ARCHIVED - Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease



  1. Health Canada. Guidelines for control of meningococcal disease. CCDR 1994;20(3):17-27.
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  3. Whalen CM, Hockin JC, Ryan A, et al. The changing epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in Canada, 1985 through 1992. Emergence of a virulent clone of Neisseria meningitidis. JAMA 1995;273:390-94.
  4. Deeks S, Kertesz D, Ryan A et al. Surveillance of invasive meningococcal disease in Canada, 1995-1996. CCDR 1997;23(16):121-25.
  5. Squires SG, Pelletier L, Mungai M et al. Invasive meningococcal disease in Canada, 1 January, 1997, to 31 December, 1998. CCDR 2000;26(21):177-82.
  6. Varughese PV, Carter AO. Meningococcal disease in Canada. Surveillance summary to 1987. CCDR 1989;15(17):89-96.
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  8. Ragunathan L, Ramsay M, Borrow R et al. Clinical features, laboratory findings and management of meningococcal meningitis in England and Wales: report of a 1997 survey. Meningococcal meningitis: 1997 survey report. J Infect 2000;40:74-9.
  9. De Wals P, Hertoghe L, Borlée-Grimée I et al. Meningococcal disease in Belgium. Secondary attack rate among household, day-care nursery and pre-elementary school contacts. J Infect 1981;3(suppl 1):53-61.
  10. Meningococcal Disease Surveillance Group. Meningococcal disease: secondary attack rate and chemoprophylaxis in the United States, 1974. JAMA 1976;235:261-65.
  11. Cooke RPD, Riordan T, Jones DM et al. Secondary cases of meningococcal infection among close family and household contacts in England and Wales, 1985–1987. Br Med J 1989;298:555-58.
  12. Hastings L, Stuart J, Andrews N et al. A retrospective survey of clusters of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, 1993 to 1995: estimated risks of further cases in household and educational setting. Commun Dis Rep 1997;7(13):R195-R200.
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  14. Jacobson JA, Camargos PAM, Ferreira JT et al. The risk of meningitis among classroom contacts during an epidemic of meningococcal disease. Am J Epidemiol 1976;104:552-55.
  15. Feigin RD, Baker CJ, Herwaldt L et al. Epidemic meningococcal disease in an elementary-school classroom. N Engl J Med 1982;307:1255-57.
  16. Hudson PJ, Vogt RL, Heun EM et al. Evidence for school transmission of Neisseria meningitidis during a Vermont outbreak. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1986;5:213-17.
  17. Pollard AJ, Begg N. Meningococcal disease and healthcare workers [Editorial]. Br Med J 1999;319:1147-48.
  18. Gehanno J-F, Kohen-Couderc L, Lemeland J-F et al. Nosocomial meningococcaemia in a physician. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:564-65.
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization of health-care workers: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR 1997;46(RR18):1-42.
  20. Stroffolini T, Rosmini F, Curiano CM. A one year survey of meningococcal disease in Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 1987;3:399-403.
  21. Olivares R, Hubert B. Clusters of meningococcal disease in France (1987-1988). Eur J Epidemiol 1992;8:737-42.
  22. Almog R, Block C, Gdalevich M et al. First recorded outbreaks of meningococcal disease in the Israel Defence Force: three clusters due to serogroup C and the emergence of resistance to rifampicin. Infection 1994;22:69-71.
  23. Samuelsson S, Hansen ET, Osler M et al. Prevention of secondary cases of meningococcal disease in Denmark. Epidemiol Infect 2000;124:433-40.
  24. Dawson SJ, Fey RE, McNulty CA. Meningococcal disease in siblings caused by rifampicin sensitive and rifampicin resistant strains. Commun Dis Public Health 1999;2:215-16.
  25. Guiver M, Borrow R, Marsh J et al. Evaluation of the Applied Biosystems automated Taqman polymerase chain reaction system for the detection of meningococcal DNA. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2000;28:173-79.
  26. Newcombe J, Cartwright K, Palmer WH et al. PCR of peripheral blood for diagnosis of meningococcal disease. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:1637-40.
  27. Carrol ED, Thomson AP, Shears P et al. Performance characteristics of the polymerase chain reaction assay to confirm clinical meningococcal disease. Arch Dis Child 2000;83:271-73.
  28. British Columbia Ministry of Health. Communicable disease control: invasive meningococcal disease. January 2001.
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  30. Communicable Diseases Network Australia. Guidelines for the early clinical and public health management of meningococcal disease in Australia. Commonwealth of Australia, 2001. ISBN 0 642 50308 7.
  31. Stuart JM, Gilmore AB, Ross A et al. Preventing secondary meningococcal disease in health care workers: recommendations of a working group of the PHLS Meningococcus Forum. Communic Dis Pub Health 2001;4(2):102-05.
  32. Public Health Laboratory Service Meningococcus Forum. Guidelines for public health management of meningococcal disease in the UK. Commun Dis Public Health. 2002;5(3):187-204.
  33. National Advisory Committee on Immunization. Statement on recommended use of meningococcal vaccines. CCDR 2001;27(ACS-6):2-36.
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  36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exposure to patients with meningococcal disease on aircrafts – United States 1999-2001. MMWR 2001;50(23):485-89.
  37. Kenyon TA, Valway SE, Ihle WW et al. Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis during a long airplane flight. N Engl J Med 1996;334:933-38.
  38. Kristiansen B-E, Knapsbog A-B. Secondary prevention of meningococcal disease. Br Med J 1996;312:591-92.
  39. DeWals P. Notice concerning the use of a vaccine to control an outbreak of invasive meningococcal infections. On behalf of the Advisory Committee to the ministère de la santé et des Services Sociaux du Québec, 2001.
  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meningococcal disease and college students. MMWR 2000;49(RR07):11-20.
  41. Schwartz B. Chemoprophylaxis for bacterial infections: principles of an application to meningococcal infections. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13(suppl 2):S170-S173.
  42. Judson FN, Ehret JM. Single-dose ceftriaxone to eradicate pharyngeal Neisseria meningitidis. Lancet 1984;2:462-1463.
  43. Schwartz B, Al-Tobaiqi A, Al-Ruwais A et al. Comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and rifampin in eradicating pharyngeal carriage of group A Neisseria meningitidis. Lancet 1988;1:1239-42.
  44. Girgis N, Sultan Y, Frenck RW et al. Azithromycin compared with rifampin for eradication of nasopharyngeal colonization of Neisseria meningitidis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17(9):816-19.
  45. Gonzalez de Aledo LA, Garcia MJ. Control of a school outbreak of serogroup B meningococcal disease by chemoprophylaxis with azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. An Esp Pediatr 2000;53(5):412-17.
  46. National Advisory Committee on Immunization. Supplementary statement on conjugate meningococcal vaccines. CCDR 2003;29(ACS-6):10-11.
  47. Health Canada. Meningococcal vaccine. In: Canadian immunization guide, 6th edition. Ottawa: Health Canada, 2002;151-65. Cat. H49-8/2002E.
  48. Granoff DM, Gupta RK, Belshe RB et al. Induction of immunologic refractoriness in adults by meningococcal C polysaccharide vaccination. J Infect Dis 1988;178:870-74.
  49. Richmond P, Kaczmarski E, Borrow R et al. Meningococcal C polysaccharide vaccine induces immunologic hyporesponsiveness in adults that is overcome by meningococcal C conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis 2000;181:761-64.
  50. MacLennan J, Obaro S, Deeks J et al. Immunologic memory 5 years after meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination in infancy. J Infect Dis 2001;183:97-104.
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