# Conical burners in Newfoundland and Labrador reporting guide

## 1. Introduction

Environment Canada (EC) has previously produced an Emissions Calculator in a spreadsheet format available in the NPRI Toolbox[1] to assist those who own or operate conical burners that incinerate municipal solid wastes to readily report pollutant releases to the NPRI. EC has updated the Calculator (see separate document) to estimate emissions from conical burners in Newfoundland and Labrador

## 2. Calculating Emissions of NPRI Substances from Solid Waste Incineration

### Step 1 - Gathering of Base Quantity Information

The base quantity information required for the calculations is the Annual Quantity of Waste Incinerated (expressed in tonnes). If this value is not known, it can be estimated based on: (1) the number of people in all the communities served by the incinerator, (2) the average per capita waste  disposal in Newfoundland and Labrador (0.811 tonnes/year[2]), and (3) the portion of the year in days when waste for disposal were sent to the incinerator. The formula for the base quantity can be expressed as follows:

Q = P x 0.811 tonnes x (D)

Where

• annual quantity of waste incinerated in tonnes (Q) is the annual quantity of waste incinerated in tonnes, and
• number of persons served by the incinerator (P) is the number of persons served by the incinerator
• portion of the year in days when wastes for disposal were sent to the incinerator (D) is the portion of the year in days when wastes for disposal were sent to the incinerator.

### Step 2 - Use of the Emission Factor Information

An emission factor (E.F.) is a value that relates the quantity of a substance released with an activity associated with the release of that substance. For conical burners, the emission factor would be expressed as kilograms or grams per tonne of waste incinerated.

Many substances are emitted from incineration of solid wastes. These substances include mercury (Hg), criteria air contaminants (CACs), 17 congeners of dioxins/furans (D-F), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The CACs are nitrogen oxides (NOx) - expressed as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (TPM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter ≤ 10 micrometres (PM10),and particulate matter ≤ 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5).

The information in the following tables summarizes the published emission factors of these substances for conical burners[3],[4],[5] for use in the estimation of emissions.

Table 1 - Emission Factors for Mercury and Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) from Conical Burners
Substance CAS Number Emission Factor (kilograms per tonne)
Mercury N.A. 0.0014
Carbon Monoxide 630-08-0 30
Total Particulate Matter N.A. 18.755
PM10 N.A. 18.755
PM2.5 N.A. 17.435
Volatile Organic Compounds N.A. 10
Nitrogen Oxides 11104-93-1 2.5
Sulphur Dioxide 7446-09-5 1
Table 2 - Emission Factors for Dioxins, Furans and Hexachlorobenzene from Conical Burners
Substance CAS Numbe Emission Factor
(grams per tonne)
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD) 35822-46-9 0.000275
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF) 67562-39-4 0.0018
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF) 55673-89-7 0.0002
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD) 39227-28-6 0.000175
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD) 57653-85-7 0.000275
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD) 19408-74-3 0.000225
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF) 70648-26-9 0.0001
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF) 57117-44-9 0.000175
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF) 72918-21-9 0.000175
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF) 60851-34-5 0.000125
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) 3268-87-9 0.03825
Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) 39001-02-0 0.000325
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD) 40321-76-4 0.00015
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF) 57117-41-6 0.0001
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) 57117-31-4 0.000175
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) 1746-01-6 0.00015
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) 51207-31-9 0.000125
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 118-74-1 0.022

Step 3 - Calculation of Emissions

Emissions of substances can be estimated using the following equation:

E = Q x E.F.

Where

• E is the quantity of emissions of the substance resulting from incineration (in kilograms for mercury; in grams for D-F and HCB; and in tonnes for CACs),
• Q is the quantity of waste incinerated during the year in tonnes, which can be calculated as described in Step 1, and
• E.F. is the emission factor of the substance as identified in Step 2
• Emissions of mercury, Criteria air contaminants (CACs) and HCB should be reported to 3 decimal places and emissions of D-F should be reported to 6 decimal places.

## 3. Consideration of the Reporting Thresholds

For the substances listed in Table 1 (mercury and Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs)), a report must be submitted only if the calculated emissions (from Step 3) exceed the mass reporting threshold of the substance shown in Table 3 below. No report is required for the substance if the calculated emissions are below the mass reporting threshold of the substance.

For the substances listed in Table 2 (Dioxins and Furans (D-F) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)), there is no reporting threshold - reports must be submitted regardless of the quantities emitted.

Table 3 - Reporting Thresholds of Mercury and Criteria Air Contaminants
Substance Threshold
Mercury 5 kg
Carbon Monoxide 20 tonnes
Total Particulate Matter 20 tonnes
PM10 0.5 tonnes
PM2.5 0.3 tonnes
Volatile Organic Compounds 10 tonnes
Nitrogen Oxides 20 tonnes
Sulphur Dioxide 20 tonnes

## 4. Examples of the Emissions Calculation

Scenario

An incinerator serves a community of 7,890 people, as based on Census data. The incinerator permanently closed on October 31, 2010.

Calculations

From Step 1, the annual quantity of waste incinerated is:

• annual quantity of waste incinerated in tonnes (Q) = 7,890 x 0.811 tonnes x (304 / 365) x 100% = 5,329.4 tonnes

(a) From Step 3, the quantity of mercury emissions is:

• E (Hg) = 5,329.4 tonnes x 0.0014 kg/tonne = 7.461 kg

Since the calculated emissions of mercury are greater than the reporting threshold of 5 kg(see Table 3), the substance must be reported.

(b) From Step 3, the quantity of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions is:

• E (NOx) = 5,329.4 tonnes x 2.5 kg/tonne x 1/1000 tonne/kg = 13.324 tonnes

Since the calculated emissions of NOx are less than the reporting threshold of 20 tonnes (see Table 3), NOx is not required to be reported.

(c) From Step 3, the annual quantity of emissions of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from the incinerator is:

• E (2,3,7,8 TCDD) = 5,329.4 tonnes x 0.00015 g/tonne = 0.799410 g

The emissions do not need to be compared to a threshold and must be reported.

### 5. Calculation of Emissions for the Report Submission

The emission calculations can be done using the Spreadsheet Calculator for National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Reporting by Newfoundland and Labrador Incinerators by inputting either (1) the total amount of waste incinerated during the year or (2) the number of people served by the incinerator, and the portion of the year  in days when wastes for disposal were sent to the incinerator. The calculations will then be automatically performed by the spreadsheet.

[1]  NPRI Toolbox

[2] Per capita waste disposal rates are from the 2010 Statistics Canada report - 2008 Waste Management Industry Survey: Business and Government Sectors. For Newfoundland, the average per capita waste disposed is 0.811 tonnes.

[3] Lemieux, P.M. (1997b) - Evaluation of Emissions from the Open Burning of Household Waste in Barrels, Volume 2, Appendices A-G. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA-600/R-97-134b

[4] US EPA report (1997) - Mercury Study Report to Congress. Volume II: An Inventory of Anthropogenic Mercury Emissions in the United States. Evaluation of Emissions from the Open Burning of Household Waste in Barrels, EPA-452/R-97-004

[5] US EPA AP-42 Chapter 2.7 - Solid Waste Disposal: Conical Burners