Thank you very much for that warm introduction. And veterans, cadets, board members of the Canadian Club, Madame President, it is a real honour to be here with you in Vancouver to talk about a subject that I know you are so passionate about, and that we in the Government of Canada are reigniting passion for across Canada with an important legislative initiative that really will strengthen our country, and strengthen all of us in respect of the citizenship in which we take such great pride.
But I am also very happy to be here with so many friends, with the Francophones of British Columbia. Thank you very much for being here with Alya, who sang the national anthem so well in both languages. I want to assure you that when we talk about immigration and Canadian citizenship, we are speaking about them in both languages in all the provinces of Canada and in all the territories.
We are so proud to be a country that is promoting its citizenship and immigration programs in both languages in every part of the country. And ladies and gentlemen, we are aiming for five per cent of our immigrants to be Francophones outside of Quebec, in all parts of the country.
And we have settlement services in place in Vancouver, in the Lower Mainland and across British Columbia that will make it possible for individuals and families to live and work in French as never before, because that’s what we do as Canadians. We value our minorities, we’re proud of our traditions, and we already have 13 per cent Francophones in Yukon, which is the kind of fact that not everyone knows, but that is terribly exciting for all of us in today’s Canada.
And I’m also glad to be here with so many friends from times past from Afghanistan. Roshan Thomas has just brought me almost to tears with a book of photographs from her Sparks Academy in Kabul, where we met two decades ago, Roshan, when you were just a teenager and I was definitely too young to be an ambassador, and showing me pictures of me reading stories to the wonderful children of that great school that Canadians brought to Afghanistan, that all of us have played a role in bringing to a people who have deserved better and that all of us, because we sense the responsibility of citizenship, are prepared to bring to so many parts of the world less fortunate than ours – conflict-ridden, strife-ridden, where education isn’t a given, and education for girls and young women is by no means achieved.
That is part of our duty as Canadians. For all of you in this room who’ve been part of that story beyond our borders in uniform, as development experts, as people raising funds to do what Canada does so well around the world, I’m here to tell you that the pride we take in those good works beyond our borders is one that is fully justified. And people in this room, such as those from the Aga Khan Development Network and other Canadian jewels of organizations such as the Centre for Pluralism – institutions that are truly the envy of the world – we should take pride in what we do together as Canadian citizens around the world. It’s unique, it’s precious and thank you all for doing it.
Thank you for coming to the Canadian Club of Vancouver to discuss citizenship. Thank you for the unending discussion of crucial policy issues that happens here. And I’d like to acknowledge my friend and colleague Wai Young, with whom I’ve done a fair bit together in Vancouver, and who represents this city brilliantly in the House of Commons of Canada, and represents the strength of citizenship that is so alive here in Vancouver in the Lower Mainland and in British Columbia.
It’s always a pleasure to be here in this beautiful city. It is a shining example of why Canada is so successful in the world today. It’s particularly moving to be here while the Sochi Olympics unfold, and I know all of you have the film of 2010 winding and rewinding in your minds, when we started to understand what we are capable of when we show the determination both to host the world and to own the podium. And the achievements of those exemplary Canadians who made us so proud in 2010 continue today.
We’re extremely proud of what they represent as citizens, as exponents of the excellence in sport and every other field that this country consistently brings forth. There are few countries in the world with populations as diverse as Canada’s. That’s the first thing you grasp in this portfolio, and all of us know it from our neighbourhoods, from our lives, from our understanding of Canada.
In fact, there is no country in the world with the diversity on the scale that we have, and sustained by the scale of our current economic immigration levels, which are the highest in Canadian history.
There are few places in Canada more diverse, and where diversity is so obviously a source of great strength, than Vancouver. It is the diversity of your province and your city that has given you trade, investment, talent and innovation that are powering social, cultural and economic well-being here on a scale that remains unequalled elsewhere in the world.
And every time I’m in Vancouver, I remind all of you how exceptional it is to be welcoming people on the scale you do to a city that literally is off the map on so many indicators for quality of life. You have been ranked, whether it’s by The Economist or other authorities, as the best place in the world to live.
And that is the kind of drawing card that makes our immigration programs excellent, that makes our citizenship strong and we’re tremendously proud of the spirit of cohesive innovation that prevails here in Vancouver, and takes you to ever greater heights of achievement on that front.
I did spend 18 years in the Canadian foreign service and I can say with confidence that Vancouver and Canada truly are exceptional in this respect.
Vancouver is a model and example, in that the diversity, the way of living together, of groups from completely different cultures and regions of the world can collaborate and create prosperity together, a way of life that is envied throughout the world, university research networks that are talked about by the entire world.
You are blessed with a peaceful, pluralistic community within a larger nation in which everyone has an honoured place, whatever their ethnicity, religion, social background, country of birth or cultural heritage. And let’s remind ourselves how unique that is in the world today. Everyone in this city and in this country has an honoured place, whatever their background, wherever they’re from, whatever their pathway to Canadian citizenship, to life in this country. That is something of which we are immeasurably proud.
And as Canadians, we do sometimes take this extraordinary achievement for granted. I’m particularly passionate about it because I lived outside of Canada, and I saw how far so many other countries, even relatively rich countries, fall short on these key measures of tolerance for, and celebration of, diversity.
In fact, it’s something for which we should be immensely grateful, and of which we should be very proud. It is one of the keys to our country’s success, to our prosperity and harmony, that we are united as Canadian citizens not by shared ancestry, but instead by a pledge to one another of mutual responsibility, and a shared commitment to values and traditions rooted in our history, but renewed with new life breathed into them by every generation.
And that’s what makes Canadian citizenship uniquely valuable in the world today. It makes preserving the value of that citizenship a sacred trust. When I became Canada’s Citizenship and Immigration Minister last summer, I took the helm of a department that was in the midst of a historic transformation. We were aligning our policies and programs with the current economic and social needs of our country, needs that are changing.
We have an economy that is restructured, that is reacting to a rebalancing of economic influence in the world. And to stay at the extraordinary level of affluence we have relative to others in this world, we need to be nimble, we need to adapt, and our immigration programs need to reflect that drive for change and to remain competitive in a world that is more so than ever.
In recent years, our Government has implemented significant changes to Canada’s generous immigration system. You followed them. We’ve introduced reforms to ensure that as we welcome newcomers to our country, we are meeting our economic and labour market needs.
That is what immigrants, those who arrive on our soil, in our country, want themselves. They want to work; they want to be in today’s economy. They want their skills to be recognized and developed.
This is what newcomers themselves want, to be part of a new Canadian economy, to find their place in the labour market, sooner rather than later, to have their competencies and skills recognized for what they are. And we’re also, because this is a sacred trust if there ever was one for Canada, reuniting more families, as we welcome more permanent residents and attract to Canada the world’s most talented and innovative immigrants who contribute to the Canadian economy and help our country flourish.
And that’s why, apart from reducing backlogs, apart from eliminating fraud where we find it, apart from speeding up processing, which will go to a six-month service standard as of January 1, 2015 – six months for an economic immigrant’s application starting the beginning of next year – we’re also innovating, with a start-up visa for entrepreneurs last year, and a Federal Skilled Trades Program to meet the needs of the skilled trades, which are not being met by our domestic economy. We don’t have enough welders. Anyone in this room interested in welding? Because we’ll sign you up right after the talk. But this is one of the high-paying fields with a full career in front of it, including management, which not enough young Canadians are choosing.
And we will continue to encourage them. In the meantime, we will attract immigrants who can take on these trades. And we’re also innovating in the field of investment by promising a new immigrant investor venture capital fund pilot project later this year, and a business skills pilot, to make sure that we are getting genuinely the best investors, the most talented managers and entrepreneurs of the future to choose Canada, that we’re competing and winning with every other country that is in this business.
So all of our work on transforming the immigration system will culminate next January, just a little more than 10 months from now in this new approach that I mentioned. It will allow employers to play a role in recruitment. It will enlarge the role for provinces and territories, alongside us in the federal government. It will select immigrants based on the skills and attributes Canada needs from a large pool of people with demonstrated interest in coming to Canada.
Instead of waiting for applications to show up, we will look out into the world at as large a pool of potential immigrants as possible and select, on the basis of our needs, the people who fit the bill. And we will do this on the basis of proven criteria that drive immigrants’ economic success once they’re in Canada, that drive our prosperity. Ladies and gentlemen, this is what we used to do.
In the 50s and 60s, many people who came to Canada—there may be some in the room here today—were recruited, they had someone, an immigration officer, who tapped them on the shoulder and told them that we need them in Canada.
Ladies and gentlemen, this is what we used to do. We used to recruit with purpose people to come to Canada. Many of you may have had this experience in different parts of the world, where our immigration officers literally tapped people on the shoulder, or went to an industry association and said “we need you because of your skills, because you are the engineers that Canada needs at this stage.” That’s what we want to get back to and we’re going to do that on January 1, 2015.
It will be a much faster, more efficient and reliable way to welcome economic immigrants to Canada than what came before. And in our budget last week, Canada’s Economic Action Plan 2014, $14-million-dollars are committed over two years and just shy of $5-million after that, to launch this new recruitment system. The Economic Action Plan also reinforces our belief that the hard-earned money of families and entrepreneurs belongs in the pockets of those families and entrepreneurs first and foremost, not in bloated bureaucracies in Ottawa.
So this will be an efficient system, a lean system, one that is consistent with our belief in lower taxes, positive and targeted measures for economic growth and, of course, balanced budgets. Again, starting in 2015. That’s the combination Canadians want. That’s the right path for Canada’s continuing economic success. And Economic Action Plan 2014 marks the next chapter in keeping that commitment to Canadians, focusing on those three key priorities.
Now, I’d like to take just a minute to describe some of the, at times unsung benefits of this budget for Canadians on this coast and across the country. But first let me ask you, how have the government’s policies since 2006 supported the economy and guided Canada’s strong economic performance in an uncertain world?
Have you asked yourself where would we be relative to the G7, relative to other advanced economies if we’d made different choices? If we had placed less emphasis on controlling expenditures? If we had had a less successful infrastructure stimulus across the country? If we had been less scrupulous in managing our financial sector, our banks, which have turned out to be resilient and indeed are ranked again this year – for the sixth year in the world – the most stable in the entire world.
Now, while some like to talk down the Canadian economy, to sometimes argue the performance hasn’t been as stellar as we know it to have been, the reality is that Canada has fared extraordinarily well compared to our G7 partners. Auto pilot is not an option if we want to stay on course for economic success. And controlling expenditures has required strong leadership and hard decisions.
Canadians deserve a caliber of leadership that can face down those problems, that can overcome those obstacles, and we have it in our Prime Minister, who has demonstrated leadership now over a longer period and of a deeper quality than others in the G7 and even the G20.
Consider the following: The Canadian economy has experienced one of the best performances among the G7 in GDP and job creation. It really is, by certain measures, the best. Germany rivals us, but it’s close. Since the end of the global recession, employment has increased by over one-million net new jobs. That is the strongest job growth in the G7. Canadian families across all income tax groups, have seen increases of 10 per cent or more in after-tax, after transfer incomes since 2006.
And in other parts of the world, notably the UK, other parts of Europe, families are still below their pre-recession income levels. This year, Canada leapt from sixth to second place in Bloomberg’s ranking of the most attractive destinations for business. Both the IMF and OECD expect Canada to be among the strongest growing economies in the G7 over this year and next. And Canada is now one of only a handful of countries in the entire world – alongside Australia, the Nordic countries, Switzerland, and Singapore – that continues to receive a Triple-A credit rating with a stable outlook from all the major credit rating agencies.
In fact, we are by far the largest country with that kind of financial rating, larger than Australia, much larger than the other countries. And what does this mean for us? It means we are trusted. It means we are seen as a safe haven for investment. It means we have a deeper stability on the financial and economic front than our rivals, and those are advantages of incalculable benefit in this 20th century, where so much of global capital has choices, to put it mildly, and needs to be assured and reassured about the stability of all of its destinations.
As part of Economic Action Plan 2014, we will be replacing the ineffective Immigrant Investor and Immigrant Entrepreneur programs, which provided limited economic benefit to Canada. These were loans, not investments. They were small in scale and we will be replacing them with more focused and better aligned programs – new programs that will be launched at first as pilot programs later this year – to ensure that immigrants who come to Canada in these streams become drivers of innovation, excellence and growth in our economy.
For all of these reasons, this is an exciting and historic moment for our immigration system. But there is a good reason that citizenship comes first in my title as minister, and in the title of our department. Welcoming newcomers and settling them into this country isn’t enough for any of us. That’s not where the story of our immigration system ends.
Canada is rightly renowned for going beyond the goal of having newcomers stay here with their families. We want immigrants to contribute to all aspects of Canadian life, and eventually continue down the path towards Canadian citizenship. We want new citizens to embrace our rich culture and values, to add their own stories to our national story, and to be motivated to remain active members of Canadian society.
And ladies and gentlemen, think of the story of Canadian citizenship.
At the beginning, we had the former regime, we had French Canadians. There was also a certain Spanish and Russian presence here. We had our First Nations.
Then we had our British identity, and we became at one point British subjects resident in Canada, and then we went through the experience of the world wars and we deepened our identity as Canadians still further. It started to get deeper with the War of 1812, but then after the First World War, the Second World War, it became deeper still. And in 1947, we had our first Citizenship Act, when Canadian citizenship was supposedly something we all had in common as a touchstone for identity and for our role in the story of this country.
Well, we haven’t updated that act since 1977. And think of all the changes that have taken place since then – the end of the Cold War, globalization, other changes in the legal system, the justice system. Think of the value that Canadians now attach to their citizenship because of the unique achievements of this country. We want our citizenship in the 21st century to reflect that value fully.
And while these issues of immigration and citizenship affect the collective future of all Canadians, they also touch so many individual Canadian families in very specific ways. My own family is no exception. My wife immigrated to Canada from Denmark and will soon qualify for Canadian citizenship. We met in Afghanistan. Of course, a Canadian and a Dane would meet in Afghanistan, right? Where else would you meet?
She gained her permanent resident status a couple of years ago, and our family looks forward to the day she will have the opportunity to become a Canadian citizen – although at the moment, Denmark only allows one citizenship, so leave that issue with me. We’re cheering them on as they try to come up to the point that we reached in 1977 by legally enshrining the right to dual and multiple citizenships in this country.
But because my wife, like so many people from around the world, decided to build a new life in Canada, our children are growing up with an inherent understanding of the immigrant experience, with all of its characteristic stresses and joys, but also with a real sense, through their mother, of the great value of Canadian citizenship – the value it represents in a global context.
So it’s a significant honour that carries with it duties and rights, privileges and responsibilities. We cannot forget for a second how hard it has been to achieve peace for 200 years, stability of the quality we have in this country, the sacrifices that were made to fight for and defend this country in wars great and small over centuries, the millions of people, everywhere in the country, who contributed the best that they had to perfect our democratic and justice institutions, etc.
It is not easy – if there’s one lesson I learned in Afghanistan and elsewhere – to have public and private institutions that function as well as ours. And we cannot take for a second lightly the contributions of the millions of Canadians who came before us and laid our democracy, our institutions of justice, our private sector-led economy, on the firm foundations they continue to enjoy today.
So that’s why, as we reform the immigration system, it’s also critical to ensure we protect and strengthen the great value of our citizenship, that we remind individuals of the privileges it bestows. And it was in this spirit that our government tabled Bill C-24, the Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act, earlier this month in the House of Commons. The tabling of this act met a commitment, from our most recent Speech from the Throne, to strengthen and protect the integrity of Canadian citizenship by introducing the first comprehensive reforms in a generation
We’re confident these changes reflect what Canadians want and expect: A system that emphasizes the responsibilities that go with citizenship, while protecting it from abuse. These significant and long-needed reforms fulfil our government’s commitment in four specific ways:
- First, they reinforce the value of citizenship. It’s much more than a passport. It’s much more than voting every four or five years.
- They strengthen the integrity of the system by countering fraud, which has been present in the system to date and which we did too little to counter.
- They improve the efficiency of the citizenship program by streamlining and speeding up processing. The wait is too long. It will get shorter.
- And not least, they honour those who have served and who currently serve Canada.
So these are four broad areas of reform, each featuring a number of important measures. For example, to reinforce the great value of citizenship, we are changing the residency requirements. The bill lengthens the requirement from three out of four years spent in Canada to four out of six years before applying for citizenship.
And it clarifies – I was surprised that this hadn’t been clarified before – that residence must mean physical presence in the country. Requiring physical presence in Canada for this length of time better supports the integration of newcomers into Canadian society, because – for one – to understand Canadian social and cultural norms, the way this country operates, Canadian life, one must experience them firsthand. There is no substitute for that, at least in an initial stage, when one is moving from being a permanent resident to being a citizen.
This will enable prospective citizens to develop a stronger connection to Canada. You know, most of our new citizens don’t need reminding of how important that connection is, but we want to send a clear message to those in future, that this is important, that we want to encourage their sense of belonging here and foster their full participation in Canadian life. We will also be requiring for each of those years of residence a tax return, which had not been the case in every scenario under our current system.
Our measure in the budget ending the Immigrant Investor Program and announcing a plan to replace it with a better program tailored to the needs of this century will also reinforce the importance of physical presence within Canada.
As you all know, one of the problems with the Immigrant Investor Program was that it attracted some applicants who had only nominal connections to Canada and were encouraged to believe the nominal connection was good enough. Consultants and lawyers, usually far from our shores, gave them this misguided message. And as a result, they didn’t actually intend to reside in this country.
This was not how the program was intended to be used. Henceforth, we won’t allow any of our programs to send a signal that such abuses are acceptable. Whether we’re talking about investors immigrating to Canada or permanent residents applying for citizenship, we want our programs and policies to reinforce the value of citizenship by requiring applicants to demonstrate and reinforce their commitment to this country.
Changes in the residency requirement are not only measures in Bill C-24 that would reinforce the value of citizenship. We’re going to keep ensuring that prospective citizens have an adequate knowledge of either English or French when they apply for citizenship. It’s Level 4 we’re looking for – Level 4 out of 12. So it’s not fluency, it’s not sophisticated high-level knowledge, it’s basic knowledge, something like Grade-3 knowledge – full sentences.
And we have excellent settlement organizations in Vancouver and across the country who will be playing a more central role than ever before in ensuring those who don’t come to Canada with the language ability are able to come up to that level as quickly as possible.
As well, we want to ensure a larger group have an adequate knowledge of Canada – our rights, values and freedoms. To that end, another measure in this bill requires citizenship applicants aged 14 to 64 to meet requirements and pass a knowledge test in one of our two official languages. And here, we’re not changing the requirement, we’re simply enlarging the spectrum of ages that are subject to that requirement. We’re making sure that basically, if you’re in high school where you’re doing a lot of tests anyway, or you’re of working pre-retirement age – which includes 54 to 64 increasingly for Canadians, as we live and work longer – you will be subject to these tests, and you will have access to the settlement organizations, to the training that will help you get there.
Now, increasing the value of Canadian citizenship is something we all agree on. What we may not all understand is that every time we have done this – and we put in these language and knowledge requirements in 2009 – we’ve also put in measures to increase the integrity of the system. There are 3,000 cases of citizenship fraud now being investigated, where we think people actually didn’t live here.
Every time we increase and strengthen the value of Canadian citizenship, some will say, “You make it harder for people to become citizens.” Actually, the opposite happens. More people who are permanent residents strive to be citizens, and actually become citizens, and more people who are outside the country and see the benefits of citizenship, see the seriousness with which we are making these kinds of reforms, seek to become immigrants, and then later citizens.
The Bill also extends citizenship to more “Lost Canadians.” These are people who either lost their Canadian citizenship, or never received it in the first place because of outdated provisions in previous citizenship legislation. In 2009, amendments to the Citizenship Act restored or gave citizenship to most of the “Lost Canadians,” but a small number of people, as Mr. Chapman knows, born before 1947 – and their children born outside of Canada in the first generation – did not benefit from these changes. Bill C-24 gives citizenship to most of these people.
And the second broad area of change includes provisions to ensure we have stronger tools to counter citizenship fraud and, more generally, bolster the integrity of the system. For instance, we will be deterring unscrupulous citizenship consultants and investigating them and de-licensing them, if you will, if they’re really misrepresenting what the path to citizenship should be.
While we have already taken some action to combat fraud, including fraud perpetrated by such consultants, this bill proposes tougher penalties for those who abuse the system, and new authorities to develop regulations and designate a regulatory body whose members would be authorized to act as consultants in citizenship matters. And we’ve already done this in the immigration field. It’s had a good result. We’re very confident that now is the time, and that it is the right thing to do, for our citizenship program.
We’ll also streamline the process of revoking citizenship from those who are dual nationals and who have obtained Canadian citizenship fraudulently. In other words, if we find out through one of these investigations that the person who received citizenship in recent years truly wasn’t here, we’ve revoked citizenship, and this Government has done so several dozen times, but we will continue to do so in every case where a court is able to demonstrate that this fraud took place.
We will also protect our country from individuals charged with, or convicted of, a foreign offence equivalent to an indictable offence in Canada, by barring them from acquiring citizenship. It’s amazing that that was not already a provision. To date, people who have been convicted of crimes are actually inadmissible to Canada as visitors. Why would we have been letting them become citizens if it is an offense that is demonstrated to have taken place? And no, it can’t be some political charge trumped up by a dictatorship somewhere in the world. It has to be proven acts that would have constituted a crime in Canada.
Let me now address the third broad area of change: Improving the efficiency of the citizenship process. This is probably what matters most for Canadians across the country. We want to make it faster. We’ll move from a three-step to a one-step decision-making process. Several of my colleagues, citizenship judges in the room, already know where we’re going on this front.
This means that by 2015-16, thanks to the great work of our citizenship judges, who will continue to adjudicate the thorniest, most difficult cases, the processing time overall for citizenship applications will be under a year. That is roughly two years from now. It’ll drop from two or three years to under a year.
Another broad area of change is designed to acknowledge those individuals who devote their lives to serving Canada and making it the great country we know and love. One of the provisions is fast-track citizenship for permanent residents and individuals serving our country in the Canadian Armed Forces – in uniforms, like those on my left.
As well, the Bill ensures that children born or adopted outside Canada to serving Canadian Crown servants or members of the Canadian Armed Forces – people in our foreign service, with the RCMP, working abroad – are not adversely affected by their parents’ service to Canada and are able to pass on citizenship to any children they may have or adopt outside of Canada.
That is one provision that has made me – briefly I’m sure – popular in our foreign service, because the 2009 measures, if left unreformed, would have penalized our Crown servants in this respect.
Finally, measures in Bill C-24 will provide the authority to revoke Canadian citizenship from dual citizens who are members of an armed force or an organized armed group engaged in armed conflict against Canada – that means with our Canadian Armed Forces – and to deny citizenship to permanent residents similarly involved in such actions. Dual citizens and permanent residents who are convicted of terrorism, high treason, treason or certain spying offenses are also not welcome.
Now ladies and gentlemen, first of all, someone who has only Canadian citizenship – and no other – is not affected by these provisions. Secondly, we’ve only recognized dual nationality starting in 1977, and every other country that recognizes dual nationality, at least in NATO among our allies, has some provision to bar from citizenship those who commit these most serious crimes.
Citizenship is a privilege. It has responsibilities. And if you have taken up arms with a terrorist group against the Canadian Forces, if you have committed treason, literally betrayed your country, and you share an allegiance with another country, then in my view, and I think in the view of the vast majority of Canadians, you have forfeited the privilege of being a Canadian citizen.
Now I told you right off the top of my remarks how impressed I am whenever I visit the pluralistic and world-beating city of Vancouver. Vancouver’s talented and connected population contributes to your region’s significance as a Canadian gateway to the Asia-Pacific region – the fastest growing economies on the planet. Canada is working, as you know, on new bilateral free trade deals with South Korea, Japan, and India, and we are concluding negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership.
It is such an exciting time, ladies and gentlemen. Our prime minister is in Mexico to talk about the next phase of North American-wide opportunity for us in energy, in manufacturing, in services. Our banks are doing extraordinarily well there, and in Latin America. The connections that Canadians in this part of the country have with the Asia-Pacific region will be an absolutely pivotal factor in building that next phase of opportunity across the Pacific Ocean.
And as I mentioned, in my previous career, I had the good fortune of living in the east of Europe and the centre of Asia, which gave me a very strong appreciation for what this country enjoys, for what it represents in the eyes of billions of people around the world. We’re stronger for our efforts to protect and enhance the value of Canadian citizenship. It’s a commodity that’s valued and desired by hundreds of millions of people from around the world.
And that’s why we are proud to be doing everything we can to enhance this value, to make sure that our citizens are not just voters and passport holders, that they are volunteers, that they are those active in democratic life, that they are able to fulfil their economic potential, contribute to their communities, and gain a deep understanding of the rich cultural traditions that really none of us, as Canadians, fully knows.
And we are called by our citizenship to learn more, to participate more than we ever have before. The changes in this Bill, with your support, and thanks to your discussions like this, will take us further in that direction, one that we can all be proud of.
Thank you very much for the invitation. Thank you very much for your interest and your commitment.
Thank you very much everyone.