First Nations Head Start - Standards Guide

ISBN 0-662-31314-3
Cat. No H21-187/2001E

Table of Contents

Introduction

Developed by Aboriginal Head Start programming representatives, this reference guide provides a blueprint of options for First Nations to consider in developing their Head Start program standards. The examples of standards contained in this guide are not to be imposed upon First Nations. The reason the words "shall" and "should" appear in these examples reflect the type of wording used in standards.

This Aboriginal Head Start Project Standards Reference Guide has been developed to provide assistance to First Nation people involved in the development, design, planning and delivery of Head Start services to children and their families living on reserve.

Aboriginal Head Start programming representatives involved in the preparation of this guide know that Head Start standards promote the health, safety, security and well-being of First Nations children and provide protection to employees of the Head Start program. Further, the six components of the Aboriginal Head Start program have been woven throughout the contents of this guide.

Readers of this guide are asked to keep in mind its intent as they proceed through its contents. Readers are also asked to keep in mind that the examples provided in this guide are just that - examples only. The wording of Head Start standards to be approved by any given First Nation Head Start project will depend completely on what is considered appropriate at the community level.

The examples provided are not intended to be a complete listing of statements that First Nations may wish to include in their standards. It is recommended that First Nation Head Start programmers seek out other examples of standards in finalizing their Head Start standards.

It is hoped that Aboriginal Head Start authorities find this resource tool useful and informative. Head Start Project programmers are strongly encouraged to review the Head Start Principles and Guidelines document when completing their project standards.

Section 1 Program Services Standards

1.1 Statement of General Principle

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a Statement of General Principle that refers to where the project will operate and identifies the governing body or sponsoring agent for the project.

The Aboriginal Head Start Services shall be delivered in the (name) First Nations community as approved by the First Nations government.

1.2 Provisions of Program

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a daily program plan which includes culturally relevant activities and which makes adequate provision for a project environment that is:

  1. age appropriate to the children enrolled in the project.
  2. stage appropriate to the children enrolled in the project.
  3. individually appropriate to the children enrolled in the project.

1.3 Parent Committee

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a policy that describes the roles and responsibilities of the Parent Committee.

The Head Start Parent Committee shall:

  1. hold an annual meeting of parent(s)/legal guardian(s) of children enrolled in the centre to elect members of the Parent Committee.
  2. appoint a chairperson from among the members of the committee.
  3. be responsible for representing to the Head Start facility the wishes of the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) with respect to the program and operation of the centre.
  4. take minutes of meetings held and provide copies upon request.

It is recommended that the Head Start project establish a process to ensure that a Parent Committee is involved in the following, but not limited to:

  1. the development of a Statement of the Philosophy and Goals for the project, incorporating culturally relevant elements and/or programming objectives.
  2. the development of policies with respect to the operation of the project and the program.
  3. the development of a Code of Conduct for Aboriginal Head Start workers which may include but not limited to the following:
    1. maintenance of a positive, stimulating, culturally appropriate, creative and challenging environment that contributes to the complete development of the children,
    2. provision of safety and security for the children,
    3. adoption of measures aimed at fostering a child's self-esteem and respect for community values,
    4. provision of healthy and nutritional meals (if applicable),
    5. follow policies with respect to child management within the facility which incorporate the cultural values of the community, and
    6. policies with respect to staff relationships with other staff and with parents and legal guardians.
  4. the review of provincial regulations that pertain to the behaviour management of children in the project (all methods of guiding children's behaviour must be discussed with and approved by the Parent Committee).
  5. the development of strategies which address the integration of children with special needs into the regular program.

1.4 Nutrition and Food

For recommendations regarding Nutrition and Food please refer to Section 6 of this reference guide.

1.5 Hygiene and Personal Grooming

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, establish a policy that will describe the necessary precautions and actions to be taken by the Director, staff and volunteers regarding such things as the provision and maintenance of toys, bedding, equipment and personal hygiene.

It is recommended that the Director, in collaboration with community health professionals, ensure that a policy on hygiene and personal grooming is established, including but not limited to the following:

  1. the use of liquid soap as opposed to bar soap in the washrooms,
  2. washrooms properly fitted for small children including toilet seats and sinks,
  3. diaper containers available for disposable diapers,
  4. food preparation standards contained in the Nutrition and Food section of this document,
  5. proper storage of food,
  6. separate tooth brushes available for each child,
  7. individual combs or brushes for each child,
  8. children's clothing, toys, equipment and furnishing is maintained in a sanitary condition.

For recommendations regarding other matters related to hygiene including; kitchen and dining area (Sec. 3.7), food handling and storage (Sec. 6.6), smoking (Sec. 3.11), health safety (Sec. 3.13), and nutrition and food (Sec. 6) please refer to the noted sections of this reference guide.

1.6 Children's Health

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, establish a policy that pertains to health related issues and health information required for the children attending the facility. This may include but not limited to the following:

  1. Upon admission of the child to the program, the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) shall submit to the project:
    1. the child's medical history signed by the child's doctor.
    2. an up to date record of the child's immunization status.
    3. results of examinations (physical, eye, dental).
    4. identification of special needs, as appropriate.
    5. abuse information (physical, sexual, mental, emotional).
    6. a permission form to administer prescription drugs.
    7. medical contacts, including physician, dentist and optometrist.
    8. documentation of exposure to communicable diseases.
  2. Where a child suffers from a communicable disease:
    1. The child shall not be admitted or re-admitted to the centre without the approval of the Director.
    2. The Director shall immediately notify the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) of all other children attending the facility of the disease.
  3. The Aboriginal Head Start project shall not carry out maintenance of, or repair to any area of the facility other than necessary cleaning while services are provided in the area.

1.7 First Aid Kit and Safety Supplies

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, establish a policy that describes the maintenance of a First Aid kit and the availability of First Aid supplies. This may include but not be limited to the following:

  1. the project shall maintain a standard First Aid kit stored in a place inaccessible to children.
  2. the project shall carry First Aid supplies on children's excursions from the facility.

1.8 Child Injuries

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, establish a policy that will describe the required actions to be taken by the Director and staff in the cases where children sustain major or minor injuries while in attendance. The Head Start project shall maintain the following practices regarding child injuries:

  1. when a child sustains a major injury while attending the facility, the Director/staff shall:
    1. apply required First Aid treatment.
    2. immediately notify the child's parent(s)/legal guardian(s) or, if they are not available, notify the emergency contact person.
    3. take the child to the hospital or the community health centre to receive medical attention.
    4. fill out an injury report form.
  2. When a child sustains a minor injury the facility shall undertake appropriate action.

1.9 Medication - Prescription Only

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, establish a policy that pertains to the administering of prescribed medicines to children.

When the project is required to administer prescribed medication to a child, the project shall ensure that:

  1. written authorization to administer the medication is obtained from the child's parent(s)/legal guardian(s).
  2. the medication is a current prescription.
  3. written records of each dose of medication administered to a child are maintained.
  4. medication is in original containers and labelled with the child's name, dosage, time and method of administration.
  5. medication is properly stored and locked in a place inaccessible to children.
  6. medication is administered to a child under the supervision of the Director.

1.10 General Safety

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with the Environmental Health Officer and community health professionals, establish a policy that pertains to the safety of children, staff and volunteers attending the facility. In establishing this policy it is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects review provincial/territorial building and safety standards.

1.11 Children's Records

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a policy that pertains to the keeping of confidential records on the children attending the project. Projects may wish to refer to provincial regulations regarding this.

The Head Start project shall maintain confidential records pertaining to children attending the facility which shall include:

  1. the agreements for care in a form supplied by the Tribal Council or First Nation.
  2. the enrollment and discharge documents.
  3. the date of admission to the service.
  4. accurate child attendance records, which are provided to the Parent Committee as necessary.
  5. a health and social resume for each child attending the facility.
  6. all medication authorizations provided by parent(s)/legal guardian(s) - only for medications prescribed by a doctor and only medications in original containers shall be administered to children.
  7. records of medication, if any, administered to each child.
  8. all releases for excursions and field trips including transportation releases provided by the parent(s)/legal guardian(s).
  9. physicians' certificates pertaining to each child.
  10. written authority from the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) for Aboriginal Head Start workers to obtain emergency medical attention for the child.
  11. copies of immunization certificates pertaining to each child.
  12. the name, address and telephone numbers of any person designated by the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) to be contacted in an emergency if the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) are unavailable.
  13. the name of any person designated by a child's parent(s)/legal guardian(s) as a person to whom the child may be released, and also the names of any persons designated by the child's parent(s)/legal guardian(s) to whom the child may not be released.
  14. a report, in a form provided by the First Nations, giving full particulars of any serious occurrence including but not limited to:
    1. the death of a child while attending a facility,
    2. any serious injury to a child while attending a facility,
    3. any allegations of punishment; physical, sexual, verbal or emotional abuse; isolation or denial of necessities to or on the child while the child is in attendance at the facility,
    4. any instance of the child becoming lost while attending the facility, (These records shall be retained by the project for a period of time approved by the Head Start authority after the child ceases to attend the facility, and the records shall become the property of the appropriate First Nation authority following completion of the time period determined.)
  15. a transportation release form provided by the Aboriginal Head Start and signed by the child's parent(s)/legal guardian(s) prior to commencement of the service.
  16. a transportation release form supplied by the Aboriginal Head Start and signed by the child's parent(s)/legal guardian(s) prior to any special excursion.

1.12 Supervision

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a policy that pertains to the supervision of children attending the project.

  1. Outdoor Supervision - The Head Start project shall ensure that:
    1. in a play space adjacent to the centre, the children are supervised by Aboriginal Head Start workers assisted by volunteers, or
    2. in a play space not adjacent to the centre or on an excursion away from the centre premises, the children are supervised by two or more Aboriginal Head Start workers, and
    3. it is the decision of the Parent Committee and the Director to identify the minimum number of staff and volunteers required for supervision for various activities and for various age groups.
  2. Indoor Supervision - projects are asked to refer to provincial regulations.

1.13 Financial Books and Records for Monthly, Semi-Annual and Annual Reporting

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community finance professionals, establish a policy that pertains to the maintenance of financial bookkeeping records to support its monthly, semi-annual and annual financial reporting.

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects maintain proper financial accounting records which take into account the reporting requirements of the funding agency. Further, these financial records must convey an accurate and clear accounting of the operation of the Head Start project. (Please refer to Section 5 of this document for more recommended Administration Standards)

1.14 Fees

Fees will not be charged to parent(s)/legal guardian(s) for their child(ren) to attend or be enrolled in the Aboriginal Head Start program.

1.15 Furnishings, Play Materials and Play Equipment

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a policy that pertains to furnishings, play materials and play equipment used by the project.

Head Start furnishings, play materials and play equipment policies include:

  1. The project shall provide furniture, equipment, indoor and outdoor play equipment and materials in the facility that are:
    1. of a size that can be safely and independently used by children,
    2. non-toxic, washable, sturdy and safe,
    3. of adequate quality and appropriate to the developmental capabilities of the children attending the facility, and
    4. sufficient in quantity for the number of Head Start spaces.
  2. Play material and equipment should support the community's cultural background,
  3. Play materials and equipment should be CSA approved or meet CSA standards. (Canadian Standards Association)
  4. The project shall regularly monitor manufacturer recalls.

1.16 Staff/Child Ration and Group Size

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a policy that pertains to the staff to child ratios for the project.

Parent Committees and Directors are asked to refer to Appendix 'A' of this document in establishing their staff to child ratios.

1.17 Responsibility of Operation

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a policy that describes the responsibilities involved in the operations of its programming.

Head Start responsibility operations policies include:

  1. The Parent Committee shall, within three months of the Aboriginal Head Start being funded, hold a general meeting of parent(s)/legal guardian(s) of the children attending the centre.
  2. The project shall:
    1. provide a copy of their regulations to all parent(s)/legal guardian(s),
    2. meet with the parent(s)/legal guardian(s), and
    3. notify the sponsoring agent of the names and addresses of the members of the Parent Committee as required.

Section 2 Education Services Standards

2.1 Introduction

The objective of the program is to provide First Nations children with the opportunity to develop their physical, emotional and social needs in a culturally relevant environment. Further, Head Start will provide First Nations parent(s)/legal guardians/extended family with assistance and support in acquiring good parenting and life skills through activities such as workshops and information sessions. Parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family are integral partners in the process of planning and implementing a curriculum, and are crucial in reviewing the effectiveness of it.

The goal of Head Start is to provide all children with a safe, nurturing and enjoyable learning environment that supports their development with the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in their present environment, in school and in life.

2.2 Curriculum Development

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects establish a comprehensive curriculum that reflects the developmental needs of the children of the program as well as the six program components: nutrition, education, family involvement, social supports, health promotion and culture and language. Development of a comprehensive curriculum may also include input from an early childhood education specialist, parent(s), Elders, cultural advisor and/or other appropriate resource person(s).

A comprehensive curriculum may include, but not limited to the following components:

  1. provides opportunity to learn through play
  2. provides a balance of structured learning environments and natural environments
  3. provides opportunity to enhance school readiness skills and cognitive development
  4. supports fine and gross motor development
  5. uses a multitude of mediums including, but not limited to age and culturally appropriate books, videos, computer programs, toys, guest speakers
  6. provides learning experiences through food preparation and through sampling a variety of nutritious foods including traditional foods
  7. encourages role playing and dramatic play
  8. encourages conversation and language skill development
  9. provides the opportunity for the children to express their feelings., concerns, ideas and fears
  10. provides learning experiences that are age and developmentally appropriate and respective of the individual child
  11. provides learning experiences that are culturally appropriate
  12. provides opportunity to further develop socialization skills
  13. provides learning opportunities to develop child awareness of safety in the home, at school and in the community
  14. allows for creative expression through art, music, dancing, singing and storytelling
  15. involves the family and community in all aspects of the program
  16. provides opportunity for sensory learning including touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing
  17. provides both indoor and outdoor activities and learning experiences
  18. provides activities which allow for interactive and solitary play that promote learning of social skills such as sharing, and turn-taking
  19. provides a non-violent environment
  20. provides an inclusive modified curriculum and environment to meet the needs of children with special needs

Section 3 Facility Standards

3.1 Introduction

The goal of Head Start is to ensure that Aboriginal Head Start's physical environment supports the delivery of high quality services to all children and families. Facilities, materials, and equipment are selected and maintained to create a learning environment that is safe, accessible, welcoming, comfortable, age-appropriate, culturally sensitive, and in keeping with the individual needs of children and families and the particular features of local programs and communities.

These following standards are offered as possible requirements for the Head Start's physical environment and its equipment, toys, materials, and furniture that support programming for the ages and individual needs of children served.

It is strongly recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities seek the appropriate technical expertise, (including fire, building, plumbing and environmental health) from the earliest planning stages in designing or renovating the facility to house the Head Start program. Further, the facility should undergo appropriate annual technical inspection by the local fire, health, and housing and environmental health authorities prior to children being allowed to enter the facility and receive program services.

3.2 Head Start Usable Floor Area

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities work with building inspectors and refer to local building codes, in reference to establishing standards for this topic. Further, the following are some aspects that need to be looked at and considered in the facility - this listing however is not intended to be complete.

Please note that numbers have not been offered for the space requirements, as indicated by an 'xx', as local Aboriginal Head Start programmers will need to establish their own space requirements. (Space requirements established by provincial/territorial governments can be found in 'Appendix A' of this guide)

It is recommended that if the facility housing the Head Start Program is the same facility housing the daycare program, the total useable floor space is that of one program only and not a total of both combined. The total usable space therefore, is used once by the daycare and once by the Head Start.

The "Usable Floor Area" for the Head Start facility includes but is not limited to:

  1. Appropriate indoor environments for children include:
    1. floor coverings and soft elements, such as rugs and cushions,
    2. an open area on the floor for the safe movement of infants and toddlers,
    3. identifiable areas for different activities and materials such as blocks, art, books, gross motor actions and dramatic play. These areas allow children to be alone and to engage in individual or group activities, and
    4. low, open shelves to allow children to see and to select their own materials.
  2. For the purpose of this section "usable floor area" does not include space used for offices, hallways, washrooms, closets, kitchens, furnace/boiler rooms and large or fixed equipment.
  3. The centre shall have a minimum of:
    1. xx square metres of usable floor area for each Head Start space used for the care of infants, and
    2. xx square metres of usable floor area for each Head Start space used for toddlers and pre- school children.
  4. Where a project provides care for infants, the project shall provide a sleeping area separate from the usable floor area of the facility.
  5. The Head Start facility shall provide a spacious, appropriate and quiet designated area for children to sleep or rest.
  6. The usable floor area mentioned in this section shall be for the exclusive use of the centre during the hours of operation.
  7. All rooms occupied by children shall be located on the first (ie. main) or second floor levels or below ground level, provided the facility has an appropriate number of exits, and an acceptable humidity level, which meet established Health and Fire Safety Standards.
  8. Every floor level shall have access to two (2) separate means of exit, one of which shall be an enclosed interior or exterior stairwell in the case of an exit not on the ground level.

3.3 Head Start Outdoor Play Area

Aboriginal Head Start Directors may wish to refer to, or consult with local health and building officials for more information to establish standards for this topic.

Please note that numbers have not been offered for the space requirements as indicated by an 'xx', as local Aboriginal Head Start programmers will need to establish their own space requirements. (Space requirements established by provincial/territorial governments can be found in 'Appendix A' of this guide.)

The "Outdoor Play Area" for the Head Start facility includes but is not limited:

  1. Appropriate outdoor environments for children include:
    1. a variety of surfaces, such as sand for digging, hills, flat grassy and hard areas for wheeled toys,
    2. areas of sunlight as well as shade or portable shade equipment,
    3. a variety of equipment for riding, climbing, balancing, and digging, and
    4. areas for individual and small group play.
  2. A centre shall have a safe outdoor play area of xx square metres per Head Start space of which:
    1. a minimum of xx is adjacent to the centre, and
    2. the remaining space is within walking distance of the centre.
  3. Where a centre provides Head Start services for infants, the centre shall have a minimum of xx square metres of safe outdoor play area for each Head Start space for infants that is:
    1. adjacent to the centre, and
    2. for the exclusive use of infants during set times of the day.
  4. This area should be fenced to at least a height of xx metres and equipped with secure latches. The play area itself shall contain a well-drained surface, free of places where water might accumulate.
  5. In this section, "within walking distance" means within walking distance for the youngest child who is not an infant attending the centre.
  6. Stairs, walkways, ramps, porches, parking areas and driveways shall be maintained free of any accumulation of water, ice and snow.
  7. The Head Start facility should be accessible to children with special needs and meet criteria in accordance with local or provincial/territorial regulations.
  8. Wading pools shall only be used when Head Start workers who have First Aid training in water safety are present and supervise the activity. Wading pools will be filled with environmentally safe water that is chlorinated. Wading pools will be immediately drained of all water upon completion of the activity.

3.4 Head Start Natural Lighting

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities seek the advice and recommendations of local health, fire and safety officials in their community/area to establish standards for this topic.

3.5 Head Start Food Services

Aboriginal Head Start Directors may wish to refer to, or consult with local health and building officials and Environmental Health Officials (EHO's) for more information on establishing standards for this topic.

The Head Start project shall ensure that:  

  1. milk and milk products used and served in a centre are pasteurized.
  2. procedures for food storage, handling and serving are sanitary and safe.
  3. equipment and procedures for cleaning, eating and drinking utensils are sanitary and safe.
  4. all persons handling or serving food shall have a food handling course.
  5. children's allergies are posted in the kitchen and other areas where food is being served.
  6. people affected by colds, skin infections or other communicable diseases shall not be involved in the preparation and handling of food in the Aboriginal Head Start facility.
  7. if the Head Start is serving traditional foods (ie wild meats or fish), the Head Start Director and cook must ensure that all possible precautions are taken to ensure that wild foods are safe for the children and workers.

3.6 Head Start Kitchen and Dining Facilities

Aboriginal Head Start Directors may wish to refer to, or consult with, local health and building officials and EHO's for more information on establishing standards for this topic. Head Start Facilities shall have:

  1. sufficient kitchen and dining facilities to provide food for children attending the centre.
  2. doors of washrooms and toilet facilities that do not open directly into rooms where food is stored, prepared or served.
  3. for washing, rinsing and sanitizing either (3 sinks) or (2 sinks and a dishwasher) - it is also recommended to have a separate hand washing sink in the kitchen area in addition to the sinks referred to above.
  4. a refrigerator, food storage space and a stove for proper food preparation.
  5. kitchen appliances inaccessible to children.
  6. laundry facilities (if applicable) in a closed area, separate from the kitchen, play and dining facilities.
  7. a garbage storage area maintained in a closed area separate from the kitchen, dining, play and laundry facilities.

3.7 Head Start Equipment

Aboriginal Head Start Directors may wish to refer to, or consult with local health and building officials for more information to establish standards for this topic. Readers are encouraged to refer to Section 5.9(k) Transportation of the Administration Standards section for proper child related transportation equipment.

  1. Where a centre provides services to infants and toddlers, the Director shall provide sufficient change tables, training chairs and toilet seats to meet the needs of the infants and toddlers attending the centre.
  2. Where a project provides care for infants, the Director shall ensure that:
    1. each infant in attendance is provided with a separate crib or playpen, and
    2. there are sufficient highchairs or infant seats with safety harnesses to meet the needs of the infants in attendance.
  3. Every child shall be provided with his/her own bedding, washing and grooming materials which shall be identified for the use of the particular child, stored individually and cleaned weekly or more frequently if soiled.
  4. The Director shall also ensure that cots and mats:
    1. are suitable for the children's sizes, and
    2. are used only for resting/sleeping purposes.
  5. Furniture, program material and play equipment shall be sufficient in number to accommodate the children and shall be:
    1. of a size and construction which can be easily and safely used by children,
    2. clean and durable,
    3. if painted, coated with lead free, non-toxic paint, and
    4. in good repair, and checked for manufacturer recalls.
  6. All toys, play materials, and play equipment at the Head Start facility shall:
    1. conform to the requirements of the federal Hazardous Products Act and be CSA approved or meet CSA standards,
    2. be checked daily for cleanliness and damage, and
    3. be maintained in a good state of repair.
  7. All toys, play material and play equipment shall:
    1. if possible, be culturally-appropriate,
    2. offer a variety of play opportunities,
    3. be suitable and safe for the age group and needs of children making use of them,
    4. be appropriate for both indoor and outdoor use,
    5. be sanitized weekly and infant toys shall be sanitized after each use,
    6. be stored and displayed in easily accessible areas, and
    7. if painted, coated with lead-free, non-toxic paint.
  8. The Head Start facility shall have a telephone with a published number.

3.8 Head Start Washroom Facilities

Aboriginal Head Start Directors may wish to refer to, or consult with local health and building officials and Environmental Health Officer (EHO)'s for more information.

  1. Washroom facilities shall have an appropriate number of wash basins and toilets provided for the children, preferably on every floor level occupied by children (refer to 'c' below for size).
  2. The Head Start project shall ensure that children are able to use toilets and wash basins safely and independently.
  3. Washroom facilities shall have steps or platforms available for the use of children where "child- size" basins and toilets are not available, the steps and/or platforms should be finished so that they are smooth and easily cleanable.
  4. Washrooms should be equipped with soap and paper towel dispensers.

3.9 Head Start Fire Safety

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities, in collaboration with local health and building officials, establish standards regarding fire safety for the project.

The following criteria reflects only some established fire, health and safety standards. Other standards may be added in co-operation with fire, health and safety authorities serving the First Nation community.

The Head Start project shall ensure that:

  1. emergency telephone numbers, including those of the fire service, police, doctors, health centre, hospital, poison control centre, Community Health Worker/Nurse and ambulance service shall be posted in plain view next to all telephones in the Head Start facility.
  2. an appropriate evacuation plan in the event of an emergency is posted in a prominent place in the centre.
  3. all staff and volunteers are instructed with respect to their duties in the event of an emergency.
  4. fire drills are conducted and recorded monthly.
  5. smoke-detectors and carbon monoxide detectors are installed.
  6. a daily attendance record is kept in an easily accessible place, which shall be removed from the centre by the operator when evacuation is necessary.
  7. there are two separate and alternate exits from each floor of the centre.
  8. a fire alarm system is installed.
  9. an annual furnace inspection is completed by a qualified person.
  10. combustible materials (i.e. art work, teaching materials) which are attached to walls shall be securely fastened and shall not exceed twenty (20) per cent of the total wall area of a given room.
  11. waste baskets shall be made of non-combustible materials.
  12. the heating system is cleaned and inspected annually.
  13. open fireplaces and floor heaters are not used in areas of the facility occupied by children. (A wood stove may be used in the facility provided it is enclosed, safety-approved and inaccessible to children).
  14. the Director shall have smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors and a fire extinguisher on every floor level of the facility, and all equipment must be tested and inspected annually - if the equipment is battery operated, testing should occur on a more frequent basis.
  15. children are made aware of all exits and what to do in case of fire. All exists must be properly marked with a well-lit exit sign.
  16. adequate storage space is provided for the personal belongings of each child and the storage of play equipment and other materials.
  17. storage space, inaccessible to children, shall be provided for flammable, combustible and poisonous substances. All potentially dangerous products including cleaning supplies shall be safely stored in their original, labelled containers.

3.10 Smoking in Head Start Facilities

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities establish a policy on the prohibition of smoking in the Head Start facility at all times, regardless of children being in the facility or not. The Head Start project shall ensure that:

  • no person shall smoke in or around the Head Start centre at any time. 'No Smoking' signs will be posted in prominent places throughout the facility and surrounding external grounds.

3.11 Head Start Safety Precautions

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities, in collaboration with local health and building officials, establish standards regarding safety precautions for the project. The Head Start facility shall ensure that:

  1. receptacles and electrical outlets are not serviced by extension cords unless the connectors are covered by plastic protectors and the cord is securely attached to the wall.
  2. where the children are six(6) years of age or under, special protective receptacle covers are installed in any receptacle or outlet not in use.
  3. clear glass panels are plainly marked to avoid accidental impact.
  4. one (1) operable flashlight shall be provided for each floor level in the Head Start facility and at each exit. The flashlight shall be tested on a monthly basis by the Director.
  5. unsafe items should be stored in a lockable area and inaccessible to children.
  6. radiators and hot pipes are covered with non-combustible materials.
  7. the facility shall have two telephones in working order with emergency telephone numbers posted near them. One telephone should be in the office area and one should be in the play area out of the reach of children.
  8. children are properly and adequately supervised at all times.

3.12 Head Start Health Safety

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities, in collaboration with local health and building officials, establish standards regarding health safety for the project. The Head Start project shall provide:

  1. a separate area in the centre for the purpose of separating a child from other persons if required for medical reasons.
  2. appropriate equipment and furnishings in the separation area.
  3. First Aid supplies, as approved by the Community Health Nurse, local doctor or other health care professional, that shall be stored in an area that is inaccessible to children, and the First Aid kit shall be checked and re-stocked on a regular basis.

The Director shall make sure that if a child is developing symptoms of any illness that the child is immediately separated from the other children and is supervised by a staff member in an isolated area. The Director shall contact the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family to pick up their child. If the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family cannot be contacted, the Director shall contact the emergency contact to pick up the child. If these people are not available, the Director shall contact the Community Health Nurse (CHN) or the Community Health Representative (CHR) to seek medical attention for the child. The child's family doctor shall be contacted only as a last resort.

First Aid shall be given to a child according to established practices in First Aid training. Whenever injury or illness occurs to a child, the Director shall immediately:

  1. obtain appropriate assistance for the child.
  2. notify the parent(s), legal guardian(s) or other care giver(s).
  3. record the incident in the child's file.

Whenever a serious occurrence or tragedy occurs, the Director shall immediately:

  1. obtain emergency assistance.
  2. notify the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family or their emergency contacts as necessary.
  3. inform the local authorities.
  4. record the incident in the appropriate files.

Only prescription medication shall be administered to a child enrolled in the Head Start program and shall only be administered by a specially designated Head Start worker. The Director shall designate the worker responsible for administering medication. On each occasion that medication is administered to a child, the designated Head Start worker shall sign the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family medication consent form. The medication shall be checked to ensure that it is a current prescription.

The Head Start facility shall ensure that:

  1. prescription medication accompanied by written authorization by the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family.
  2. prescription medication is identified on the original prescription container with the name of the child, the amount to be administered, the method of administration, and shall only be given to the child for whom it was intended.

The Director shall make sure that any animal brought to the Head Start facility is free of fleas and disease and has received proper inoculations.

Section 4 Human Resources Standards

4.1 Introduction/Purpose

The goal of Aboriginal Head Start is to ensure that projects recruit, select and employ qualified staff who possess appropriate knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to provide high quality, comprehensive, and culturally sensitive services to children and families in the program. Head Start staff, consultants, resource people, volunteers, and members of governing bodies will identify opportunities and support ongoing training and development resulting in enhanced programming.

Head Start programs are committed to creating a safe and healthy learning environment through which children, parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family, and staff can teach and learn from one another. This section discusses the organizational structure of projects, staff qualifications, classroom staffing, staff standards of conduct, staff performance appraisals, and staff and volunteer health requirements. Training and development for staff, volunteers, and members of governing bodies are also included.

4.2 Head Start Organizational Structure

An organizational structure describes how staff and functions are organized to fulfill the project's mission and goals. That structure may also describe how Head Start fits into other community based programs. A well developed organizational structure establishes clear lines of communication, authority and supervision, helps individuals understand their jobs, and assists staff in the smooth running of the project.

An organizational structure may be formulated in many different ways depending upon the results of the project's planning and development process. To define their own structure, the Head Start authority may look first at how Head Start fits into the larger community of which it is a part, and describe in words and/or through an organizational chart where Head Start belongs within the overall structure.

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start authorities establish their own organizational structures which may include but not limited to the following:

  1. descriptions of the Aboriginal Head Start including its linkages and integration with other community programs,
  2. establish a listing of community resources that could be involved with the Head Start project including but not limited to:
    1. Child and Family Services,
    2. Education - schools and kindergarten,
    3. Alcohol and Drug program (NNADAP) or Treatment Centre,
    4. Health program (Community Health Representative (CHR), Community Health Nurse (CHN), Medical Clinic), and
    5. Social Assistance program,
    6. Childcare.
  3. a description of each staff position within the Head Start project, including the knowledge, skills, and experience required,
  4. program staffing, including staff to child ratios,
  5. Parent Committee functions, including relationships to governing bodies and key management staff, and
  6. developing a Head Start organizational chart by the Director for approval by the Parent Committee.

4.3 Staffing Qualifications

It is recommended that the Director, together with the Parent Committee, develop job descriptions for each position. The job description should detail the roles and responsibilities of the position, the educational requirements, the skills required and the experiences considered necessary to be qualified to provide Head Start instruction to children.

Aboriginal Head Start positions include, but are not limited to:

  1. director/supervisor/manager,
  2. teachers and/or early childhood educators,
  3. cook,
  4. bus driver,
  5. janitor/custodian,
  6. bookkeeper/clerk,
  7. cultural teacher,
  8. curriculum developer, and
  9. part-time replacements.

The Parent Committee and Director may wish to refer to the provincial and territorial government regulations for educational requirements for Head Start staff. Summaries of these are available in Appendix 'A' of this document.

4.4 Resource People

The roles, responsibilities, and relationships of resource people can also be defined. These include but are not limited to:

  1. Elders,
  2. parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family, and
  3. volunteers.

4.5 Human Resource Policies and Procedures

The Director, with the Parent Committee as appropriate, should also ensure that policies and procedures exist for the following human resource criteria including but not limited to:

  1. staff recruitment and selection processes including offers of employment and probationary periods,
  2. reference checks,
  3. criminal record checks and child abuse registry checks, (the frequency of these checks needs to be established at the community level,
  4. staff orientation,
  5. staff evaluations,
  6. staff training and development (internal and external),
  7. staff conduct, code of ethics, confidentiality, and
  8. the reporting and documenting procedures in reference to concerns regarding children.

4.6 Staffing Qualifications

Please note that the qualifications listed for all of the following positions are suggestions only and are presented for consideration. Aboriginal Head Start authorities may also wish to refer to provincial job descriptions if they exist.

4.6.1 Director: (qualifications, roles and responsibilities - including, but not limited to:)

  1. college or university certification in Early Childhood Education, Social Services or Human Development,
  2. previous experience in supervising staff,
  3. First Aid and Infant and Child CPR certification,
  4. 3 - 5 years experience in children's programming,
  5. previous administrative experience,
  6. the ability to develop and manage a budget,
  7. planning and organizing skills,
  8. previous program management experience,
  9. effective interpersonal skills,
  10. communications skills in writing and speaking,
  11. listening skills,
  12. experience in working with professionals from other programs and with external professional resource people,
  13. previous experience in working with people from the community,
  14. knowledge of the First Nations and its language, culture and traditions,
  15. knowledge of the resources of the community,
  16. ability to refer parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family to appropriate resources,
  17. analytical and observation skills,
  18. oversee the recruitment, training, and scheduling of volunteers,
  19. work with the Parent Committee,
  20. assist parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family in developing and scheduling their own social and developmental activities and encourage and support parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family in addressing community needs,
  21. coordinate the process for the professional assessment of children, including initial screening, ongoing developmental and specialized assessments, to determine if a challenge or special need exists,
  22. work with an interdisciplinary team of staff and parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family to develop and implement an individual plan for each child with special needs,
  23. consult regularly with parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family and staff on the progress of the children with special needs,
  24. the ability to link families with an ongoing system of health care, assist parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family in the selection of health providers and promote parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family involvement in all aspects of the health and social program,
  25. ability to make recommendations to others in authority regarding potential interventions for children and/or parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family,
  26. work closely with community resources to ensure the coordination of services.

4.6.2 Head Start Workers: (qualifications, roles and responsibilities - including, but not limited to:)

  1. college or university certification in Early Childhood Education, or working to obtain this,
  2. experience in children's programming or services,
  3. First Aid and Infant and Child Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) certification,
  4. knowledge of the First Nation and the language, culture and traditions,
  5. ability to promote health and safety practices in the program and coordinate safety and sanitation procedures, first aid, and emergency medical procedures,
  6. interpersonal skills,
  7. analytical and observation skills,
  8. conduct advocacy work for families and parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family, as directed by the supervisor, coordinate the process of assessing children, including initial screenings, ongoing developmental, and specialized assessments, to determine if a disability exists,
  9. work with an interdisciplinary team of staff and parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family to develop and implement an individual plan for each child with special needs,
  10. consult regularly with parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family and staff on the progress of disabilities services and of children with disabilities who are enrolled in the program,
  11. work closely with community resources to ensure the coordination of services, and
  12. as supported by the supervisor, advocate in the community for appropriate services for children with disabilities and their families.

4.6.3 Cook: (qualifications, roles and responsibilities - including, but not limited to:)

  1. experience in menu planning, including the quantity, quality, and variety of food to be purchased,
  2. knowledge and preparation of traditional foods,
  3. successful completion of a Food Handlers Course on Food Safety,
  4. the ability to interpret nutrition assessment data, provide nutrition counseling for families, and promote good nutrition habits among children and families, and
  5. expertise to assist staff in dealing with children with feeding problems or special nutritional needs.

4.6.4 Bookkeeper/Finance Clerk: (qualifications, roles and responsibilities - including, but not limited to:)

  1. certification in bookkeeping/finance,
  2. ability to prepare financial reports,
  3. ability to work with auditors,
  4. payments of bills and contractors,
  5. experience in purchase order systems,
  6. maintain financial and personnel filing systems,
  7. prepare monthly, quarterly and annual financial statements,
  8. accounts receivable (ie. receipt of funding)
  9. payroll and deductions,
  10. knowledge of Canadian labour laws,
  11. experience with computer accounting programs and systems and
  12. management of multiple files.

4.6.5 Bus Driver: (qualifications, roles and responsibilities - including, but not limited to:)

  1. proper certification and insurance for transporting children, with a copy of the certification given to the Director,
  2. clean driving record,
  3. pick-up and delivery of children from/to their homes,
  4. ensure that all children are met by parent(s)/legal guardians or their approved designates,
  5. provide transportation services for all field trips or excursions sponsored by the program,
  6. ensure that the Head Start vehicle is properly maintained and that it remains in proper working order,
  7. ensure that communications (i.e. CB radio) equipment for the vehicle remains in proper working condition,
  8. ensure that the Head Start vehicle has the proper emergency supplies, (including First Aid kit) and driver has First Aid certification.

4.6.6. Janitorial/Custodial staff: (qualifications, roles and responsibilities - including, but not limited to:)

  • custodial staff and other staff working with and around chemicals should be trained in Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).

Section 5 Administration Standards

5.1 Introduction/Purpose

In order for the Head Start program to operate efficiently and effectively it requires established policies and procedures for its various administrative matters. The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of these various items. It is recommended that the Director and Parent Committee develop comprehensive administration policies and procedures appropriate to their community.

5.2 Policy and Procedures Development

It is recommended that the Director in consultation with the Parent Committee, develop written internal policies and procedures relating to service delivery. These may include, but are not limited to the following:

  1. the Aboriginal Head Start mandate and mission statement,
  2. the means of increasing and regulating the involvement of parents and legal guardians,
  3. enrollment and discharge procedures and the age(s) of children who shall be accepted into the program,
  4. precise hours of operation, and policies on holiday and emergency closures,
  5. policies regarding the late pick-up and late arrival of children,
  6. policies pertaining to food and nutrition,
  7. policies requiring all staff and volunteers to submit an updated criminal record check and child abuse registry check (frequency of these checks to be determined at the community level),
  8. health policies,
  9. safety, rest and behavioural policies,
  10. activities organized by the project outside of its ordinary operating facility,
  11. culturally-appropriate behaviour management techniques and the use of the First Nations language,
  12. personnel policies, which may include hiring and dismissal procedures; handling of grievances and complaints,
  13. safety and emergency procedures, including fire drills,
  14. transportation, including pick-up times and location, behaviour of children in transit, and
  15. policies regarding the personal liability and protection of Head Start staff and the facility.

5.3 Volunteers

It is recommended that the Parent Committee and Director ensure that policies are developed regarding volunteers, including but not limited to the following:

  1. a volunteer's resource manual, roles and responsibilities based on their skills and interests and procedures to be followed in the case of an emergency,
  2. application form or sign-up sheet, to be completed by the volunteer,
  3. mandatory requirement for a criminal check and child abuse registry checks where available,
  4. description of the project's services, and
  5. mandatory attendance at an orientation session for volunteers.

5.4 Parental Involvement

It is recommended that the Parent Committee and Director ensure that policies are developed regarding parental, legal guardian and/or extended family involvement, including but not limited to the following:

  1. resource manual, the programs services, a Parent/Legal Guardian Handbook,
  2. description of their roles and responsibilities,
  3. mandatory attendance at an orientation session,
  4. description of the program and its services, intended benefits, a description of the facility,
  5. knowledge of the preventive measures used in the centre ensure the safety and well-being of children,
  6. assistance offered by the Head Start project regarding parenting skills, nutrition, and living a healthy life-style,
  7. relationships between the Head Start staff and the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family,
  8. parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family role in the on-going operations of the Head Start and requirement to participate,
  9. role of advocacy by Head Start staff for parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family and their children,
  10. home visits to monitor progress in the home,
  11. information to be contained in the child's file,
  12. permission forms for administering medicines,
  13. permission forms for transportation for regular program attendance and for participation in extracurricular activities,
  14. explanations of emergency procedures for fire, medical and accident, closings and for weather related and other emergency situations,
  15. need to complete the alternative designated emergency contacts form, and
  16. need to complete the child and family medical history form, and the medical contact information, (i.e. doctor's name and telephone number), and
  17. the need for the family doctor to provide a report on the medical history of the child.

5.5 Enrollment

It is recommended that the Parent Committee and Director ensure that policies and procedures are developed regarding enrollment, including but not limited to the following:

  1. application forms and all other forms requiring parental/legal guardian signature,
  2. initial enrollment and re-enrollment procedures, and
  3. attendance requirements.

5.6 Forms

It is recommended that the Director and Parent Committee ensure that the following forms are available for programming requirements, including but not limited to the following:

  1. application/enrollment form,
  2. appeals form,
  3. attendance form,
  4. meal plan form,
  5. medical information form,
  6. child vital statistics form,
  7. medical release form,
  8. medical information form,
  9. transportation authority form,
  10. identification of alternate and emergency contacts form,
  11. reporting of concerns regarding children,
  12. staff reporting form,
  13. volunteers application/sign-up sheet form,
  14. criminal record check form,
  15. staff evaluation forms,
  16. forms that describe internal and/or external support provided to the child and/or parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family,
  17. all appropriate financial and accounting forms,
  18. other forms which may be considered necessary to monitor and report on the progress of the child(ren) and the involvement and progress of the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family in the program, and
  19. prescription medication authorization.

5.7 Financial Accounting

It is recommended that proper accounting policies and procedures be established which control the efficient and accurate operations of the Head Start program, including but not limited to the following:

  1. financial and accounting procedures,
  2. list of signing authorities,
  3. purchasing procedures for goods and services,
  4. payment of bills (i.e. utility, food),
  5. payment of contractors,
  6. deposits of funds received,
  7. records of staff pay and benefits,
  8. records of staff leave, vacations, sick, bereavement, other leave,
  9. calculation of terminations pay,
  10. travel/transportation accounting,
  11. insurance (i.e. property, vehicle and liability to cover the centre),
  12. organizational structure, lines of authority,
  13. capital costs,
  14. job descriptions,
  15. maintenance of employee records, and
  16. maintenance of other records considered necessary.

5.8 Staff Manual

It is recommended that the Director and Parent Committee ensure that a staff manual is completed, including but not limited to the following:

  1. roles and responsibilities of each staff position,
  2. job descriptions, authority levels,
  3. request for leave procedures and forms,
  4. emergency medical/fire procedures,
  5. emergency weather and other circumstance closures,
  6. staff evaluation procedures,
  7. hiring, probationary period and terminations of employment procedures,
  8. Head Start organizational chart,
  9. description of the Head Start philosophy and program, and
  10. other information as considered necessary.

5.9 Transportation

It is recommended that the Director and Parent Committee ensure that transportation policies and regulations are developed, including but not limited to the following:

  1. bus driver qualifications, roles and responsibilities,
  2. bus monitors, roles and responsibilities,
  3. pick-up and drop-off times and locations for children receiving transportation by the Head Start,
  4. drop-off and pick-up of children at the Head Start facility and who is authorized to do so,
  5. skills required (i.e. First Aid),
  6. communications (i.e. cell phone or CB radio),
  7. bus intercom,
  8. insurance,
  9. maintenance of the Head Start vehicle,
  10. insurance policy standards must be adhered to, and
  11. proper seats as required by law for the age and weight of the children must be used when transporting children and they must be properly installed.

5.10 Parent Committee

It is recommended that the Director and Parent/Legal Guardian Committee ensure that a Parent/Legal Guardian Committee handbook is completed, including but not limited to the following:

  1. terms of reference for the committee,
  2. roles and responsibilities of the Parent Committee,
  3. criminal record check requirements for members of this committee,
  4. lines of authority,
  5. organizational chart,
  6. committee training as necessary,
  7. relations to the First Nations government,
  8. representation from other community programs, Child and Family Services, education, health, etc,
  9. Elder/youth representation on the Parent Committee,
  10. holding an annual meeting of parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family of children enrolled in the centre to elect members of the Parent Committee,
  11. selection of a chairperson from among the members of the committee,
  12. responsibility for representing to the Head Start facility the wishes of the parent(s)/legal guardian(s)/extended family with respect to the program and operation of the centre,
  13. minute taking at meetings and providing copies as requested, and
  14. providing a copy of the minutes of the annual meeting mentioned to the sponsoring agent within 30 days of the annual meeting.

5.11 Environmental Health

It is recommended that the Director, in collaboration with the Environmental Health Officer, ensure that policies and regulations are developed for environmental health matters, including but not limited to the following:

  1. description of the Environmental Health Officer (EHO)'s roles and responsibilities,
  2. annual testing of the air and water quality,
  3. annual testing of the heating system,
  4. semi-annual testing of the refrigerator temperature,
  5. semi-annual testing of food safety and storage of the facility,
  6. semi-annual testing of the electric lighting,
  7. semi-annual testing of the fire exits and fire safety equipment,
  8. semi-annual testing of smoke and carbon monoxide detectors, and
  9. where external washroom facilities are necessary, the EHO shall ensure that the facilities are properly equipped for small children and that there are separate facilities for boys and girls.

Section 6 Nutrition Standards

6.1 Introduction

The goal of the Head Start nutrition component is to promote child wellness by supporting services that supplement those of the home and community. Head Start's child nutritional services assist families in meeting each child's nutrition needs and in establishing healthy eating habits that nurture healthy development and promote health throughout the child's life.

6.2 The Head Start's Roles and Responsibilities

To meet the goals of the nutrition component of the program, it is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals and nutritionists, clearly state their roles and responsibilities for this component which may include but not be limited to the following:

  1. ensure the provision of foods that meet the nutritional needs of children and comply with the Native Foods and Nutrition Guide (Health Canada) and/or Canada's Food Guide,
  2. ensure that foods prepared in the Head Start take allergies into consideration,
  3. prepare monthly menus developed either by, or in consultation with a person familiar with child nutrition and eating habits,
  4. ensure that menus are planned and parent(s)/legal guardian(s) are informed of menus in advance and posted in a public area of the facility one (1) week in advance,
  5. ensure menus are retained for three months, and only changed if prior, reasonable notice is provided to parent(s)/legal guardian(s).

6.3 Special Diets

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals and nutritionists, include a statement that pertains specifically to special dietary needs of children.

6.4 Infants Attending the Head Start Project

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals and nutritionists, include statements that pertain specifically to the dietary needs of infants.

Where an infant attends a facility, the Head Start facility's director shall ensure that:

  1. the infant is provided with age-appropriate food.
  2. where the infant requires bottle-feeding, the bottle is held by an adult.
  3. the infant is attended by an adult while eating.
  4. where the infant is less than one year of age, the infant is fed by the same person for more than half the infant's feedings.
  5. a private area is provided for breast feeding.
  6. if the infant is fed from food contained in jars, the meal should be put in a separate container (ie. bowl) and not be fed from the original food container/jar.

6.5 Meals to be Provided by the Project

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals and nutritionists, include a statement that pertains specifically to the provision of meals by the project.

Meals to be provided by the project shall meet the children's nutritional needs by using the Native Foods and Nutrition Guide and/or the Canada's Food Guide.

Except where otherwise provided in these regulations, meals and snacks for children attending a Aboriginal Head start project shall be provided by the project.

6.6 Food Handling

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, nutritionists and EHO's, include statements that pertain specifically to the handling of food to be served by the project.

Each meal and snack prepared and served at the Head Start project shall be handled in a manner which promotes good health, hygiene and nutritional habits. Menus may be changed by the Director in order to make special arrangements for children with special nutritional requirements.

Head Start personnel suffering from any infectious or communicable disease or illness shall NOT handle or prepare food to be served at the Head start facility.

Head Start personnel responsible for the preparation of food to be served in the facility shall be required to successfully complete a Food Handlers Course on Food Safety.

6.7 Meal Preparation

It is recommended that the Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, nutritionists and EHO's, include a statement that applies to the availability of sufficient help for the preparation of food.

The Head start Director shall make sure that sufficient Head Start workers and volunteers are available at the Head Start facility to guarantee adequate food services and to maintain a standard of cleanliness consistent with professional health standards.

6.8 Safe Drinking Water

It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start projects, in collaboration with community health professionals, nutritionists and EHO's, include a statement that pertains specifically to the availability of drinking water to children attending the facility.

Drinking water shall be available to children at all times while attending the Head Start project's program of activities.

Section 7 Definitions

The following definitions are provided for Aboriginal Head Start authorities to review when developing their standards. It is recommended that Aboriginal Head Start Standards documents contain a set of definitions for key words and terms.

Assessment - the ongoing procedures used to identify a child's strengths and developmental needs and to identify the appropriate services to address those strengths and needs

Audit - a formal examination and verification of financial accounts

Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) - the national databank of criminal records managed by the RCMP for all law enforcement agencies who are required to or requested to conduct "police record checks" or "criminal reference checks" on individuals working with children

Capital - durable tangible or intangible assets that have a useful or economic life of more than one year and that cost more than $1,000. Examples of capital expenditures are:

  1. works undertaken to construct, prolong and/or significantly change the original design function of fixed assets or buildings;
  2. acquisition of assets as part of a construction project;
  3. acquisition of assets whose benefits extend beyond the end of the fiscal year and which exceeds the dollar limit above;
  4. expenditures related to moveable assets in excess of $1,000.00, such as, vehicles, trailers, equipment.

Child Abuse - deliberate acts by an adult or peer resulting in physical, emotional or sexual harm to a child (please check provincial regulations for more information)

Child Abuse Registry - a national databank that lists all known offenders in the country and is accessible through all law enforcement offices. This database may also be known as the "Canadian Police Information Centre," managed by the RCMP

Child with disabilities - a child who is experiencing developmental delays in one or more of the following areas : physical, cognitive, communication, social and emotional development

Criminal Reference Checks (Police Record Check) - a search into an individual's legal history to determine if any criminal convictions exist

Curriculum - the education plan of the program

Director - the person hired to manage and supervise the activities of the Head Start program, its workers and its facility

Elder - a person of respect and knowledge as recognized by a particular First Nation

Environmental Health Officer (EHO) - community-based resource person(s) who has been trained in all aspects of environmental health

Extended family - family members outside the immediate family who may or may not be related by blood ( ie. aunts, grandmothers, uncles)

First Nation Government - the body of government consisting of the elected members of the Chief and Council by members of the community

Fiscal Year - a twelve month period of financial reporting

Funding Agreement - the document signed by the proper authorities which sets out the terms and conditions of funding

Home Visitor - the Head Start staff member assigned to work with the families through home visits and other organized activities

Individually Appropriate - activities and learning opportunities that are based on the developmental stage and age of the child(ren) in the program

Legal Guardian - person(s) having legal/court ordered responsibility for a child(ren)

Legislation - federal, provincial/territorial or local government statues of law

Liability - having legal responsibility for bodily harm or damage incurred on the property or the premises, including vehicles

Manners - the accepted community behaviour for any given situation or relationship that people deal with

Medical Practitioner - a person who is licensed to practice medicine pursuant to the Medical Profession Act

Band Member - a person whose name appears on a Band list or who is entitled to have his/her name appear on a Band list

Monitoring - observation of a child's development and progress on a regular basis

Probationary Period - the work period that allows for time to monitor an employee's work performance

Section 8: Provincial/Territorial Government Regulations

Newfoundland

Legislation:
The Day Care and Homemaker Services Act. RSN 1990, CD-2
Regulations:
Newfoundland Regulation 219/82 as amended to O.C. 979/82 Newfoundland Regulation 63/93 as amended to O.C. 93-339, Section 28
Contact:
Director, Family and Rehabilitative Services
Department of Social Services, Confederation Building, West Block P.O. Box 8700, St. John's, NF A1B 4A6
Web Site:
License:
The Newfoundland government does not license First Nations child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care programs is provided by the federal government: the provincial government does not fund First Nations child care.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: 2-3 years
    Staff: 1:6
    Group Size: 25
  • Age Group: 3-6 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 25
  • Age Group: 7+
    Staff: 1:15
    Group Size: 25

Regulations do not permit group day care for children under age 2 years.

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 50.

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Supervisor

Education required:
year ECE certificate + or
2 year ECE diploma/degree + or
a related degree or diploma with a concentration in human development related to children
Experience required:
1 year experience or 1 reference

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
No requirements stated
However if there are 25 children or more then 2 or more staff must meet minimum requirements
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.3 square metres per child
Outdoors: not specified
Child populations:
First Nations: 0-4 years - 455
5-14 years - 890

(Source: Child Care Resource and research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.nf.ca

Nova Scotia

Legislation:
Day Care Act and Regulations. Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia. 1989. Chapter 120
Regulations:
(Available in the following web site address: www.gov.ns.ca/just/regulations/regs/dayregs.htm)
Contact:
Director, Prevention and Child Care Services Section, Family and Children's Services N. S. Department of Community Services, Johnson Building 5182 Prince Street, Halifax, NS B3J 1L5 Tel: (905) 424-3204, Fax: (905) 424-0708
Web Site:
License:
The Nova Scotia government does not license First Nations child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care programs is provided by the federal government; the provincial government does not fund First Nations child care.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: under 5 years
    Staff: 1:7 (full-time)
    Group Size: Regulations do not identify limits
  • Age Group: under 5 years
    Staff: 1:12 (part-time)
    Group Size: Regulations do not identify limits
  • Age Group: over 5 years
    Staff: 1:15
    Group Size: Regulations do not identify limits

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 25.

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Chief Administrative Officer

Education required:
Must have completed ECE training or equivalent
Experience required:

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
Two thirds of staff must have completed ECE or equivalent*
All staff must have Basic First Aid Experience required:not specified

(Centre must operate under a Board of Directors)

*Equivalent criteria description available in web site address: www.gov.ns.ca/just/regulations/regs/dayregs.htm

Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 2.75 square metres per child
Outdoors: 5.46 square metres per child
Child Populations:
First Nations 0 - 4 years - 1,105
5 - 14 years - 1,980

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

Resource Documentation:
"Starting a Day Care Centre in Nova Scotia"

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.ns.ca

Prince Edward Island

Legislation:
The Child Care Facilities Act. 1998 Prince Edward Island. Legislative Assembly.
Regulations:
Child Care Facilities Regulations. 1988. Prince Edward Island. Legislative Assembly. The Welfare Act. 1988. Prince Edward Island. Legislative Assembly.
Contact:
Director, Prevention and Child Care Services Section, Family and Children's Services N. S. Department of Community Services, Johnson Building 5182 Prince Street, Halifax, NS B3J 1L5 Tel: (905) 424-3204, Fax: (905) 424-0708
Web Site:
License:
The Prince Edward Island government does not license First Nations child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care is provided by the federal government, the provincial government does not fund First Nations child care.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: 0-2 years
    Staff: 1:3
    Group Size: 6
  • Age Group: 2-3 years
    Staff: 1:5
    Group Size: 8
  • Age Group: 3-4 years
    Staff: 1:10
    Group Size: 30
  • Age Group: 5-7 years
    Staff: 1:12
    Group Size: 36
  • Age Group: over 7
    Staff: 1:15
    Group Size: not specified

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 50.

Staff Qualifications:

Position: supervisor

Education required:
ECE certification
Staff must undertake 30 hours of on-going training every 3 years
Experience required:
no requirements stated

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
At least 1 staff on duty must have First Aid
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.5 square metres per child.
Outdoors: 7 square metres per child.
Child Populations:
First Nations 0-4 years - 65
5-14 years - 120

Source: (Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.pe.ca

New Brunswick

Legislation:
Family Services Act. New Brunswick Legislative Assembly. 1980
Regulations:
Family Services Act and Day Care Regulations, 83-85, as amended. New Brunswick Legislative Assembly.
Contact:
Provincial Day Care Services Consultant
Office for Family and Prevention Services
Department of Health and Community Services
P.O. Box 5100, Fredericton, NB E3B 5G8
Tel: (506) 869-6878, Fax: (506) 856-3312
Web Site:
License:
Presently there are licensed on-reserve child care programs - the New Brunswick government does license First Nations child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care programs is provided by the federal government, the provincial government does not fund First Nations child care.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: under 2 years
    Staff: 1:3
    Group Size: 9
  • Age Group: 2 years
    Staff: 1:5
    Group Size: 10
  • Age Group: 3 years
    Staff: 1:7
    Group Size: 14
  • Age Group: 4 years
    Staff: 1:10
    Group Size: 20
  • Age Group: 5 years
    Staff: 1:12
    Group Size: 24
  • Age Group: 6 years
    Staff: 1:15
    Group Size: 30

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Supervisor

Education required:
No ECE education required
Must however be at least 19 years of age
Experience required:
none specified

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
No ECE education required
Staff have to be 16 years old or older
Experience required:
none specified
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.25 square metres per child.
Outdoors: 4.5 square metres per child.
Child Population:
First Nations 0-4 years - 700
5-14 years - 1,335

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.nb.ca

Quebec

Legislation:
An Act Respecting Child Day Care. R.S.Q., chapter S-4.1, as amended October 1992
Regulations:
Regulation Respecting Child Day Care Centres, S-41, R.2, as amended May, 1993
Contact:
Ministere de la Famille et de d'enfance
600, rue Fullum, Montreal, QC H2X 4S7
Tel: (514) 873-7607, Fax: (514) 873-6468
Web Site:
License:
The Quebec government regulates First Nations child care. First Nations care programs are required to adhere to the standards and regulations governing child care.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care is provided through fiscal agreements between First Nations and federal and provincial governments.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: 0-18 months
    Staff: 1:5
    Group Size: 15
  • Age Group: 18 months - 5 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 30
  • Age Group: 6 - 12 years
    Staff: 1:15
    Group Size: 30

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 60

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Supervisor

Education required:
One third of the staff are required to have a diploma or university degree in ECD or related field
Experience required: none specified

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
Early childhood education diploma or certificate
Experience required:
none specified
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.25 square metres per child.
Outdoors: 4.5 square metres per child.
Child Population:
First Nations 0-4 years - 5,005
5-14 years - 8,360

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gouv.qc.ca

Ontario

Legislation:
The Day Nurseries Act. Ontario Legislative Assembly. Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1990.
Regulations:
Ontario Regulation 262. Ontario Legislative Assembly, 1990
Contact:
Director, Child Care Branch
Ministry of Community and Social Services 4th Floor Hepburn Block, 80 Grosvenor Street, Toronto, ON M7A 1E9 Tel: (416) 327-4864, Fax: (416) 327-0570
Web Site:
www.gov.on.ca
License:
The Ontario government licenses First Nations child care programs. First Nations child care programs are required to adhere to provincial regulations and standards for child care services.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care programs is cost shared between the federal government and the provincial government through fiscal agreements with First Nations.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: up to 18 months
    Staff: 3:10
    Group Size: 10
  • Age Group: 19 - 30 months
    Staff: 1:5
    Group Size: 15
  • Age Group: 31 months - 5 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 16
  • Age Group: 31 months - 5 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 16
  • Age Group: 5 - 6 years
    Staff: 1:12
    Group Size: 24
  • Age Group: 7 - 12 years
    Staff: 1:12
    Group Size: 30

Staff Qualifications:

Position: supervisor

Education required:
diploma in ECE from a recognised Ontario college
Experience required:
minimum 2 years

Other Staff Resource Teacher:

Education required:
ECE or equivalent
ECE diploma and
St. John's or Red Cross First Aid certification
Experience required:
not specified
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 2.8 square metres per child
Outdoors: 5.6 square metres per child
Child Populations:
First Nations 0-4 years - 13,610
5 - 14 years - 22,300

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.on.ca

Manitoba

Legislation:
The Community Child Day Care Standards Act, 1983 as amended (1986).
Regulations:
Manitoba Legislative Assembly.
Manitoba Child Day Care Regulations, 23/87, 62/86, 148/83 as amended to Chapter C-158 1986. Manitoba Legislative Assembly
Contact:
Director, Manitoba Family Services, Child Day Care 102, 114 Garry Street, Winnipeg, MB R3C 1G1
Tel: (204) 945-2668, Fax: (2040 948-2143
Web Site:
License:
The Manitoba government does not license First Nations child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care is provided by the federal government, the provincial government does not fund First Nations child care.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: 12 weeks - 24 months
    Staff: 1:4
    Group Size: 8
  • Age Group: 2 - 6 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 16
  • Age Group: 7 - 12 years
    Staff: 1:15
    Group Size: 30

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 50.

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Director

Education required:
CCW III (diploma or advanced certificate)
Experience required:
1 year experience

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
CCW I or II certificate All staff must complete a recognized First Aid course within 6 months of commencing employment and be 18 years old Two thirds of staff must have CCW II or III
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.3 square metres per child.
Outdoors: 7 square metres per child.
Child Population:
First Nations 0 - 4 years - 10,460
5 - 14 years - 15,715

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.mb.ca

Saskatchewan

Legislation:
The Child Care Act. Bill 8 1990. Saskatchewan Legislative Assembly.
Regulations:
Child Care Regulations. 1990 Saskatchewan Legislative Assembly.
Contact:
Director, Child Day Care Division
1920 Broad Street, Regina, SK S4P 3V6
Tel: (306) 787-3855, Fax: (3060 787-2134
Web Site:
License:
The Saskatchewan government does not license First Nations child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care programs is provided by the federal government, the provincial government does not fund First Nations child care.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: Infants
    Staff: 1:3
    Group Size: 6
  • Age Group: Toddlers
    Staff: 1:5
    Group Size: 10
  • Age Group: Pre-school
    Staff: 1:10
    Group Size: 20
  • Age Group: School Age
    Staff: 1:15
    Group Size: 30

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 90

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Supervisor

Education required:
Certificate in CCW or
education and training equivalent to certification
Experience required:
no requirements stated

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
must be over 16 years of age must complete CCW course within 6 months of commencing employment
At least 1 staff must have First Aid certification
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.7 square metres per child
Outdoors: 7 square metres per child
Child Population:
First Nations 0 - 4 years - 9,835
5 - 14 years - 16,375

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.sk.ca

Alberta

Legislation:
Social Care Facilities Licensing Act, Chapter S-14 1980, amended 1994.
Regulations:
Alberta Legislative Assembly.
Alberta Day Care Regulation 333/90 as amended to Chapter S-14, 1980.
Alberta Legislative Assembly
Contact:
Director
Day Care Programs
Alberta Family and Social Services
7th Street Plaza, 10030 - 107th Street, 8th Floor, Edmonton, AB T5J 3E4
Tel: (780) 427-4477, Fax: (780) 427-1258
Web Site:
License:
The Alberta government licenses First Nations child care programs. First Nations programs are required to follow the provincial standards and regulations governing child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care programs are cost-shared by the federal and provincial governments. Funding agreements are signed by the federal and provincial governments with First Nations.

Approved Ratios:

(Full time program only - other ratios exist for drop-in centres and for nursery schools)

  • Age Group: 0-12 months
    Staff: 1:3
    Group Size: 6
  • Age Group: 13-18 months
    Staff: 1:4
    Group Size: 8
  • Age Group: 19-35 months
    Staff: 1:6
    Group Size: 12
  • Age Group: 36-4.5 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 16
  • Age Group: 4.5 + years
    Staff: 1:10
    Group Size: 20

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 80.

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Director

Education required:
Level 3 certificate
Experience required:
no requirements stated

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
Level 2 or 3 certificate
1 out of every 4 staff must have level 2 or 3 certificate
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3 square metres per child
Outdoors: 2 square metres per child under 18 months; 4.5 square metres per child over 18 months
Child Population:
First Nations 0 - 4 years - 9,555
5 - 14 years - 17,135

(Source: Child Care Resources and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.ab.ca

British Columbia

Legislation:
Community Care Facility Act, Chapter 57, 1988.
Regulations:
British Columbia Legislative Assembly.
British Columbia Child Care Regulation 319/89 amended to O.C. 147/6/89.
British Columbia Legislative Assembly.
Contact:
Director
Child Care Branch
Ministry for Children and Families
P.O. Box 9700, STN Provincial Government, Victoria, BC V8W 9S1
Tel: (250) 356-6001, Fax: (250) 953-3327
Web Site:
License:
The British Columbia government licenses First Nations child care programs. First Nation child care programs are required to adhere to the British Columbia standards and regulations governing child care.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care is provided by the federal and provincial governments.

Approved Ratios:

  • Under 36 months of age
  • 4 or fewer children in care - 1 infant and toddler educator
  • 5 - 8 children - 1 infant and toddler educator plus 1 early childhood educator
  • 9 - 12 children - 1 infant and toddler educator plus 1 early childhood educator plus 1 assistant  
  • 3 years to school age
  • 15 or fewer children in care - 1 early childhood educator
  • 16 - 20 children - 1 early childhood educator pus 1 assistant regulations do not allow for more than 20 children in care for this age group

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is not identified.

Staff Qualifications:

Position: ECE Educators

Education required:
must have completed ECE 10 month program
Experience required:
500 hours

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
must be working on completing their ECE
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.7 square metres per child
Outdoors: 7 square metres per child
Child Populations:
First Nations 0 - 4 years - 11,630
5 - 14 years - 20,715

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.bc.ca

Northwest Territories

Legislation:
The Northwest Territories Child Day Care Act. 1988.
Regulations:
Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly.
The Child Day Care Standards and Regulations 1988. Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly.
Contact:
Director
Early Childhood and School Services
Department of Education, Culture and Employment
Government of the Northwest Territories
Lahm Ridge Tower, 3rd Floor, P.O. Box 1320, Yellowknife, NT X1A 2L9 Tel: (867) 920-8780, Fax: (867) 873-0338
Web Site:
License:
The Northwest Territories government licenses First Nations/Aboriginal child care programs. First Nations/Aboriginal child care programs are required to adhere to the standards and regulations governing child care services.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations/Aboriginal child care programs is provided by the federal and territorial governments. First Nations/Aboriginal child care programs receive capital and programming funds from these sources.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: under 1 year
    Staff: 1:3
    Group Size: 6
  • Age Group: 1 - 2 years
    Staff: 1:4
    Group Size: 8
  • Age Group: 2 - 3 years
    Staff: 1:6
    Group Size: 12
  • Age Group: 4 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 16
  • Age Group: 4 years
    Staff: 1:9
    Group Size: 18
  • Age Group: 5 years
    Staff: 1:10
    Group Size: 20

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is not stated.

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Supervisor

Education required:
must be 19 years of age and have a first aid certificate
Experience required:
no requirements stated

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
must be 19 years of age and have a first aid certificate
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 3.25 square metres per child
Outdoors: 4.5 square metres per child
Child Population:
First Nations 0 - 4 years - 1,415
5 - 14 years - 2,170

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.nt.ca

Yukon

Legislation:
The Child Care Act. 1990 Yukon Territory Legislative Assembly.
Regulations:
Family Day Home Program Regulation. 1995. Yukon Territory Legislative Assembly.
Child Care Centre Program Regulation. 1995. Yukon Territory Legislative Assembly.
Contact:
Supervisor Child Care Services Unit Department of Health and Social Services Government of the Yukon Territory P.O. Box 2703, Whitehorse, YK Y1A 2C6 Tel: (867) 667-3493, Fax: (867) 393-6250
Web Site:
License:
The Yukon government licenses First Nation child care programs. First Nation child care programs are required to adhere to the territorial standards and regulations governing child care programs.
Funding:
Funding for First Nations child care programs is provided by the federal and territorial governments. Capital and programming.

Approved Ratios:

  • Age Group: 0 - 18 months
    Staff: 1:4
    Group Size: 8
  • Age Group: 19 months - 2 years
    Staff: 1:6
    Group Size: 12
  • Age Group: 3 - 6 years
    Staff: 1:8
    Group Size: 16

Maximum number of spaces allowed per centre is 64

Staff Qualifications:

Position: Director

Education required:
CCW Level III
Experience required:
no requirements stated

Position: Other Staff

Education required:
CCW Level I or II
20% of the staff must meet or exceed CCW III level
Experience required:
no requirements stated
Child Space Requirements:
Indoors: 1 square metre per child
Outdoors: 5 square metres per child
Child Population:
First Nation 0 - 4 years - 515
5 - 14 years - 880

(Source: Child Care Resource and Research Unit, University of Toronto)

For more information on regulations, please see the government web site at www.gov.yk.ca

Section 9: References

References used in the development of this manual include:

  1. Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations
    Saskatchewan First Nations
    Child Care Policies and Regulations
    Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
    July 1, 1997
  2. MicMac / Maliseet First Nations Child and Family and Head Start Regulations, New Brunswick
  3. Head Start Program Regulations and Program Guidance for Parts 1304 and 1308 U.S.
    Department of Health and Human Services
    Administration for Children and Families
    Head Start Services Bureau
    Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
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