, dry spells and/or droughts, and forest fires. In addition, Canada is a maritime nation with 8 of its 10 provinces and all three territories bordering on ocean waters (including Hudson Bay). Thus many regions of Canada will also be affected by changing ocean environments, including changes in average and extreme sea level, wave regimes, and ice conditions. Dramatic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover, particularly during the summer season, are already evident and well documented, and have been attributed to human-induced global warming.

Canada in a Changing Climate: Sector Perspectives on Impacts and Adaptation is an update to the 2008 report, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate. The report assesses literature published since 2007 on climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Canada.  It includes chapters on natural resources, food production, industry, biodiversity and protected areas, human health, and water and transportation infrastructure.

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