# Emission estimation calculators, booklet 1: chapter 10

## Hot Mix Asphalt Plants

The operation of hot mix asphalt (HMA) plants can result in releases of substances from Part 1, 4 and 5.

Note: Part 2 substances (PAHs) are also released from asphalt plants but these releases are not required to be reported as they are considered to be intentional releases.

### Suggested estimation methodology: Emission Factor

The general equation for emissions estimation is:

E = A x EF

where:

• E = emissions
• A = activity rate
• EF = emission factor

### Part 1 Substance Releases

#### Process: Batch Mix Plants with Fabric Filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch Mix Plants with Fabric Filter
Substance Name Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS RN)Footnote1.1 Part Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 1A 1.600E-04 kilograms (kg)/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 1A 1.400E-04 kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 1A 1.100E-03 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1A 3.700E-04 kg/tonne
Isobutyraldehyde 78-84-2 1A 1.500E-05 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 1A 5.000E-04 kg/tonne
Anthracene 120-12-7 1A 1.050E-07 kg/tonne
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1A 1.800E-05 kg/tonne
Crotonaldehyde 4170-30-3 1A 1.450E-05 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1A 1.350E-03 kg/tonne
Chromium Footnote* 1A 2.850E-07 kg/tonne
Copper Footnote* 1A 1.400E-06 kg/tonne
Manganese Footnote* 1A 3.450E-06 kg/tonne
Nickel Footnote* 1A 1.500E-06 kg/tonne
p-Quinone 106-51-4 1A 1.350E-04 kg/tonne
Selenium Footnote* 1A 2.450E-07 kg/tonne
Zinc Footnote* 1A 3.400E-06 kg/tonne
Arsenic Footnote* 1B 2.300E-07 kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromium Footnote* 1B 2.400E-08 kg/tonne
Lead (NG, #2 oil) Footnote* 1B 4.450E-07 kg/tonne
Mercury Footnote* 1B 2.050E-07 kg/tonne
Lead (#6 oil) Footnote* 1B 5.000E-06 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum Mix Plants with Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix Plants with Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Part Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Antimony Footnote* 1A 9.000E-08 kg/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 1A 1.950E-04 kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 1A 1.200E-04 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1A 1.550E-03 kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 1A 4.600E-04 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 1A 7.500E-05 kg/tonne
Anthracene 120-12-7 1A 1.100E-07 kg/tonne
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1A 4.500E-05 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1A 1.000E-04 kg/tonne
Chromium Footnote* 1A 2.750E-06 kg/tonne
Cobalt Footnote* 1A 1.300E-08 kg/tonne
Copper Footnote* 1A 1.550E-06 kg/tonne
Manganese Footnote* 1A 3.850E-06 kg/tonne
Nickel Footnote* 1A 3.150E-05 kg/tonne
Silver Footnote* 1A 2.400E-07 kg/tonne
Phosphorus Footnote* 1A 1.400E-05 kg/tonne
Selenium Footnote* 1A 1.750E-07 kg/tonne
Zinc Footnote* 1A 3.050E-05 kg/tonne
Ethylene 74-85-1 1A 3.500E-03 kg/tonne
Arsenic Footnote* 1B 2.800E-07 kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromium Footnote* 1B 2.250E-07 kg/tonne
Mercury Footnote* 1B 1.200E-07 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum Mix Plants with No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix Plants with No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Part Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Antimony Footnote* 1A 9.000E-08 kg/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 1A 1.950E-04 kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 1A 1.200E-04 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1A 1.550E-03 kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 1A 4.600E-04 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 1A 1.450E-03 kg/tonne
Anthracene 120-12-7 1A 1.550E-06 kg/tonne
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1A 3.250E-04 kg/tonne
Ethylene 74-85-1 1A 3.500E-03 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1A 1.000E-04 kg/tonne
Chromium Footnote* 1A 2.750E-06 kg/tonne
Cobalt Footnote* 1A 1.300E-08 kg/tonne
Copper Footnote* 1A 1.550E-06 kg/tonne
Manganese Footnote* 1A 3.850E-06 kg/tonne
Nickel Footnote* 1A 3.150E-05 kg/tonne
Phosphorus Footnote* 1A 1.400E-05 kg/tonne
Selenium Footnote* 1A 1.750E-07 kg/tonne
Zinc Footnote* 1A 3.050E-05 kg/tonne
Silver Footnote* 1A 2.400E-07 kg/tonne
Arsenic Footnote* 1B 2.800E-07 kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromium Footnote* 1B 2.250E-07 kg/tonne
Mercury Footnote* 1B 1.300E-07 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum mix Plants w/Waste/No. 6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:

A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix Plants w/Waste/No. 6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - fabric filter
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Part Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 1A 6.500E-04 kg/tonne
Acrolein 107-02-8 1A 1.300E-05 kg/tonne
Antimony Footnote* 1A 9.000E-08 kg/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 1A 1.950E-04 kg/tonne
Butyraldehyde 123-72-8 1A 8.000E-05 kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 1A 1.200E-04 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1A 1.550E-03 kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 1A 4.600E-04 kg/tonne
Hydrochloric acid 7647-01-0 1A 1.050E-04 kg/tonne
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 78-93-3 1A 1.000E-05 kg/tonne
Propionaldehyde 123-38-6 1A 6.500E-05 kg/tonne
p-Quinone 106-51-4 1A 8.000E-05 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 1A 1.450E-03 kg/tonne
Anthracene 120-12-7 1A 1.550E-06 kg/tonne
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1A 3.250E-04 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1A 1.000E-04 kg/tonne
Chromium Footnote* 1A 2.750E-06 kg/tonne
Cobalt Footnote* 1A 1.300E-08 kg/tonne
Copper Footnote* 1A 1.550E-06 kg/tonne
Manganese Footnote* 1A 3.850E-06 kg/tonne
Nickel Footnote* 1A 3.150E-05 kg/tonne
Phosphorus Footnote* 1A 1.400E-05 kg/tonne
Selenium Footnote* 1A 1.750E-07 kg/tonne
Zinc Footnote* 1A 3.050E-05 kg/tonne
Ethylene 74-85-1 1A 3.500E-03 kg/tonne
Crotonaldehyde 4170-30-3 1A 4.300E-05 kg/tonne
Silver Footnote* 1A 2.400E-07 kg/tonne
Arsenic Footnote* 1B 2.800E-07 kg/tonne
Hexavalent chromium Footnote* 1B 2.250E-07 kg/tonne
Mercury Footnote* 1B 1.300E-07 kg/tonne

#### Process: Asphalt Heater - Natural Gas Boilers <10 Million British Thermal Units Per Hour (MMBTU/hr)

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Input:
A = Amount of natural gas fuel used in the asphalt cement storage heater (cubic meters (m3)/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heater - Natural Gas Boilers <10 MMBTU/hr
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Part Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 1A 3.364E-02 kg/10^6m^3
Chromium Footnote* 1A 2.243E-02 kg/10^6m^3
Cobalt Footnote* 1A 1.346E-03 kg/10^6m^3
Copper Footnote* 1A 1.362E-02 kg/10^6m^3
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1A 1.201E+00 kg/10^6m^3
n-Hexane 110-54-3 1A 2.883E+01 kg/10^6m^3
Manganese Footnote* 1A 6.087E-03 kg/10^6m^3
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1A 9.771E-03 kg/10^6m^3
Nickel Footnote* 1A 3.364E-02 kg/10^6m^3
Toluene 108-88-3 1A 5.446E-02 kg/10^6m^3
Zinc Footnote* 1A 4.645E-01 kg/10^6m^3
Arsenic Footnote* 1B 0.003 kg/10^6m^3
Mercury Footnote* 1B 0.004 kg/10^6m^3

#### Process: Asphalt Heater - Waste Oil

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Amount of Waste Oil used in the asphalt cement storage heater (litres/year)
%Pb = Lead (Pb) content in waste/No. 6 fuel oil (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) default = 0% Pb)
%Cl = Chlorine (Cl) content in fuel (USEPA default = 0% Cl)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heaters Burning Waste Oil
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Part Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Chromium Footnote* 1A 2.397E-03 kg/1000 litres (L)
Cobalt Footnote* 1A 2.516E-05 kg/1000L
Manganese Footnote* 1A 8.148E-03 kg/1000L
Nickel Footnote* 1A 1.318E-03 kg/1000L
Hydrochloric Acid 7647-01-0 1A 7.91 x %Cl kg/1000L
Arsenic Footnote* 1B 1.318E-02 kg/1000L
Lead Footnote* 1B 6.59 x %Pb kg/1000L

#### Process: Load-Out and Yard Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon' and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFTOC (Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon)  = 0.00172(-V) e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)

Emission Factors for Load-Out and Yard Emissions
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Weight %Footnote** Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Ethylene 74-85-1 0.71 = EFTOC x Wt% (Percentage by mass)/100  kg/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 0.052 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Bromomethane 74-83-9 0.0096 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Carbon Disulfide 75-15-0 0.013 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Chloroethane 75-00-3 0.00021 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Chloromethane 74-87-3 0.015 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Cumene 92-82-8 0.11 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Ethylbenzenene 100-41-4 0.28 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.088 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 0.15 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Styrene 100-42-5 0.0073 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 0.0077 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 0.21 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 0.49 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Anthracene 120-12-07 0.07 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1.25 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Phenol 108-95-2 1.18 = EFTOC  x Wt%/100  kg/tonne

#### Process: Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon' and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFTOC  = 0.5* 0.0504(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)]   (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)

Emission Factors for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Weight %Footnote** Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Ethylene 74-85-1 1.1 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 0.032 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Bromomethane 74-83-9 0.0049 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Carbon Disulfide 75-15-0 0.016 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Chloroethane 75-00-3 0.004 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Chloromethane 74-87-3 0.023 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 0.038 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.69 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 0.1 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Styrene 100-42-5 0.0054 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 0.062 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 0.257 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Anthracene 120-12-7 0.13 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne
Naphthalene 91-20-3 1.82 =EFTOC*Wt%/100  kg/tonne

### Part 4 Substance Releases

#### Process: Batch mix - Natural gas fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch mix - Natural gas fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 2.000E-01 kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 2.300E-03 kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), expressed as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 11104-93-1 1.250E-02 kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 4.100E-03 kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 1.600E+01 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 2.250E+00 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 1.350E-01 kg/tonne

#### Process: Batch mix - No. 2 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch mix - No. 2 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 2.000E-01 kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 4.400E-02 kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 6.000E-02 kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 4.100E-03 kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 1.600E+01 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 2.250E+00 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 1.350E-01 kg/tonne

#### Process: Batch Mix - Waste/drain/No. 6 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:

A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch Mix - Waste/drain/No. 6 fuel oil-fired dryer, hot screens and mixer, uncontrolled
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 2.000E-01 kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 4.400E-02 kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 6.000E-02 kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 1.800E-02 kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 1.600E+01 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 2.250E+00 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 1.350E-01 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum mix - Natural gas-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix - Natural gas-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 6.500E-02 kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 1.700E-03 kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 1.300E-02 kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 1.600E-02 kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 1.400E+01 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 3.200E+00 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 7.500E-01 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum mix - No. 2 oil-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix - No. 2 oil-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 6.500E-02 kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 5.500E-03 kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 2.750E-02 kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 1.600E-02 kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 1.400E+01 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 3.200E+00 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 7.500E-01 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum mix - Waste/drain/No.6 oil-fired  rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum mix - Waste/drain/No.6 oil-fired rotary dryer/mixer, uncontrolled
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 6.500E-02 kg/tonne
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 2.900E-02 kg/tonne
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 2.750E-02 kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 1.600E-02 kg/tonne
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 1.400E+01 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 3.200E+00 kg/tonne
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 7.500E-01 kg/tonne

#### Process: Asphalt Heater - Natural Gas

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Amount of natural gas fuel used in the asphalt cement storage heater (m3/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heaters Burning Natural Gas
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 1345.551 kg/10^6m^3
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 9.611 kg/10^6m^3
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 1601.846 kg/10^6m^3
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 88.102 kg/10^6m^3
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 30.435 kg/10^6m^3
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 30.435 kg/10^6m^3
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 30.435 kg/10^6m^3

#### Process: Asphalt Heater - Waste Oil

Emissions can be calculated using published emission factors.

Inputs:
A = Amount of Waste Oil used in the asphalt cement storage heater (litres/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heaters Burning Waste Oil
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 5.991E-01 kg/1000L
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) 7446-09-5 4.509E+00 kg/1000L
Oxides of Nitrogen, expressed as NO2 (NOx) 11104-93-1 2.277E+00 kg/1000L
Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Footnote* 2.784E+00 kg/1000L
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 10 µm (PM10) Footnote* 2.218E+00 kg/1000L
Particulate Matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) Footnote* 1.253E+00 kg/1000L

#### Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using these formulae (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', EFCO represets 'Emission Factor for Carbon Monoxide'and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFCO  = 0.5* 0.00558(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

EFTOC  = 0.00172(-V) e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)]   (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Weight %Footnote** Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 NA = EFCO  kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 94 =EFTOC x Wt%VOC/100    kg/tonne

#### Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using these formulae (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', EFCO represets 'Emission Factor for Carbon Monoxide'and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFCO  = 0.5* 0.00488(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43))] (kg/tonne)

EFTOC  = 0.5* 0.0504(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Weight %Footnote** Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 630-08-0 NA = EFCO  kg/tonne
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Footnote* 100 =EFTOC * Wt%VOC/100    kg/tonne

### Part 5 Substance Releases

#### Process: Batch Mix Plants

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Batch Mix Plants
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 1.400E-04 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 3.700E-04 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 5.000E-04 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1.350E-03 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum Mix - Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix - Natural gas-fired dryer with fabric filter
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 1.950E-04 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1.550E-03 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 7.500E-05 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1.000E-04 kg/tonne
Ethylene 74-85-1 3.500E-03 kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 4.600E-04 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum Mix - No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - Uncontrolled

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix - No. 2 Fuel Oil-fired dryer - Uncontrolled
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 1.950E-04 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1.550E-03 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 1.450E-03 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1.000E-04 kg/tonne
Ethylene 74-85-1 3.500E-03 kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 4.600E-04 kg/tonne

#### Process: Drum Mix - Waste/No.6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer fabric filter

Input:
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Emission Factors for Drum Mix - Waste/No.6 Fuel Oil-fired dryer fabric filter
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 1.950E-04 kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1.550E-03 kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 1.450E-03 kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 1.000E-04 kg/tonne
Ethylene 74-85-1 3.500E-03 kg/tonne

#### Process: Asphalt Heater: Natural Gas Boilers <10 MMBTU/hr

Input:
A = Amount of natural gas fuel used in the asphalt cement storage heater (m3/year)

Emission Factors for Asphalt Heater: Natural Gas Boilers <10 MMBTU/hr
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Benzene 71-43-2 3.364E-02 kg/10^6m^3
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 1.201E+00 kg/10^6m^3
Toluene 108-88-3 5.446E-02 kg/10^6m^3

#### Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EFTOC  = 0.5*0.00172(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Load-Out and Yard Emissions
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Weight %Footnote** Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Ethylene 74-85-1 0.71 =EFTOC * Wt% /100    kg/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 0.052 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.088 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 0.15 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Styrene 100-42-5 0.0073 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 0.21 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 0.49 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne

#### Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions

The emission factors are calculated as a function of asphalt volatility and mix temperature using this formula (where EFTOC represets 'Emission Factor for Total Organic Carbon', and e represents Euler's number which is approximately 2.718):

EF TOC  = 0.5*0.0504(-V)e[((0.0251)(T+460)-20.43)] (kg/tonne)

Inputs:
V = Asphalt Volatility (USEPA default = 0.5)
T = HMA mix temperature (USEPA default = 325 F)
A = Total Hot-Mix Asphalt Produced (tonnes/year)

Other Emission Sources: Speciation Profile for Silo Filling and Asphalt Storage Tank Emissions
Substance Name CAS RNFootnote1.1 Weight %Footnote** Emission FactorFootnote2.1 EF Units
Ethylene 74-85-1 1.1 =EFTOC * Wt% /100    kg/tonne
Benzene 71-43-2 0.032 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 0.69 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
n-Hexane 110-54-3 0.1 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Styrene 100-42-5 0.0054 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Toluene 108-88-3 0.062 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne
Xylene 1330-20-7 0.257 =EFTOC * Wt% /100   kg/tonne

#### Process: Aggregate Pile

See separate guidance for aggregate handling

#### Process: Asphalt Storage Tanks

See U.S. EPA TANKS document

### Note on Emissions Factors

Unless otherwise noted, the emission factors presented here are based on uncontrolled emissions. If you are using an emission control device you will have to adjust the emissions calculated by this spreadsheet according to the following formula:

Controlled Emissions = Uncontrolled emission x ((100 - control efficiency)/100)

Emission Factor Sources:
Part 1,2,3,4,5 Substances emissions factors from AP 42, Volume I, Fifth Edition, Chapter 11.1 - Hot Mix Asphalt Plants
Part 1,2,3,4,5 Substances emission factors from AP-42, Volume 1, Fifth Edition, Chapter 1.11 - Waste Oil Combustion
Part 1,2,3,4,5 Substances emission factors from AP-42, Volume 1, Fifth Edition, Chapter 1.4 - Natural Gas Combustion
Vermont Used Oil Analysis and Waste Oil Furnace Emission Study, USEPA 1994.