Canada’s negotiating positions for CoP18 proposals to amend the CITES Appendices

These abbreviations are used for the following terms: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Conference of the Parties (CoP), International Union for Conservation of nature (IUCN).

18.01: Transfer Heptner's markhor (population of Tajikistan) from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Tajikistan

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to transfer the Tajikistan population of Heptner's markhor from Appendix I to Appendix II. While there have been recent efforts to recover the species in Tajikistan, the program is still relatively new, the species is in demand for trade, and the most recent harvest quotas being implemented by Tajikistan may not be sustainable.

18.02: Transfer Saiga antelope from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Mongolia and United States of America

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to transfer the global population of Saiga antelope from Appendix II to Appendix I. This species fluctuates in population size rapidly and frequently, by over an order of magnitude. Population size has increased 215% since conservation measures were put in place in the mid 2000s and thus recovery measures for Saiga antelope currently in place for the species appear adequate to maintain and recover the species without the need for a transfer to Appendix I. Canada will consider the views of the range states and the outcomes of the joint meeting of CITES and the Convention on Migratory Species discussing Saiga antelope, in relation to the conservation benefits of an Appendix I listing, and in relation to future plans for sustainable use of the species.

18.03: Transfer Vicugna (population of the Province of Salta, Argentina) from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Argentina

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the subnational population of Vicugna from the Argentinian Province of Salta from Appendix I to Appendix II. This population does not meet the biological criteria for continued inclusion in Appendix I, and Argentina has been managing the international trade of other subnational populations without issues since their transfer to Appendix II in 1997. This transfer would facilitate Argentina’s implementation of trade controls for Vicugna because individuals from Province of Salta would be listed in the same CITES Appendix as individuals from the neighbouring populations of vicuna from the provinces of Jujuy and Catamarca.

18.04: Amend the annotation for Vicugna (population of Chile)

Proponent
Chile

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this administrative proposal to change the Chilean portion of the Vicugna annotation from "population of the Primera Region" to "populations of the region of Tarapacá and of the Region of Arica and Paranicota," This proposal does not change the scope of the current listing of Vicugna for Chile.

18.05: Include giraffe in Appendix II

Proponent
Central African Republic, Chad, Kenya, Mali, Niger and Senegal

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to add the Giraffe to Appendix II of CITES. The proponents indicate that listing on CITES Appendix II will provide valuable trade data to help focus conservation and enforcement efforts. The species is thought to be in decline overall, and has been assessed by IUCN as Vulnerable. The primary threats to the species are habitat loss and poaching for bush meat (which is sometimes traded across largely unregulated borders). Available trade data indicate there is a low volume of trade from countries where there are population declines. Before making a decision on the proposal, Canada will wait to hear views of other range states, and information on whether there is increasing trade demand. As an alternative to an Appendix II listing, Parties that have concerns and wish to monitor trade could consider an Appendix III listing.

18.06: Transfer Small-clawed otter from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
India, Nepal and the Philippines

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to transfer the Small-clawed otter from Appendix II to Appendix I. The proponents suggest there is an emerging threat from the international pet trade, noting that this takes place predominantly online, making it difficult to control. They indicate issues with illegal international and domestic trade. While there are declines of the species, the declines are not sufficient to qualify for listing on Appendix I.

18.07: Transfer Smooth-coated otter from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Bangladesh, India and Nepal

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to transfer the Smooth-coated otter from Appendix II to Appendix I. The proponents suggest there is an emerging threat from the international pet trade, noting that this takes place predominantly online, making it difficult to control. They indicate issues with illegal international and domestic trade. While there are population declines they are not sufficient to qualify for listing on Appendix I.

18.08: Remove the existing annotation for Southern white rhinoceros (population of Eswatini)

Proponent
Eswatini

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to remove the Appendix II annotation for the Eswatini population of southern white rhinoceros. The proponent indicates that the commercial trade in rhinoceros horn as a result of a removal of the annotation would generate funding to maintain current levels of protection for the southern white rhinoceros in Eswatini. The Eswatini population of southern white rhinoceros meets the biological criteria for listing on Appendix I (though it is currently on Appendix II). However, when considered together with the southern while rhinoceros population in South Africa, and noting that South Africa surrounds Eswatini on all sides, the population of southern white rhinoceros in these two countries is not small or limited in range. The species globally is listed as Near Threatened by IUCN, and this status is dependent on significant conservation efforts and ongoing funding. Eswatini has been successfully managing southern white rhinoceros within its country and there have been no documented poaching incidents in recent times. The removal of the Appendix II annotation for the Eswatini population could facilitate laundering of illegal rhinoceros horn from other countries through Eswatini to feed the demand for rhinoceros horn. Canada would be interested in the views of other range states, especially South Africa, which harbours the vast majority of the global population.

18.09: Transfer of the population of Southern white rhinoceros of Namibia from Appendix I to Appendix II with an annotation

Proponent
Namibia

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer Namibia’s Southern white rhinoceros population from Appendix I to Appendix II with an annotation to limit trade to hunting trophies and live animals to appropriate and acceptable destinations. All other trade would still be under the provisions of Appendix I. This population does not meet the biological criteria for continued listing in Appendix I, and there are precautionary measures in place to support a transfer to Appendix II. The proponents indicate this transfer would expand economic incentives to fund the cost for protection from illegal trade, and would provide incentive for private landowners to maintain and expand the current rhinoceros population on private lands.

18.10: Transfer African elephant (population of Zambia) from Appendix I to Appendix II subject to an annotation

Proponent
Zambia

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to transfer Zambia’s population of African elephant from Appendix I to Appendix II with an annotation to allow trade in registered ivory, hunting trophies, hides, and leather goods. The Zambian population does not meet the biological criteria for Appendix I listing. There is a strictly-enforced harvest and export quota that is below the current estimated sustainable limit. However, the proposal does not contain sufficient information to fully evaluate precautionary measures associated with African elephant management and enforcement in Zambia. Canada’s decision will depend on information presented at the meeting, particularly on Zambian elephant status, management and enforcement. Canada would support an annotation that is more restrictive than the one proposed to help address poaching and illegal trade of elephant ivory in other countries.

18.11: Amendment of the annotation for African elephant (populations of Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe)

Proponent
Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to amend the annotation that applies to the Appendix II African elephant populations of Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. This amendment would remove of some of the strict conditions for African elephant ivory trade that currently apply to these four populations and in particular it would allow for the sale of registered government-owned stocks of ivory (subject to conditions such as verification of registered stocks by the Secretariat).
The proposal provides little information on precautionary measures regarding the risks to four Appendix II populations (and other African elephant populations). Canada will be looking for significant new information regarding implementation of precautionary measures domestically, to ensure that trade would not be harmful to the populations within each of the four countries, as well as strong precautionary measures relating to controls of illegal trade, to support protection of elephants globally.

18.12: Transfer African elephant (populations of Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe) from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Kenya, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic and Togo

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to transfer four Appendix II African elephant populations to Appendix I. African elephants (as a whole or for the four populations in question) do not meet biological criteria for listing on Appendix I. We note the proposal suggests that the only way to protect elephants globally is by negating all possibility of legal trade. However, Canada considers the best way to protect elephants will vary by country, depending on their political, economic or land tenure situation.

18.13: Include Woolly mammoth in Appendix II

Proponent
Israel

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to list the Woolly mammoth in Appendix II. The proposal would result in CITES permits being required for Woolly mammoth as a precautionary measure to protect elephants that are traded illegally for their ivory. The proposal does not provide information regarding the breadth, regularity or scale of international trade of elephant ivory traded illegally as Woolly mammoth ivory; therefore it is not possible to evaluate the risk to elephant populations from such trade to establish whether CITES trade controls are needed.

18.14: Transfer Greater stick-nest rat from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Australia

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the Greater stick-nest rat from Appendix I to Appendix II, consistent with the recommendation of the Animals Committee as a result of the Periodic Review conducted for this species. There is no known incidence of trade or potential international demand for this species. The species is Near Threatened according to IUCN and does not meet the biological criteria for listing on Appendix I. The species is protected through strong state and national legislation.

18.15: Transfer Shark Bay mouse from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Australia

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the Shark Bay mouse from Appendix I to Appendix II, consistent with the recommendation of the Animals Committee as a result of the Periodic Review conducted for this species. Shark Bay mouse meets the biological criteria for listing in Appendix I. However, Australia’s legislation for the control of international trade is strong, the country is investing in conservation and management efforts, and the species is also protected through state and national legislation. It is very unlikely that a transfer to Appendix II would have any impact on the species because there is no known trade or potential international demand. Canada also supports Australia’s recommendation of updating the scientific name from P. fieldi praecornis to P. fieldi, given that the former is not an accepted subspecies.

18.16: Transfer False swamp rat from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Australia

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the False swamp rat from Appendix I to Appendix II, consistent with the recommendation of the Animals Committee as a result of the Periodic Review conducted for this species. There is no known trade and or potential international demand. The species is protected through state and national legislation.

18.17: Transfer Central rock rat from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Australia

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer of Central rock rat from Appendix I to Appendix II, and this is consistent with the recommendation of the Animals Committee as a result of the Periodic Review conducted for this species. The species meets the biological criteria for listing in Appendix I. However, Australia’s legislation for the control of international trade is strong, a restoration plan is in place, and the species is also protected through state and national legislation. It is unlikely that a transfer to Appendix II would have an impact on the species because there is no known trade or international demand.

18.18: Include Reeves's pheasant in Appendix II

Proponent
China

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to include the Reeve's pheasant in Appendix II. This species has been assessed by IUCN as Vulnerable with declines of at least 50% in the last two generations, and trade levels that could have a relatively high impact on the species. International trade is sourced in part from wild populations even though the species is nationally protected in China.

18.19: Transfer Black crowned-crane from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to transfer the Black-crowned crane from Appendix II to Appendix I. The species does not meet the biological criteria for listing on Appendix I. The wild trade volume is relatively low according to separate analyses done by both IUCN and the CITES Secretariat, and trade volume has declined in recent decades. The primary threats are habitat loss and degradation.

18.20: Transfer Lesser rufous bristlebird from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Australia

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the Lesser rufous bristlebird from Appendix I to Appendix II. The subspecies is not in trade and it is likely extinct. No trade has been recorded in the CITES Trade Database for this species since 1975 and there is no indication of illegal trade. There is no national utilization.

18.21: Transfer Long-billed bristlebird from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Australia

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the Long-billed bristlebird from Appendix I to Appendix II, because there is no known incidence of trade nor is there international demand for this species. The long-billed bristlebird is protected through strong state and national legislation.

18.22: Transfer American crocodile (population of Mexico) from Appendix I to Appendix II

Proponent
Mexico

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to transfer the American crocodile (population of Mexico) from Appendix I to Appendix II. The information provided suggests that the species does not meet the biological criteria for continued inclusion in Appendix I, but information is lacking to assess whether not the precautionary measures for management of the species are met. The proponents may wish to consider an amended proposal that specified a zero quota for wild specimens traded for commercial purposes.

18.23: Include Garden lizards in Appendix I

Proponent
Sri Lanka

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list two garden lizard species, Calotes nigrilabris and Calotes pethiyagodai, on Appendix I. Both species meet the Appendix I biological criteria with restricted distributions, and they are highly vulnerable because they have low reproductive rates. Trade of these Sri Lankan endemics has been prohibited since 1993 but there is evidence that there is ongoing illegal take from the wild for pet trade, and there are insufficient national conservation and protection measures to prevent this illegal trade.

18.24: Include Horned lizards in Appendix I

Proponent
Sri Lanka

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list five species of Horned lizards (genus Ceratophora) in Appendix I. Three of the species, Ceratophora karu, C. erdeleni and C. tennentii, meet the biological criteria for Appendix I. The other two species likely meet criteria for Appendix I, though data are limited. The distributions of these species can also be small and they have strict habitat requirements. Trade volumes are low but there is ongoing pet trade demand. There is no legal trade from Sri Lanka but there is evidence of ongoing illegal trade. Trade would be relatively easy to enforce because of the distinctive rostral appendage for the genus.

18.25: Include Pygmy lizards in Appendix I

Proponent
Sri Lanka

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list two pygmy lizards (Cophotis dumbara and Cophotis ceylanica) on Appendix I. Both species meet the Appendix I biological criteria. Trade volumes are low but there is ongoing pet trade demand. The distributions of these species can be small and they have strict habitat requirements. The only range state for these species believes that listing on Appendix I will be of benefit for these species. There is no legal trade from Sri Lanka but there is evidence of ongoing illegal trade.

18.26: Include Hump-nosed lizard in Appendix I

Proponent
Sri Lanka

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to list Hump-nosed lizard in Appendix I. The proposal does not have enough information to evaluate the species against the criteria for Appendix I, such as data on declines, vulnerability and area of distribution. Additionally, though there is demand for this species in the international pet trade market as a rare and unique species of high value since at least 2011, the trade numbers are not high.

18.27: Include Leopard geckos (populations of China and Viet Nam) in Appendix II

Proponent
China, European Union and Viet Nam

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to include the 13 species of the genus Goniurosaurus (tiger geckos or leopard geckos) from China and Viet Nam in Appendix II. The species included in the proposal have restricted distribution and are therefore vulnerable to factors such as exceptional weather event, habitat loss or harvest for trade. Species have been known in both the domestic and international pet trade since the 1990s with newly described species quickly found in markets.

18.28: Include Tokay gecko in Appendix II

Proponent
European Union, India, Philippines and United States of America

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal for the inclusion of Tokay gecko in Appendix II. There is evidence of declines in several countries, and high levels of harvest and international trade. An Appendix II listing will allow better monitoring and regulation of international trade, and will minimise the detrimental effects of harvest, poaching and smuggling on the survival of the species.

18.29: Include Grenadines clawed gecko in Appendix I

Proponent
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list the Grenadines clawed gecko on Appendix I. The species meets the biological criteria for listing on Appendix I. It is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN, with declines of 80% in one area, declines in habitat quality and area, and it has a restricted extent of occurrence of one km2. It is a rare and colourful species, it has been found increasingly in trade in since it was first described in 2005.

18.30: Include Grandidier's Madagascar ground gecko in Appendix II

Proponent
European Union and Madagascar

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list Grandidier's Madagascar ground gecko in Appendix II. IUCN assessed this species in 2011 as Vulnerable based on decreases in populations, low extent of occurrence, and severe fragmentation. The species has been found in the pet trade in increasing numbers since the late 2000s. At the time it was assessed by IUCN in 2011, it was not known to be in trade. Current levels of harvest may not be sustainable. Inclusion in Appendix II will increase harvest and trade regulations in Madagascar.

18.31: Include Spiny-tailed iguanas in Appendix II

Proponent
El Salvador and Mexico

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list the whole genus Ctenosaura (18 spiny-tailed iguana species) in Appendix II. Spiny-tailed iguana species occur in nine countries. Several Ctenosaura species have experienced significant declines in numbers, and many have disappeared in areas where they were previously abundant. They are increasingly found in the pet trade, as evidenced by trade information from the United States and Europe. Inclusion of the entire genus Ctenosaura in Appendix II will regulate legal trade in these lizards that are difficult even for experts to distinguish.

18.32: Include Spider-tailed horned viper in Appendix II

Proponent
Iran

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list the recently-discovered Spider-tailed horned viper on Appendix II. The species occurs only in small parts of Iran (and possibly in Iraq). It is a rare species and there is strong evidence of harvesting for international trade. The Appendix II listing would support the current domestic legislation to prohibit collection and trade of the species.

18.33: Transfer Bourret's box turtle from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Viet Nam

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer Bourret's box turtle from Appendix II to Appendix I. It was assessed by the IUCN in 2016 as Critically Endangered and has been subject to the Animals Committee Review of Significant trade and Periodic review process resulting in a recommendation for listing in Appendix I. The species is increasingly rare as it is a high value species for the international pet trade.

18.34: Transfer Vietnamese box turtle from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Viet Nam

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the Vietnamese box turtle from Appendix II (currently listed with zero export quota from the wild for commercial purposes) to Appendix I. It was assessed by the IUCN in 2016 as Critically Endangered and has been subject to the Animals Committee Review of Significant trade and Periodic review process resulting in a recommendation for listing in Appendix I. The species is increasingly rare as it is a high value species for the international pet trade.

18.35: Transfer Annam leaf turtle from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Viet Nam

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer Annam leaf turtle from Appendix II to Appendix I. This species was listed by IUCN in 2000 as Critically Endangered based on marked population declines. There is demand for this species in international trade.

18.36: Transfer Star tortoise from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Bangladesh, India, Senegal and Sri Lanka

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the Indian star tortoise from Appendix II to Appendix I. While the species' decline is not sufficient to meet the biological criteria for Appendix I (declines are not >50% based on a recent IUCN assessment), wild harvest for the international pet trade market is significant, and is the primary threat, and all the range states for the species are proponents of the proposal. Strict domestic legislation has not been adequate to control the illegal poaching of this species. The range state support for this proposal indicates that a CITES Appendix I listing will have a positive impact on the species' conservation.

18.37: Transfer Pancake tortoise from Appendix II to Appendix I

Proponent
Kenya and United States of America

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to transfer the Pancake tortoise from Appendix II to Appendix I. The species meets the biological criteria for Appendix I, and a principal threat to the species is high numbers of wild animals in international pet trade.

18.38: Include Glass frogs in Appendix II

Proponent
Costa Rica, El Salvador and Honduras

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to list over 100 species of glass frog from four genera (Hyalinobatrachium spp., Centrolene spp., Cochranella spp., and Sachatamia spp.) Appendix II. Based on information provided in the proposal, none of the thirty-six species in trade are at risk of extinction (i.e., they are not Near Threatened, Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered). There is little evidence that trade presents a threat to any of the wild species population concerned. Based on the information available it does not appear that any species in the four genera subject to this proposal meet the criteria for inclusion in Appendix II. Canada will wait to hear from range states for these species, and for further evidence that international trade poses a significant or growing threat to the species, before making a final decision.

18.39: Include Spiny newts in Appendix II

Proponent
China

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list two China endemic Spiny newts (Echinotriton chinhaiensis and Echinotriton maxiquadratus) in Appendix II. Both species likely meet already the Appendix I criteria. Echinotriton chinhaiensis is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN and the recently-described E. maxiquadratus is likely also Critically Endangered. The rarity of the species is an attractant in the pet trade as seen in advertisements for the species, and the species sells for high prices. Even small levels of trade could lead to the detriment of the species.

18.40: Include Asian warty newts in Appendix II

Proponent
China and European Union

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list 13 Asian warty newts (the whole genus Paramesotriton) in Appendix II. Eight species are commercially exploited for trade as pets and will became at risk if trade is not controlled and the remaining five species are listed as look-alike species. The individual species are vulnerable to factors such as low reproductive output and high age of first maturity, harvest for trade as pets or habitat loss. Inclusion of the entire genus Paramesotriton in Appendix II will regulate trade and facilitate the work of CITES and customs authorities when faced with shipments of the genus Paramesotriton.

18.41: Include Crocodile newts in Appendix II

Proponent
China and European Union

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list 25 Crocodile newts (the whole genus Tylototriton) in Appendix II. Seventeen species are commercially exploited for the pet trade, and trade regulation would be of benefit. The remaining eight species are listed as look-alike species. The individual species are vulnerable to factors such as harvest for trade or habitat loss.  Inclusion of the entire genus Tylototriton in Appendix II will regulate legal trade and facilitate the work of CITES and customs authorities when faced with shipments of the genus Tylototriton.

18.42: Include Mako sharks in Appendix II

Proponent
Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Egypt, European Union, Gabon, Gambia, Jordan, Lebanon, Liberia, Maldives, Mali, Mexico, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Palau, Samoa, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan and Togo

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to include Shortfin mako in Appendix II. The species does not meet the biological criteria for Appendix II — the thresholds for declines are not met nor are they likely to be met in the near future. Regional Fisheries Management Organizations have management in place to regulate bycatch of shark species, including Shortfin mako throughout its range, and therefore it does not appear regulation of trade through CITES is required to ensure the harvest of the species is not reducing the wild population to a level at which its survival might be threatened. Longfin mako is proposed for listing in Appendix II for its similar appearance to Shortfin mako but this would not be necessary unless Shortfin mako was listed.

18.43: Include Guitarfishes in Appendix II

Proponent
Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, European Union, Gabon, Gambia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Monaco, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Palau, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo and Ukraine

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list two species of Guitarfishes, Blackchin guitarfish and Sharpnose guitarfish, in Appendix II. The proposal also seeks to include four other species of Guitarfishes as look-alike species. The documented cases of extirpation in areas of the Mediterranean, and the high value of fins in international trade, suggest that trade regulation is required to ensure the harvest of these species is not reducing the wild populations to a level at which their survival might be threatened. 

18.44: Include Wedgefishes in Appendix II

Proponent
Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, European Union, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, India, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Maldives, Mali, Mexico, Monaco, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Palau, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Togo and Ukraine

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list two species of Wedgefishes to Appendix II and to include eight other species of Wedgefishes as look-alike species. The high value of fins in international trade suggest that trade regulation is required to ensure the harvest of these species is not reducing the wild populations to a level at which their survival might be threatened. 

18.45: Include Teatfish (sea cucumbers) in Appendix II

Proponent
European Union, Kenya, Senegal, Seychelles and United States of America

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list three species of Teatfish (Holothuria fuscogilva, Holothuria nobilis and Holothuria whitmaei) in Appendix II. The declines of catch in many areas, and the demand in international trade, suggest that trade regulation is required to ensure the harvest of these species is not reducing the wild populations to a level at which their survival might be threatened. Owing to potential confusion in identifying between dried specimens of these three species in trade, look-alike provisions are appropriate for this group.

18.46: Include Ornamental spiders in Appendix II

Proponent
Sri Lanka and United States of America

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to list the ornamental spider genus Poecilotheria in Appendix II. Little is known about many species, but in general the species have small ranges, are vulnerable to extrinsic factors and appear to be decreasing as a result of habitat loss or degradation. The ongoing use of wild-caught specimens in the pet trade is not well documented, but 13 of 15 species are known to be in the pet trade. Many species are reported as captive bred, which calls into question the extent to which wild harvest is affecting these species, and much of the information in the proposal is dated. Canada will listen to the debate and for any updated information provided regarding the impact of trade on species and volumes of trade, before making a final decision.

18.47: Include Mindoro peacock swallowtail in Appendix I

Proponent
Philippines and European Union

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports the inclusion of Mindoro peacock swallowtail (Achillides chikae hermeli) in Appendix I as a look-alike species to better protect the Appendix I Papilio chikae. Listing would support enforcement efforts to minimize the detrimental effects of poaching and smuggling on the survival of the species.

18.48: Include Riverside swallowtail in Appendix I

Proponent
Brazil

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal to list the Riverside swallowtail in Appendix I. Though population data are scarce, it has been estimated to have a population size of about 140 individuals, and the species occurs in only three locations. It has recently been assessed by IUCN (2018) as Endangered, and has been assessed domestically in Brazil as Critically Endangered due to the severe threats from habitat loss and deforestation. Given the small population size and distribution of this species, any international trade of this species is considered detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.

18.50: Include Mulanje Cedar in Appendix II without annotation

Proponent
Malawi

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
This proposal seeks to list Mulanje cedar in Appendix II. The proposal lacks data regarding international trade in the species. Any harvest or trade would be illegal. The species is considered to be on the brink of extinction, as result of past management and local illegal harvesting. Canada will listen to discussion of the proposal with an interest in hearing additional information that might indicate international trade is occurring and affecting the survival of this species.

18.51: Delete North Indian rosewood from Appendix II

Proponent
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal

Position
Opposed

Summary of the analysis
Canada opposes this proposal to delist North Indian rosewood from Appendix II genus-level Dalbergia listing adopted at CoP17. The proponents contend that derivatives of the species in international trade come almost exclusively from trees grown in plantations, and as a result, the species does not meet the criteria for listing in Appendix II. However, North Indian rosewood was also listed in Appendix II as a look-alike species. As it is not possible at present to differentiate Dalbergia species at the species level, North Indian rosewood still meets the criteria for Appendix II as a look-alike species.

18.52: Amend annotation #15 for Rosewoods, Palisanders and Bubingas

Proponent
Canada and European Union

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada submitted this proposal to amend Annotation #15 following a recommendation from the Standing Committee. The annotation applies to rosewood species (most Dalbergia spp. and three Guibourtia species). The amendment generally lessens the CITES controls on the species.

18.53: Expand the scope of the annotation for African rosewood, Afrormosia (currently #5) to include plywood and transformed wood

Proponent
Côte d'Ivoire and European Union

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports this proposal, which seeks to replace the current annotation applied to the tropical tree species African rosewood (Annotation #5: Logs, sawn wood, veneer sheets) with a new annotation (Logs, sawn wood, veneer sheets, plywood, and transformed wood). By doing so, the proponents seek to address ongoing circumvention of the Appendix II listing of this species through superficial transformation of primary wood products and declaration of the resulting commodity as outside the scope of Annotation #5. The proposed new annotation will strengthen the implementation and enforcement of the Convention for this species.

18.54: Include African padauk in Appendix II without annotation

Proponent
Malawi

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
The proposal seeks to list the African padauk “rosewood” species (Pterocarpus tinctorius), in Appendix II without any annotation. The species has in recent years been the subject of intense, legal and illegal harvest pressure associated with material demand for the hongmu furniture trade. An annotation focusing regulation on the first commodities in trade and away from finished products would improve the proposal. An annotation would facilitate implementation and increase the conservation value of the proposal. Additionally, as no formal consultation responses were received by from range Parties, Canada will listen to the CoP18 debate and positions of range states, before making a final decision.

18.55: Amend annotation #4 for Bitter aloe

Proponent
South Africa

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
This proposal seeks to amend the existing annotation for Bitter aloe to exclude finished products of the species from regulation under CITES. Bitter aloe occurs in South Africa and Lesotho. There is some unsustainable harvest, no population monitoring and little formal management. The bitter sap extract that drives the demand for the harvest and trade (suggesting continued CITES regulation might be warranted) is present in about 15% of finished products that would be exempted from CITES controls with adoption of the proposal. However, traditional harvesting techniques allow for non-destructive harvest, and current levels of harvest are thought to be sustainable. This species is considered Least Concern in both range states. It is thought that the harvest for finished products is, and will remain, incidental to the harvest for the bitter sap. Canada will listen to the information presented to learn more about the risks to the species that might result from the exemption of finished products.

18.56: Amend the annotation "#16 Seeds, fruits, oils and living plants" to the listing of Grandidier's baobab in Appendix II by deleting reference to live plants.

Proponent
Switzerland

Position
Support

Summary of the analysis
Canada supports the proposed amendment of Annotation #16 from Seeds, fruits, oils and living plants to: Seeds, fruits and oils. The revision is proposed on the basis that the inclusion of “and living plants” in the original annotation adopted at CoP17, while technically correct, is superfluous and can be confusing. When a species is included in one of the Appendices, live plants are also included by default.

18.57: Include Spanish Cedars in Appendix II

Proponent
Ecuador

Position
Undecided

Summary of the analysis
Canada is undecided regarding this proposal to include Spanish cedar (the genus Cedrela) in Appendix II, with no annotation. The genus Cedrela contains 17 species and has a wide distribution. Strong population and trade data are presented which support an Appendix II listing. However, the absence of an annotation means that CITES permits would be required for any finished products in international trade. The listing would be difficult to implement or enforce effectively, and trade controls would not be focused on primary commodities in trade. Canada would urge the inclusion of an annotation that regulates primary commodities in trade. Canada will take into consideration the views of other range States before making a final decision regarding the listing and the content of any proposed annotation.

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