ARCHIVED – Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration, 2013 – Section 5: Gender–based Analysis of the Impact of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
Gender-based analysis (GBA) is the evidence-based assessment of the impact that policies, programs, legislation and services have on diverse groups of women, men, girls and boys. Over the past year, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) has continued to make progress in advancing GBA. CIC’s commitment to report to Parliament on the gender impacts of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) is enshrined in the Act. By proactively incorporating gender analysis into policy and program development, CIC is able to develop monitoring mechanisms and mitigation strategies for potential negative impacts on particular groups.
CIC continues to work with its federal and international partners in areas relevant to GBA. For example, the Department supported efforts by Status of Women Canada to implement GBA as a sustainable practice across departments and agencies, including conducting a self-assessment exercise on a departmental initiative. As well, CIC participates with 14 other federal departments and agencies in the Family Violence Initiative led by the Public Health Agency of Canada.
CIC also contributed to a number of international reports related to gender and diversity, including Canada’s biennial report to the Organization of American States’ Inter-American Commission on Women and Canada’s initial report on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
CIC’s operational data-gathering and reporting activities continue to incorporate gender as a standard element in the analysis of permanent and temporary resident arrivals. The key findings in 2012 include the continued strength in the number of women entering Canada in the economic streams.
Gender-based Analysis of Permanent Residents
As Chart 1 illustrates, Canada admitted 257,887 permanent residents in 2012. The proportion of women (and girls) to men (and boys) admitted as permanent residents has remained stable from 2003 to 2012; on average, women accounted for 51 percent and men accounted for 49 percent of permanent residents. In 2012, the largest source countries for women were the Philippines, China, India, Pakistan, the United States, France, Iran, Haiti, Republic of Korea and the United Kingdom and colonies. For men, the largest source countries were China, the Philippines, India, Pakistan, the United States, France, the United Kingdom and colonies, Iran, Haiti and Egypt.
Chart 1: Female and Male Permanent Residents in Economic, Family Class, Refugee and Other Immigrant Streams, 2003 to 2012
Text version: Chart 1: Female and Male Permanent Residents in Economic, Family Class, Refugee and Other Immigrant Streams, 2003 to 2012
|Economic Immigrants, Female||57,094||63,665||75,414||66,356||63,393||73,315||75,281||91,964||76,107||78,054|
|Economic Immigrants, Male||63,952||70,081||80,899||71,892||67,851||75,753||78,210||94,952||80,010||82,765|
|Family Class, Female||40,252||38,540||38,325||41,996||39,779||38,871||38,227||35,281||32,685||37,467|
|Family Class, Male||24,868||23,732||25,048||28,519||26,461||26,710||26,980||24,942||23,764||27,541|
|Other Immigrants, Female||5,311||3,733||3,522||5,345||5,935||5,591||5,440||4,348||4,268||4,355|
|Other Immigrants, Male||3,885||3,382||3,256||5,030||5,377||5,145||5,183||4,498||4,037||4,606|
Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2012.
Overview of Female and Male Residents in Economic, Family Class, Refugee and Other Immigrant Streams, 2003 to 2012
Men and boys continued to make up the largest proportion of the 160,819 economic class immigrants (including spouses and dependents) in 2012; 51 percent entering in this category were males and 49 percent were females.
For the period from 2003 to 2012, women made up the largest proportion of Family Class - archived entrants. Female spouses are the largest single group of sponsored Family Class entrants. In 2012, female spouses comprised 36 percent of all Family Class entrants. Male spouses accounted for 25 percent of Family Class entrants in the same year.
There has been a steady but relatively small increase in the proportion of women in the refugee and asylum stream over the past decade from a low of 47 percent in 2003 to a high of 50 percent in 2012.
Female and Male Permanent Resident Principal Applicants in Economic Streams, 2003 to 2012
As Chart 2 illustrates, women have been making up a larger proportion of economic principal applicants over the past decade (skilled workers, entrepreneurs, self-employed, investors, Canadian Experience Class applicants, provincial/territorial nominees and live-in caregivers). The 2012 figure, at 41 percent, represents the second-largest proportion of women over the past 10 years, and exceeds the average for the decade.
Chart 2: Proportion of Female and Male Permanent Residents in Economic Streams, 2003 to 2012
Text version: Chart 2: Proportion of Female and Male Permanent Residents in Economic Streams, 2003 to 2012
|Female Economic PA %||28.6||30.4||31.4||32.5||34.6||38.1||39.0||40.2||40.8||40.6|
|Male Economic PA %||71.4||69.6||68.6||67.5||65.4||61.9||61.0||59.8||59.2||59.4|
|difference b/w MF||42.8||39.2||37.1||34.9||30.8||23.8||22.1||19.6||18.4||18.8|
Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2012
Note: P.R.: Permanent Resident; P.A.: Principal Applicant
Live-in Caregiver Program Permanent Residents
Over the past 10 years, there has been a marked change in the flow of Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP) permanent residents. This has particular implications for gender because, from 2003 to 2012, an average of 95 percent of those who gained permanent residence through the LCP were women. From 2003 to 2008, LCP applicants made up an increasing proportion of the female economic stream, reaching a peak in 2008 of 25 percent of all female economic principal applicants. The year 2011 marked the beginning of a decline in the proportion of female principal applicants from the LCP stream, down to 18 percent of all female economic principal applicants. This percentage further declined in 2012, with only 13 percent of all female economic principal applicants coming through the LCP. In numerical terms, the past two years have seen a decline in LCP principal applicant permanent residents from its peak in 2010 of 7,192 to 4,748 in 2011 and 3,520 in 2012.
As Chart 3 illustrates, when LCP figures are removed from total economic principal applicants for women, women are still making up greater proportions of the principal applicants in the remaining economic categories. This is particularly apparent in 2011 and 2012 when LCP numbers declined significantly: during this time women made up 36.3 percent in 2011 and 37.5 percent in 2012 of all principal applicants who entered Canada in economic streams other than the LCP stream. In comparison, this figure was 25.5 percent for 2003.
Chart 3: Proportion of Female and Male Permanent Residents in Economic Streams, Controlling for Female Live-in Caregiver Principal Applicants, 2003 to 2012
Text version: Chart 3: Proportion of Female and Male Permanent Residents in Economic Streams, Controlling for Female Live-in Caregiver Principal Applicants, 2003 to 2012
|Male||Economic immigrants, PA (%)||71.4||69.6||68.6||67.5||65.4||61.9||61.0||59.8||59.2||59.4|
|Female||Economic immigrants (No LCP), PA (%)||24.4||26.0||26.6||26.5||28.6||28.6||29.6||30.8||33.4||35.5|
|Live-in Caregiver Program, PA||4.2||4.4||4.8||6.1||6.1||9.5||9.3||9.4||7.4||5.2|
Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2012.
Note: PA: principal applicant; No LCP: Not a Live-in Caregiver
Federal Skilled Workers
The Federal Skilled Worker Program (principal applicants) saw a narrowing in the gender gap from 2003 to 2012 (from a difference of 52 percentage points between men and women down to 21). This trend was also reflected in many National Occupational Classification skill level categories. For example, in the managerial skill level, there was a steady increase for women from a low in 2003 of 21 percent up to 25 percent in 2012. This exceeds the average for the decade of 24 percent. Furthermore, in the professional skill level category, women made up 46 percent of entries in 2012; in 2003, this figure was 24 percent. Finally, the proportion of women in the skilled and technical category grew from 25 percent in 2003 to 35 percent in 2012, the largest proportion of women entering Canada as skilled workers over the 10-year period.
Gender-based Analysis of Temporary Resident Entries
For temporary resident initial entries (foreign worker, international student, humanitarian and other categories), the 2012 total of 315,936 is the highest annual figure during the 2003–2012 period, as Chart 4 illustrates. In 2012, men continued to represent a greater proportion of these temporary resident entries at 56 percent. However, the proportion of women in the temporary foreign worker stream has increased from 38 percent in 2003 to 41 percent in 2009. The figure for 2012 is slightly below the 2009 peak, at 40 percent.
Chart 4: Chart 4: Female and Male Temporary Foreign Workers, International Students and Humanitarian Categories (Initial Entry), 2003 to 2012
Text version: Chart 4: Female and Male Temporary Foreign Workers, International Students and Humanitarian Categories (Initial Entry), 2003 to 2012
Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2012.
Note: Initial entry represents the number of temporary residents identified as entering Canada for the first time. Initial entries are calculated as of the earliest effective date of any valid permit issued to a temporary resident.
International Students Entering Canada
In 2012, more than 93,000 international students arrived in Canada (initial entries). Of this figure, 45 percent were women, a slight increase from 2011 (44.6 percent). In 2012, 39 percent of female international students were bound for university, which is almost the same percentage as for men (40 percent). Both males and females bound for the “other post-secondary” category have seen significant growth. In 2012, 23 percent of female and 29 percent of male foreign students entered Canada intending to attend post-secondary institutions other than universities. This represents significant growth, particularly when compared with figures in 2004, when 9 percent of female and 10 percent of male students intended to attend these institutions. On the other hand, trade schools saw declines over the past decade. In 2003, 18 percent of the female and 17 percent of the male international students intended to attend trade institutions; in 2012, these same institutions were the intended destination of 5.3 percent of the female and 4.7 percent of the male international students.
Gender-based Analysis across CIC Policy, Program and Evaluation Areas
Gender-based analysis was applied to the conditional permanent residence regulatory amendments that came into force on October 25, 2012. Under the new regulations, sponsored spouses and partners in new relationships who have no children in common are required to live with their sponsor for a period of two years after being granted permanent residence. The GBA revealed that, in 2009, 61 percent of all overseas sponsored spouses/partners and 57 percent of all inland sponsored spouses/partners were female. CIC undertook extensive consultations on the conditional permanent residence measure with the public; provincial and municipal levels of government; stakeholders; non-government organizations with expertise in the area of abuse in immigrant communities; and various federal departments, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Status of Women Canada. These consultations revealed concerns about the vulnerability of spouses and partners in abusive relationships.
These consultations were also used to address concerns over vulnerability. In partnership with various groups with expertise in this area, CIC built an exception into the regulations that allows newly sponsored persons who are impacted by the conditional permanent residence measure and who are victims of abuse or neglect to come forward without having to worry that they might face enforcement action. Guidelines have also been developed to assist officers in processing requests for exceptions based on abuse or neglect and in handling sensitive information related to them. Drawing from these consultations, CIC also developed a communication strategy to inform sponsored spouses and partners of the conditional measure and of the exception available to them in cases of violence or neglect.
Settlement and Integration
The Canadian Immigrant Integration Program (CIIP) enables prospective economic immigrants to effectively prepare to meet foreign credential recognition requirements, and to achieve faster labour market integration. Since 2011, the Tracking of Overseas Orientation Session Graduates (TOSG) system has collected gender-disaggregated data on the labour market outcomes of CIIP participants. The TOSG system collects information related to gender, age, ethnicity, socio-economic status, marital status and country of origin of participants. In doing so, TOSG enables GBA and gender-sensitive policy development, and enhances the Department’s research capacity and program development for overseas services. This information helps to develop a better understanding of potential challenges related to employment and foreign credential assessment and recognition faced by newcomers.
The Federal Internship for Newcomers Program (FINP) provides newcomers an opportunity to gain Canadian work experience within the federal government or private sector organizations, with a view to improving their integration into the Canadian labour market. Since 2010, the FINP has collected gender-disaggregated data through its exit survey for interns. The survey focused on career development activities and employment outcomes of FINP interns who have completed their internship. The results of FINP exit surveys continue to be monitored and used to inform policy and program changes.
The Settlement Workers in Schools (SWIS) program - archived helps newcomer students and their families settle in their schools and communities. SWIS is designed to address “newness to Canada” as a barrier to school success. A comprehensive review of existing SWIS initiatives in all CIC regions is currently being conducted. The GBA aspect of this assessment will focus on gender differences/implications and diversity considerations related to service provisions. A gender and diversity lens was applied during the preliminary review of local and regional SWIS reports. GBA was helpful in identifying variations in service delivery and highlighting the ways that SWIS has evolved to meet disparate needs. Preliminary examination reveals two main gender and diversity considerations:
- Newcomer clients are often hard to reach; SWIS is an effective way to serve immigrant and refugee families who may not otherwise access settlement services;
- SWIS focuses on gender-appropriate and culturally appropriate support for clients and enables newcomers to understand the Canadian context, including learning about gender equality and diverse sexual orientations.
As the SWIS policy framework evolves, the GBA process will continue to be prioritized and clarified.
In March 2010, the Department began administering a new citizenship test based on the new citizenship study guide Discover Canada: The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship. Discover Canada and the accompanying test are designed to ensure that new Canadians have a better understanding of Canada to further their integration into Canadian society. Through continuous analysis of citizenship test results, including GBA, CIC monitors the citizenship test pass rate and tracks the performance of different demographic groups. Recent analysis is consistent with previous studies that reveal that an applicant’s education level is the strongest factor affecting test scores. Further, gender differences were more evident for applicants with lower levels of education and for applicants from certain source countries or regions. In response, CIC enhanced the accessibility of the guide with supplementary study materials, including an audio version to facilitate learning of the content and concepts, an electronic book version, and mobile applications. The Department is also funding a number of additional projects for service-providing organizations to pilot the development of early citizenship preparation resources.
CIC continues to gather and generate gender-disaggregated data and disseminate research in support of policy and program development. The Department’s Facts and Figures: Immigration Overview—Permanent and Temporary Residents is a key data source for immigration statistics for the government, researchers and stakeholders. Facts and Figures provides a gender breakdown by principal applicants and dependants.
CIC continues to view GBA as an essential tool to identify potential impacts on diverse groups and seeks to mitigate measures for negative impacts on vulnerable groups across all of its business lines. In moving forward with its Policy on Gender-based Analysis, the Department will identify new areas of analysis, while continuing to collaborate with key GBA partners, such as Status of Women Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada, as well as the broader interdepartmental community.
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