Useful equations and conversion factors

Temperature conversions

Fahrenheit (°F) to Celsius (°C):

°C=5/9 [°F - 32]
K = 273.16 + °C

Stack diameter

Where:

d = 2 √ A/π

d = diameter in m
π= 3.1416 (approximately)
A = cross-sectional area in m2

Equivalent stack diameter for rectangular stacks

Exit velocity of stack using a known volumetric flow rate

Where:

v= exit velocity in m/s
volumetric flowrate= volumetric flowrate in m3/s
A = stack area in m2

Calculation of stack gas flow rate for a cylindrical stack

Where:

volumetric flowrate= volumetric flowrate in m3/s
v= exit velocity in m/s
pi= 3.1416 (approximately)
d= internal stack diameter in m

Determination of the stack gas flow rate, dry basis

Where:

volumetric flowrateDry= dry volumetric flowrate in m3/s
volumetric flowrate= volumetric flow rate in m3/s (include water vapour)
f Water vapour= fraction of water vapour in stack effluent

General conversion factors from Imperial to Metric units

General conversion factors from Imperial to Metric units
Convert from: To: Multiply by:
pounds (lb) kilograms (kg) 0.453592
ton (short ton) tonnes 0.907185
foot (ft) metres (m) 0.304804
gallon (U.S. gal) litres (L) 3.785412
cubic foot (ft3) cubic metres (m3) 0.0283168

Power and energy conversions from Imperial to Metric Units

Power and energy conversions from Imperial to Metric units
Convert from: To: Multiply by:
million BTUs/hour kilowatts (kW) 293.1
million BTUs/hour Horsepower (Hp) 393.0
million BTUs kilojoules (kJ) 1.055 million
million BTUs Gigajoules (GJ) 1.055

Emission factor conversions: Imperial to Metric Units

Emission factor conversions: Imperial to Metric units
Convert from: To: Multiply by:
lb/1 000 gal kg/1 000 L 0.1198
lb/ton kg/tonne 0.500
lb/million BTUs kg/million BTUs 0.454
lb/1 000 ton kg/1 000 tonnes 0.500
lb/million ft3 kg/million m3 16.018
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