Page 16: Evaluation of the Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities Program at the Public Health Agency of Canada

Endnotes

Footnote 1

Government of Canada: Financial Administration Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. F-11

1

Footnote 2

Government of Canada: Financial Administration Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. F-11

2

Footnote 3

Delors, J. (1998). Learning: The treasure within - Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first century. (Paris: United Nations Educational; 1998. Report No.: 9231034707), as cited in McMurchy Consulting Inc. (2011). Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities (AHSUNC) literature review. Report prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada.

3

Footnote 4

Bennett, J. (2008-08). Early childhood services in the OECD countries: Review of the literature and current policy in the early childhood field. (Florence, Italy: Innocenti Working Papers), as cited in McMurchy Consulting Inc. (2011). Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities (AHSUNC) literature review. Report prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada.

4

Footnote 5

Anderson, L., Shinn, C., Fullilove, M., Scrimshaw, S., Fielding, J., Normand, J., Garande-Kulis, V. and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. (2003). The effectiveness of early childhood development programs. A systematic review . American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 24(3S), 32-46, as cited in McMurchy Consulting Inc. (2011). Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities (AHSUNC) literature review. Report prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada.

5

Footnote 6

Kendall J.(2001). Circles of disadvantage: Aboriginal poverty and underdevelopment in Canada. Am Rev Can Stud.31, 43–59.

6

Footnote 7

Morrissette PJ. (1994). The holocaust of First Nation people: Residual effects on parenting and treatment implications. Contemp Fam Therapy. 16, 381–92.

7

Footnote 8

Jacobs K, Gill K. (2002). Substance abuse in an urban aboriginal population: Social, legal and psychological consequences. J Ethnicity Subst Abuse.1, 7–25.

8

Footnote 9

Royal Commission on Aboriginal. (1996). Peoples Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 3. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.

9

Footnote 10

McDonald RJ. (2001). Early childhood development and First Nations children. Social Development Secretariat: The Assembly of First Nations.

10

Footnote 11

Ministry of Children and Family Development. (2002). The health and well-being of Aboriginal children and youth in British Columbia. Province of British Columbia. Retrieved Nov 14, 2011, http://www.llbc.leg.bc.ca/public/pubdocs/bcdocs/354470/ab_report_june2001.pdf.

11

Footnote 12

Royal Commission on Aboriginal. Peoples Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (1996). 3. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.

12

Footnote 13

Chandler MJ, Lalonde CE. (1998). Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada's First Nations. Transcult Psychiatry. 35,193–211.

13

Footnote 14

Paquette, D., and Ryan, J. (2001-12-07). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory. Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf

14

Footnote 15

As of April 1, 2012 this network has merged with another children's performance measurement network. The newly formed network has been named the Joint Performance Measurement Network for Children and Youth Investments.

15

Footnote 16

Constitution Act, 1867

16

Footnote 17

Council of Ministers of Education. (2008-04-15). Learn Canada 2020: Joint Declaration, Provincial and Territorial Ministers of Education. Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/187/CMEC-2020-DECLARATION.en.pdf

17

Footnote 18

Statistics Canada. (2011). Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 2006. Custom extraction.

18

Footnote 19

Statistics Canada. (2008-11-26). Selected findings of the Aboriginal Children's Survey 2006: Family and Community. Retrieved on November 01, 2011, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2008002/article/10729-eng.pdf

19

Footnote 20

McCain, M., Mustard, J. and McCuaig, K. (2011). Early years study 3: Making decisions, taking action. Margaret and Wallace McCain Family Foundation. Retrieved on December 07, 2011, from http://earlyyearsstudy.ca/media/uploads/report-pdfs-en/eys3_en_full_report.pdf

20

Footnote 21

Chandler, M., and Lalonde, C. (1998). Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada's First Nations. Transcultural Psychiatry. 35(2), 191-219.

21

Footnote 22

Government of Canada: Department of Health Act, S.C., c. 8, 1996

22

Footnote 23

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the state of Public health in Canada - Growing Up Well — Priorities for a Healthy Future. Retrieved on November 01, 2011, from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cphorsphc-respcacsp/2009/fr-rc/pdf/cphorsphc-respcacsp-eng.pdf

23

Footnote 24

Public Health Agency of Canada. (1998). Aboriginal Head Start Urban and Northern Initiative principles and guidelines. (Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada).

24

Footnote 25

Government of Canada: Department of Health Act, S.C., c. 8, 1996

25

Footnote 26

Government of Canada: Public Health Agency of Canada Act, S.C., c. 5, 2006

26

Footnote 27

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2011). The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada, 2011: Youth and young adults – life in transition. Retrieved on November 1, 2011, from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cphorsphc-respcacsp/2011/pdf/cpho-resp-2011-eng.pdf

27

Footnote 28

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2004). Results-based management and accountability framework and risk assessment for the Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities program, annex to the promotion of population health grants and contributions. (Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada).

28

Footnote 29

Based on a total program expenditure of $34,657,302, and a total reach of 4,580 children for fiscal year 2010-11.

29

Footnote 30

The estimated cost per child attending early childhood education programs is an approximation. It was calculated by dividing the total spending for early childhood education by the total number of children attending early childhood education programs. These figures are intended to merely give a general idea of the situation in each province. Numbers were taken from McCain, M., Mustard, J. and McCuaig, K. (2011). Early years study 3: Making decisions, taking action. Margaret & Wallace McCain Family Foundation. Retrieved on December 07, 2011, from http://earlyyearsstudy.ca/media/uploads/report-pdfs-en/eys3_en_full_report.pdf.

30

Footnote 31

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). 2009-10 National Administrative and Process Evaluation Survey - Key Highlights. Internal document. (Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada).

31

Footnote 32

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2010). 2010-11 National Administrative and Process Evaluation Survey - Key Highlights. Internal document. (Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada).

32

Footnote 33

ranging from 50 to 200 Aboriginal children aged 0-6 depending on the community's level of dependence on surrounding metropolitan areas.

33

Footnote 34

Zaslow, M., Anderson, R., Redd, Z., Wessel, J., Tarullo, L. and Burchinal, M. (2010-08). Quality Dosage, Thresholds, and Features in Early Childhood Settings: A Review of the Literature, OPRE 2011-5. (Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services).

34

Footnote 35

Government of Canada: Financial Administration Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. F-11, s. 42.1

35

Footnote 36

Transfers from Atlantic and Quebec Region AHSUNC programs to the Community Action Program for Children and the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program

36

Footnote 37

This literature review was done by Streich, P. (2011-12-15). Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities (AHSUNC) 2006-2011 Evaluation - Literature Review Report. Report prepared for the Evaluation Services Division, Public Health Agency of Canada.

37

Footnote 38

Prochter's paper provides a useful historical overview showing similarities in assimilation objectives through the 1960s and shifts to more Aboriginal control and bicultural models since the 1990s: Prochner, L. (2004). Early childhood education programs for indigenous children in Canada, Australia and New Zealand: An historical review. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 29(4), 7-13.

38

Footnote 39

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. (2011). Research Projects – Head Start Research. Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/project/headStartProjects.jsp.

39

Footnote 40

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. (2011). Research Projects – Head Start Research. Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/project/headStartProjects.jsp.

40

Footnote 41

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). Making a difference in the lives of infants, toddlers and their families: The impacts of Early Head Start. Retrieved on November 1, 2011, from http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/core/ongoing_research/ehs/ehs_intro.html

41

Footnote 42

Reynolds, A.J. and Temple, J.A. (2008-04). Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 4, 109-139.

42

Footnote 43

See discussion in McMurchy Consulting Inc. (2011). Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities (AHSUNC) literature review. Report prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada. 42.

43

Footnote 44

As recently as November 8, 2011, President Obama announced stricter standards to qualify for renewal of federal grants, saying: "We will take money from programs that do not work and put it into programs that do." (The New York Times and Lander, M. (2011-11-09). Head Start is given new rules for grants. Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/09/us/politics/obama-announces-stricter-financing-standards-for-head-start.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=Head%20Start%20is%20Given%20New%20Rules%20for%20Grants&st=cse)

44

Footnote 45

Government of Australia. (2009). The early years learning framework for Australia. Belonging, being, becoming. Retrieved on October 22, 2011, from www.deewr.gov.au/Earlychildhood/Policy_Agenda/Quality/Documents

45

Footnote 46

Edwards, S. (2008). A research paper to inform the development of an early years learning framework for Australia. Retrieved on October 19, 2011, from http://www.deewr.gov.au/Earlychildhood/Policy_Agenda/EarlyChildhoodWorkforce/
Pages/home.aspx

46

Footnote 47

Government of Australia. (2009). The early years learning framework for Australia. Belonging, being, becoming. Retrieved on October 22, 2011, from www.deewr.gov.au/Earlychildhood/Policy_Agenda/Quality/Documents

47

Footnote 48

Prochner, L. (2004). Early childhood education programs for indigenous children in Canada, Australia and New Zealand: An historical review. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 29(4), 7-13.

48

Footnote 49

Government of Australia. (2001). Aboriginal education. Retrieved on October 22, 2011, from www.det.wa.edu.au/Aboriginaleducation/detcms/navidation/teaching-and-learning/early-childhood/Aboriginal-early-education/#coc1

49

Footnote 50

The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2009-10). Closing the gap – Annual report. Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.aihw.gov.au/closingthegap/documents/annual_papers/annual_report.pdf

50

Footnote 51

The New Zealand Education Review Office is a public sector organization established to review and report publicly on the quality of education in all New Zealand schools, including early childhood education. It is separate from the Ministry of Education, and reviews of schools are carried out every 3 year on average.

51

Footnote 52

Prochner, L. (2004). Early childhood education programs for indigenous children in Canada, Australia and New Zealand: An historical review. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 29(4), 7-13.

52

Footnote 53

Te Kohanga Reo National Trust. (2010). Te Kohanga Reo National Trust. Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.kohanga.ac.nz/

53

Footnote 54

Government of New Zealand. Education Review Office. (2010-05). Success for Māori Children in Early Childhood Services (May 2010) Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.ero.govt.nz/National-Reports/Success-for-Maori-Children-in-Early-Childhood-Services-May-2010

54

Footnote 55

For more details on the strategy see: Government of New Zealand. Education Review Office. (2010-05). Success for Māori Children in Early Childhood Services (May 2010) Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.ero.govt.nz/National-Reports/Success-for-Maori-Children-in-Early-Childhood-Services-May-2010

55

Footnote 56

Duhn, I. (2008). Globalising childhood: Assembling the bicultural child in the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki. International Critical Childhood Policy Studies. 1(1), 82-105.

56

Footnote 57

Duhn defines 'educationalization' as expanding the education system to include the young (preschool) child in a grid that defines the 'normal child' as one connected to educational institutions from a very young age: Duhn, I. (2008). Globalising childhood: Assembling the bicultural child in the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki. International Critical Childhood Policy Studies. 1(1), 82-105. 84.

57

Footnote 58

Berry, J. (1999). Aboriginal cultural identity . The Canadian Journal of Native Studies. XIX(1), 1-36.

58

Footnote 59

There is a vast literature on bicultural identity strategies. Berry (1999) provides an overview and discusses the relationship to the Canadian context following from the 1993 Royal Commission on Aboriginal People: Berry, J. (1999). Aboriginal cultural identity . The Canadian Journal of Native Studies. XIX(1), 1-36.

59

Footnote 60

Duhn, I. (2008). Globalising childhood: Assembling the bicultural child in the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki. International Critical Childhood Policy Studies. 1(1), 82-105.

60

Footnote 61

Government of New Zealand. Education Review Office. (2010-05). Success for Māori Children in Early Childhood Services (May 2010) Retrieved on December 15, 2011, from http://www.ero.govt.nz/National-Reports/Success-for-Maori-Children-in-Early-Childhood-Services-May-2010

61

Footnote 62

Prochner, L. (2004). Early childhood education programs for indigenous children in Canada, Australia and New Zealand: An historical review. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 29(4), 7-13.

62

Footnote 63

Duhn, I. (2008). Globalising childhood: Assembling the bicultural child in the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki. International Critical Childhood Policy Studies. 1(1), 82-105. Rata, E. (2003). The failure of biculturalism, implications for New Zealand. New Zealand Association for Research in Education. Retrieved on November 1, 2011, from http://www.aare.edu.au/03pap/rat03232.pdf

63

Footnote 64

This is a large amount of literature on the trends and results in New Zealand's education strategies and it was beyond the scope of this literature review to conduct a comprehensive assessment of this literature.

64

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