Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Being prepared

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Being prepared

COVID-19 is a serious health threat, and the situation is evolving daily. The risk will vary between and within communities. Some Canadians are more at risk of developing severe complications from COVID-19 due to underlying medical conditions and age.

Given the increasing number of cases in Canada, the risk to Canadians is considered high. This does not mean that all Canadians will get the disease. It means that there is already a significant impact on our health care system.

If we do not flatten the epidemic curve now, the increase of COVID-19 cases could affect health care resources for Canadians.

Our public health efforts will continue to focus on containment to delay the onset of community spread by:

It takes more than actions from governments and the health sector to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19, everyone has a role to play.

Though it is normal for people and communities to feel sad, stressed, confused, scared or worried, remember that you are not alone. Help is available if you feel overwhelmed or need additional support. Taking care of your mental and physical wellbeing is particularly important throughout this often unsettling situation.

We can all help our country be prepared by:

For individuals

Canadians should continue to think ahead about the actions that they can take to stay healthy and prevent the spread of any illness, especially respiratory infections.

Now and always during cold and flu season, stay home if you are sick. Encourage those you know are sick to stay home until they no longer have symptoms.

Since respiratory viruses, such as the one that causes COVID-19, are spread through contact, change how you greet one another. Instead of a handshake, a kiss or a hug, a friendly wave or elbow bump is less likely to expose you to respiratory viruses.

Practise frequent hygiene, which includes proper hand washing and coughing and sneezing etiquette. Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces, such as toys and door handles.

These are the most important ways that you can protect yourself and your family from respiratory illness, including COVID-19.

Make a plan

If COVID-19 becomes common in your community, you will want to have thought about how to change your behaviours and routines to reduce the risk of infection.

Your plan should include how you can change your regular habits to reduce your exposure to crowded places. For example, you may:

  • do your grocery shopping at off-peak hours
  • commute by public transit outside of the busy rush hour
  • opt to exercise outdoors instead of in an indoor fitness class

Your plan should also include what you will do if you become sick. If you are a caregiver of children or other dependents, you will want to have thought ahead to engage backup caregivers.

You should also think about what you will do if a member of your family becomes sick and needs care. Talk to your employer about working from home if you are needed to care for a family member at home.

If you become ill, stay home until you are no longer showing symptoms. Employers should not require a sick leave note as that will put added pressure on limited health care services.

Your plan should include shopping for supplies that you should have on hand at all times. This will ensure you do not need to leave your home while you are sick or busy caring for an ill family member.

Your plan should build on the kits you have prepared for other potential emergencies. For more information on how to prepare yourself and your family in the event of an emergency, please visit GetPrepared.ca.

Fill your prescriptions

Refill your prescriptions now so that you do not have to go to a busy pharmacy if you do become sick. Consider seeing your health care provider to renew your prescriptions ahead of time.

Stock up on essentials but avoid panic buying

At this time, it makes sense to fill your cupboards with non-perishable food items, so that you do not need to go shopping if you become sick.

It is easier on the supply chain if people gradually build up their household stores instead of making large-scale purchases all at once. To do this, you can add a few extra items to your grocery cart every time you shop. Good options are easy-to-prepare foods like:

  • dried pasta and sauce
  • prepared canned soups
  • canned vegetables and beans

It is also a good idea to have extra stores of:

  • pet food
  • toilet paper
  • facial tissue
  • feminine hygiene products
  • diapers (if you have children who use them)

The reason for stocking up on these items is not necessarily because you will need to self-isolate. Having these supplies on hand will ensure you do not need to leave your home at the peak of the outbreak or if you become ill.

How to care for those who are ill

If you or a member of your family become ill with COVID-19, there are precautions that should be taken in the home. Your health care provider will advise you if hospital care is more appropriate.

Children who have mild COVID-19 symptoms are able to stay at home with a caregiver throughout their recovery without needing hospitalization. If you are caring for a child who has suspected or probable COVID-19, it is important to follow the advice for caregivers. This advice will help you protect yourself, others in your home, as well as others in the community.

To prepare for these potential situations, you should have on hand:

  • soap
  • facial tissue
  • paper towels
  • alcohol-based hand sanitizer
  • household cleaning products
  • regular detergents for washing dishes and doing laundry
  • fever-reducing medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen
    • this includes products for children if you are a parent or caregiver
  • plastic garbage bags for containing soiled tissues and other waste
  • diluted bleach, prepared according to the instructions on the label, or in a ratio of 1 teaspoon (5 mL) per cup (250 mL)
    • this assumes bleach is 5% sodium hypochlorite, to give a 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution
Get reliable information

Make sure that you get high-quality information about COVID-19 from reliable sources. The Public Health Agency of Canada is a reliable source of information, as are provincial and territorial public health authorities.

If you are finding that the news media is making you feel anxious, take a break from it.

Communicate with family, friends and neighbours

Let your family, friends and neighbours know that you are making plans to prepare for COVID-19. Share your plan with them, as this might motivate them to make their own.

Talk to them about a buddy system in which you agree to check in on each other and run essential errands if you become sick.

Think about the type of care you would want if you became seriously ill, and talk to family, health care providers or others who would be making decisions about your care if you were not able to do so. These discussions can help caregivers feel more comfortable and confident in making decisions aligned with your wishes.

It's not always easy; some need help to begin these difficult conversations. Visit advance care planning for information, tools, and prompts to help with starting these conversations.

For communities

Physical distancing measures are a way to reduce COVID-19 transmission in the community by minimizing close contact with others, especially people who are at high risk for severe illness during the peak of the outbreak.

Some of the physical distancing measures need extensive preparation. Community planners should prepare for:

Planners, administrators and employers must work together to put into effect community-based measures to protect:

Avoiding crowds

Respiratory illnesses like COVID-19 spread quickly in crowded spaces. Avoiding crowds can reduce the spread of infection. This type of precaution could have a significant impact on how a community functions.

Communities should plan ahead and consider:

  • whether to shut down public transit
    • if public transit is shut down, ensure transportation remains available for:
      • critical infrastructure workers
      • emergency medical services or treatments like dialysis and chemotherapy
  • working with employers and businesses to put into effect staggered work hours
    • this reduces crowding on public transit during peak commuting hours and in large workplaces during normal workday hours
  • voluntary quarantine of a community based on a risk assessment
  • whether to ask individuals, organizations and businesses to cancel or postpone mass gatherings, such as:
    • funerals
    • weddings
    • religious services
    • concerts, conferences, sporting events and other forms of entertainment
  • requiring people to stay home from school, work or other community settings, such as shopping centres and movie theatres.
Mass gatherings

Mass gatherings are settings or events where large numbers of people may be in close contact. If they are not planned and managed carefully, they can contribute to the transmission of respiratory pathogens, such as the virus that causes COVID-19. This can cause additional strain on the health care system during outbreaks.

The Public Health Agency of Canada recommends that event organizers and planners cancel or postpone in-person gatherings in alignment with the recommendations of their local public health authorities. Where possible, they should offer virtual or online alternatives.

Aside from cancelling or postponing an event, other measures to reduce infection risks during mass gatherings include:

  • avoiding shaking hands
  • practising proper hygiene
  • avoiding common sleeping areas
  • discouraging attendees from sharing food or drinks
  • increasing physical distance between others (ideally to 2 metres) by:
    • broadcasting events
    • offering virtual participation
    • moving the venue from indoors to outdoors
  • eliminating self-serve buffet style eating at social or religious gatherings
  • encouraging ill people and people who are at risk for severe illness not to attend gatherings
  • supporting hand hygiene by providing hand sanitizers dispensers in prominent locations
  • ensuring event organizers have arrangements in place to safely isolate and transport people who become ill onsite
  • communicating clearly to attendees about the risks and directing them to our advice on reducing the spread of illness
Remote and isolated communities

Communities that are remote or isolated should consider stocking up on needed supplies like food and medicine. The supply chain may be interrupted or become unreliable.

Additional challenges should be taken into account. For example, some remote communities may have limited access to clean running water for frequent hand hygiene.

For Indigenous communities

Refer to coronaviruses in Indigenous communities for more information on preparing for an outbreak of COVID-19.

Organizations who serve those experiencing homelessness

Those who experience homelessness may be at higher risk of contracting COVID-19 or developing complications due to COVID-19. This is because they may not be able to access and use traditional services and standard resources.

Organizations, community health workers and volunteers play an important role in helping prevent the spread of COVID-19 among those who experience homelessness. For more information, refer to our guidance on homelessness in the context of COVID-19.

For childcare facilities

To help reduce the transmission of COVID-19, there have been widespread closures of daycares and schools. Some childcare services, especially those providing programs for children of essential workers, are open and making changes to keep staff and families safe.

Childcare providers, parents and attending children should be well informed about the ongoing situation and the protective measures being put in place, in age- appropriate language.

For childcare centres that remain open to support essential workers, the following should be considered. Please keep in mind that situations may vary and these guidelines should be adapted for:

Many of the children who attend childcare centres are very young. Given the context of school closures across the country, the age of those in attendance may vary. There are potential challenges with the ability of younger children to carry out preventative measures (such as physical distancing). Older children may help to reinforce preventative measures among younger children. Older children in this context may require more psychosocial and behavioural support in response to the unique stresses of COVID-19.

Childcare centres should work closely with their public health authorities and partners to consider strategies, such as:

You should also consult COVID-19 resources for childcare specific to your province or territory.

Public health measures

Childcare centres that are open should provide a safe environment by doing the following:

  • teach and encourage infection prevention measures among children and staff:
    • proper hand washing
    • not touching eyes, nose or mouth
    • proper coughing and sneezing etiquette
    • using personal refillable water bottles rather than having children drink directly from water fountains
  • clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces, such as:
    • strollers
    • doorknobs
    • faucet handles
    • pencil sharpeners
    • electronic devices
    • furniture, such as table tops and chairs
    • water fountain knobs, push buttons and mouthpieces
      • mouthpieces will need to be cleaned as per manufacture recommendations
    • toys (limit the use of toys that cannot be easily cleaned like plush toys, dress up clothes or playdough)
  • reinforce "no-sharing" policies between children, such as with:
    • water bottles
    • food and drinks, and utensils
    • mouthpieces on toy musical instruments
      • keep enough toys available to encourage individual play

Additional preventative measures can be considered, such as:

  • establishing policies to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace and making sure these are communicated, understood and implemented by employees
  • limiting visitors to the childcare facility (including those who support children's programs, such as entertainers and librarians)
  • dividing groups or classes into smaller numbers of children
  • cancelling or postponing after-care events
  • practising physical distancing, such as:
    • increasing distance between children
    • cancelling activities that bring children together from multiple groups or classrooms
    • staggering the childcare schedule (drop off and pick up, lunch breaks, naps and recess) to limit the number of children, staff and parents/caregivers together at one time
  • using caution with outdoor play structures and equipment, as they are difficult to properly clean and disinfect
    • consider the age of the child and their ability to follow instructions when decisions are made on equipment use
    • if used, children should:
      • wash their hands before and after use
      • maintain physical distancing while playing on structures
      • avoid touching their face with hands
Face masks and face coverings

Face masks are not encouraged in childcare settings because they:

  • are not recommended for children under 2 years of age
  • can be irritating for young children and may lead to increased face touching

Staff can consider wearing a non-medical mask or face covering as a way to protect those around them.

Masks alone will not prevent the spread of COVID-19. Regardless of mask use, it is important to consistently and strictly adhere to good hygiene and public health measures, including frequent hand washing and physical (social) distancing.

Absences and reporting

It is important to ensure strict exclusion policies are in place for children showing symptoms of COVID-19, even if symptoms are mild. The following measures are recommended:

  • report symptoms of COVID-19, as well as any increase in absences, according to public health authority direction
  • post a list of symptoms and exposure risks and encourage staff and families to self-monitor and report as per the facility's direction
  • adapt attendance policies for children or staff who are in quarantine (self-isolation) or isolation
  • ensure children or staff who are ill stay home and follow the advice of their public health authority
  • childcare centre administrators should consult with their public health authority in advance to develop plans on how to safely care for a child or staff member who become ill while on site
  • if a child or staff member becomes ill or shows symptoms of COVID-19 (even mild) while at daycare, they should immediately be isolated from others, and:
    • remain isolated until they can go home safely in a private vehicle
    • maintain a distance of 2 metres between the ill person and others
      • if 2 metres cannot be maintained, contact the public health authority for advice
    • ensure both the child and staff wash their hands frequently
  • as soon as an ill person leaves the site, the space and common-touch areas should be cleaned and disinfected
Psychological considerations

COVID-19 can cause feelings of stress and anxiety and be difficult for children to understand, especially if they know someone who is sick. Anxiety may be created due to changes in routines or expected behaviours (such as physical distancing).

As well, pre-existing psychological issues may be amplified for some children. This may be more likely for certain groups, including children living in lower socio-economic conditions. This can impact their social and emotional skills. Boys and girls can also express and experience emotions differently, and this may result in differences in behavioural issues.

Communications from childcare centre providers should reflect and be sensitive to the diverse linguistic, literacy, and cultural characteristics and needs of the students, children and their families. Pay attention to how children are feeling and consider the following:

  • monitor children and families for discrimination and bullying, in particular towards those who may have been exposed to the virus
    • also be aware of bullying due to differences in gender, ethnicity, ability or other factors
  • maintain routines to reinforce a sense of security
  • provide reassurance about preventative health and safety measures
  • listen to children and encourage them to communicate their feelings, recognizing that responses may vary based on a variety of factors, including age and personal experience
  • pay attention to media access
    • it will be easier to limit media exposure in younger children but this may be more difficult with age
      • exposure to too much or misinformed resources/media coverage can give children an exaggerated view of the risks association with COVID-19
    • where feasible, monitor for misinformation and assist older children in accessing reliable sources of information
    • explain the events as well as you can and help children put information into perspective
    • keep children informed about what is happening and what may happen at a level that is suitable for their age

For workplaces

Across Canada, we are changing the way we work to prevent the spread of COVID-19. For some workplaces, this may mean changing hours of operation, closing for a period of time or working from home. Others continue to go to work because their jobs are essential to keeping Canada functioning during this outbreak.

Essential workers are considered critical to preserving life, health and basic societal functioning. This includes, but is not limited to:

All employees should understand and comply with the infection prevention policies and practices in place in their workplaces. Employers should use the risk-informed decision-making guidelines for workplaces and businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Employers and employees will need to work together to protect their own health and their clients' health, as well as deliver essential services.

General advice
  • Increase awareness about COVID-19 through communication with staff.
  • Evaluate the workplace for areas where people have frequent contact with each other and shared objects.
  • Increase the distance between desks and workstations as well as employees and customers (ideally 2 metres).
    • A physical barrier like a cubicle or Plexiglas window also works to increase distance between people.

Related information:

Hygiene
  • Encourage frequent hand washing, sneeze and cough etiquette, and staying home when ill.
    • If COVID-19 symptoms develop, the employee should immediately be isolated from others and sent home without using public transit, if possible.
  • Ensure frequent cleaning and disinfecting, with particular attention to high-touch surfaces, such as:
    • bars
    • desks
    • phones
    • kitchens
    • computers
    • cash registers
    • elevator buttons
    • restaurant tables and menus
  • Provide access to handwashing areas and place hand sanitizers in prominent locations throughout the workplace, if possible.
Flexible work arrangements and sick leave
  • Where feasible, adjust policies to reduce social contact, such as:
    • flexible hours
    • staggering start times
    • teleworking arrangements
    • using email and teleconferencing
  • Relax sick leave policies to support employees in staying home when ill or monitoring symptoms.
    • This includes suspending the need for medical notes to reduce the burden on an already stressed health care system.
  • Prepare for increases in absenteeism due to illness among employees and their families or possibly school closures.
    • Access your business continuity plan for how to maintain key business functions if faced with high absenteeism.
    • Consider the need for cross-training personnel to function in key positions.

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