Review of Lyme disease − Supplementary references

CCDR

Volume 44-10, October 4, 2018: Climate change and Lyme disease

Web exclusive

A scoping review of Lyme disease research relevant for public health – Supplementary References

JD Greig, I Young, S Harding, M Mascarenhas, LA Waddell

Affiliations

[Affiliations]

Correspondence

[Email]

Suggested citation

[Suggested citation]

Keywords: [keywords]

  1. Arkansas Department of Health, Division of Epidemiology. Tickborne diseases in Arkansas. J Ark Med Soc. 1998;94(12):541.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 1996. JAMA. 1997;278(2):112.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 1996. MMWR. 1997;46(23):531-5.
  4. Arkansas Department of Health, Division of Epidemiology. Tick, tock, tick, tock: have you seen any freckles with legs recently? J Ark Med Soc. 1996;93(1):49-50.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 1995. MMWR. 1996;45(23):481-4.
  1. Oklahoma Health Department. Tick-borne illness increasing in Oklahoma. J Okla State Med Assoc. 1996;89:30.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 1994. MMWR. 1995;44(24):459-62.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 1993. MMWR. 1994;43(31):564-5.
  4. Centers for Disease Control. Physician reporting of Lyme disease—Connecticut, 1991-1992. MMWR. 1993;42(18):348-50.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 1991-1992. MMWR. 1993;42(18):345-8.
  6. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease surveillance—United States, 1989-1990. JAMA. 1991;266(4):470-1.
  7. Mackenzie SG. Lyme disease in Canada. Can Med Assoc J. 1991;144(2):177.
  8. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 1987 and 1988. Canada Diseases Weekly Report. 1990;16(8):36.
  9. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—Canada. JAMA. 1989;262(16):2210.
  10. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 1987 and 1988. JAMA. 1989;262(16):2209-10.
  11. Division of Epidemiology, New York State Department of Health. Lyme disease surveillance in New York State. New York State J Med. 1989 Dec;(12):686-7.
  12. Morgan-Capner P, Cutler SJ, Wright DJM. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in UK workers at risk of tick bites. The Lancet. 1989 Apr;(8641):789-90.
  13. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—Connecticut. Canada Diseases Weekly Report. 1988;14(8):34-35.
  14. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—Connecticut. JAMA. 1988 Feb;259(8):1147-1148.
  15. Division of Epidemiology, Georgia State Department of Health. Tickborne diseases in Georgia, 1986. J Med Assoc Ga. 1987 July;76:493-4.
  16. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease and cases occurring during pregnancy. JAMA. 1985 Aug;254(6):736-41.
  17. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors—Connecticut, 1992. MMWR. 1992 July;41(28):5005-7.
  18. Centers for Disease Control. Current trends Lyme disease surveillance—United States, 1989-1990. MMWR. 1991 June;40(25):417-21.
  19. Centers for Disease Control. Tickborne diseases—Georgia, 1989. MMWR. 1990 June;39(23):397-9.
  20. Centers for Disease Control. Epidemiological notes and reports seizures temporally associated with use of DEET insect repellent—New York and Connecticut. MMWR. 1989 Oct;38(39):678-80.
  21. Centers for Disease Control. International notes Lyme disease—Canada. MMWR. 1989 Oct;38(39):677-78.
  22. Centers for Disease Control. Current trends update: Lyme disease and cases occurring during pregnancy—United States. MMWR. 1985 June;34(25):376-8.
  23. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 1980. MMWR. 1981 Oct;30(39):489-92, 497.
  24. Centers for Disease Control. Effect of electronic laboratory reporting on the burden of Lyme disease surveillance—New Jersey, 2001-2006. MMWR. 2008 Jan;57(2):42-5.
  25. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 2003-2005. MMWR. 2007 June;56(23):573-6.
  26. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 2001-2002. MMWR. 2004 May;53(17):365-9.
  27. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 2000. MMWR. 2002 Jan;51(2):29-31.
  28. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 1999. MMWR. 2001 Mar;50(10):181-5.
  29. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—United States, 1993. MMWR. 1994 Aug;43(31):571-2.
  30. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease— US, 1994. Ann Pharmacother. 1995;29(9):959-960.
  31. Centers for Disease Control. Current trends: Lyme disease surveillance—United States, 1989-1990. Arch Dermatol. 1991 Sept;127(9):1291-2.
  32. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Lyme disease among U.S. military members, Active and Reserve Component, 2001-2008. MSMR. 2009 July;16(7):2-4.
  33. Moter SE, Wallich R, Simon MM, Kramer MD. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in human skin biopsies by a nested polymerase chain reaction, In: Rolfs et al, Editors. Methods in DNA Amplification, Plenum Press, New York. 1994 pp.211-7.
  34. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease, 1991-1992—United States. Can Commun Dis Rep. 1993;19(24):209-210.
  35. Mackenzie SG. Lyme disease in Canada. Canada Diseases Weekly Report. 1990;16(30):141-2.
  36. Anomymous. Lyme disease in horses. Can Vet J. 1988 Apr;29:393-4.
  37. Anomymous. Experts, activists looking to agree on Lyme disease fight. The Guardian (Charlottetown) March 10, 2006, p. A11.
  38. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Reported vectorborne and zoonotic diseases, U.S. Army and U.S. Navy, 2000-2011. MSMR. 2012 Oct;19(10):15-6.
  39. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease—US, 2001-2002. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38(7-8):1347.
  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 2000. JAMA. 2002 Mar;287(10):1259-60.
  41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease—United States, 1999. JAMA. 2001 Apr;285(13):1698-9.
  42. Arkansas Department of Health, Division of Epidemiology. Tickborne diseases in Arkansas, 1994-1998. J Ark Med Soc. 1999;96(4):137.
  43. Anonymous. Erythema chronica migrans, ticks and Lyme disease in Missouri. Missouri Medicine. 1999 Oct;96(10):475-6.
  44. Ananomyous. Lyme disease vaccine available for patients at high risk. Healthcare Demand & Disease Management. 1999 May;5(5):76-8.
  45. Klein JD, Eppes SC. Lyme disease in unwary physicians: A Curside cluster. JAMA. 1995 Aug;274(5):383-4.
  46. Bucak Ö, Koçoğlu ME, Taş T, Mengeloğlu FZ. Evaluation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato seroprevalence in the province of Bolu, Turkey. Turk J Med Sci. 2016;46(3):727-32.
  47. Aase A, Hajdusek O, Oines O, Quarsten H, Wilhelmsson P, Herstad TK, Kjelland V, Sima R, Jalovecka M, Lindgren P-E, Aaberge IS. Validate or falsify: Lessons learned from a microscopy method claimed to be useful for detecting Borrelia and Babesia organisms in human blood. Infect Dis. 2016;48(6):411-9.
  48. Abbott A. Lyme disease: uphill struggle. Nature. 2006 Feb;439(7076):524-5.
  49. Ackerman L. Tick control update. Pet Focus. 1991;3(4):4-6.
  50. Adams AM, Beavis KG, Rutherford I. Positive or false positive Eia in Lyme disease a use for Western blot? Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1992;92:492.
  51. Adekoya, N. Incidence rates of selected infectious diseases in the most populated counties, United States, 2004. Trop Med Health. 2008;36(1):33-9.
  52. Adelson ME, Rao RV, Tilton RC, Cabets K, Eskow E, Fein L, Occi J L, Mordechai E. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Northern New Jersey. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(6):2799-801.
  53. Adetunji SA, Krecek RC, Castellanos G, Morrill JC, Blue-McLendon A, Cook WE, Esteve-Gassent MD. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from Texas. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2016;5(2):168-74.
  54. Adrion ER, Aucott J, Lemke KW, Weiner JP. Health care costs, utilization and patterns of care following Lyme disease. PloS one. 2015;10(2):e0116767.
  55. Aenishaenslin C, Bouchard C, Koffi JK, Pelcat Y, Ogden NH. Evidence of rapid changes in Lyme disease awareness in Canada. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7:1067-74.
  56. Aenishaenslin C, Michel P, Ravel A, Gern L, Milord F, Waaub JP, Bélanger D. Factors associated with preventive behaviors regarding Lyme disease in Canada and Switzerland: a comparative study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:185.
  57. Aenishaenslin C, Michel P, Ravel A, Gern L, Waaub JP, Milord F, Bélanger D. Acceptability of tick control interventions to prevent Lyme disease in Switzerland and Canada: A mixed-method study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):12.
  58. Aenishaenslin C, Ravel A, Michel P, Gern L, Milord F, Waaub JP, Bélanger D. From Lyme disease emergence to endemicity: A cross sectional comparative study of risk perceptions in different populations. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):1298.
  59. Aeschlimann A, Gern L, Zhioua E, Frossard E, Walter a, Fahrer H, Sauvain M-J, Van Den Linden S, Berger N. Observations of two high-risk populations from the Swiss plateau a region heavily infested with Ixodes ricinus/Borrelia Burgdorferi Complex. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988;539:440-3.
  60. Agger, W A, Case, K L. Clinical comparison of borreliacidal-antibody test with indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Lyme disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997;72(6):510-4.
  61. Aguero-Rosenfeld M E., Nowakowski J, Bittker S, Cooper D, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Evolution of the serologic response to Borrelia burgdorferi in treated patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34(1):1-9.
  62. Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Nowakowski J, McKenna DF, Carbonaro CA, Wormser GP. Serodiagnosis in early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:3090-5.
  63. Aguirre AA, Hansen DE, Starkey EE, McLean RG. Serologic survey of wild cervids for potential disease agents in selected national parks in the United States. Prev Vet Med. 1995;21(4):313-22.
  64. Al-Attar MA, Jahanly FM. Demonstration by immunodiffusion agar-gel test of Borrelia anserina antigen in the organs of infected chickens. Avian Dis. 1974;18:463-6.
  65. Al-Sharif B, Hall MC. Lyme disease testing in children in an endemic area. WMJ. 2011;110(5):228-33.
  66. Albisetti M, Schaer G, Good M, Boltshauser E, Nadal D. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid examination in children with peripheral facial palsy and suspected Lyme borreliosis. Neurol. 1997;49(3):817-24.
  67. Alekseev AN, Dubinina HV. Abiotic parameters and diel and seasonal activity of Borrelia-infected and uninfected Ixodes Persulcatus (Acarina: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2000;37(1):9-15.
  68. Aliota MT, Dupuis AP, Wilczek MP, Peters RJ, Ostfeld RS, Kramer LD. The prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes scapularis collected in the Hudson Valley, New York State. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014;14(4):245.
  69. Allan BF, Keesing F, Ostfeld RS. Effect of forest fragmentation on Lyme disease risk. Conserv Biol. 2003;17(1):267-72.
  70. Allen R, Thrush GR. Using Pcr to search for Lyme disease bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) in ticks from western San Bernardino County, Ca. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002;102:507.
  71. Alpert B, Esin J, Sivak SL, Wormser GP. Incidence and prevalence of Lyme disease in a suburban Westchester County community. NY State J Med. 1992;92(1):5-8.
  72. Altobelli A, Boemo B, Mignozzi K, Bandi M, Floris R, Menardi G, Cinco M. Spatial Lyme borreliosis risk assessment in north-eastern Italy. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(Suppl 1):125-8.
  73. Amerasinghe FP, Breisch NL, Azad AF, Gimpel WF, Greco M, Neidhardt K, Pagac B, Piesman J, Sandt J, Scott TW, Sweeney K. Distribution, density, and Lyme disease spirochete infection in Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in Maryland. J Med Entomol. 1992;29(1):54-61.
  74. Amerasinghe FP, Scott TW. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Kent County Maryland. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology. 1993;18(2):99-104.
  75. Amouriaux P, Assous M, Margarita D, Baranton G, Saint Girons I. Polymerase chain reaction with the 30-kb circular plasmid of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 as a target for detection of the Lyme borreliosis agents in cerebrospinal fluid. Res Microbiol. 1993;144(3):211-9.
  76. Anand CM, Fonseca K, Stowe T, Olson M, Wallis P. Lyme disease: seroprevalence and vector survey in southern Alberta. Can Commun Dis Rep. 1993;19(24):205-9.
  77. Anderson AL. Arthropod pests and the diseases they carry: Prevention in community and athletic settings. Athletic Therapy Today. 2004;9(3):16-21.
  78. Anderson JF, Duray PH, Magnarelli LA. Borrelia burgdorferi and Ixodes dammini prevalent in the greater Philadelphia area. J Infect Dis. 1990;161(4):811-2.
  79. Anderson JF, Duray PH, Magnarelli LA. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice and Ixodes dammini at Fort McCoy, Wis. J Clin Microbiol. 1987;25(8):1495-7.
  80. Anderson JF, Johnson RC, Magnarelli LA. Seasonal prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in natural populations of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus. J Clin Microbiol. 1987;25(8):1564-6.
  81. Anderson JF, Johnson RC, Magnarelli LA, Hyde FW, Myers JE. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in mice on islands inhabited by white-tailed deer. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987;53(4):892-4.
  82. Anderson JF, Johnson RC, Magnarelli LA, Hyde FW, Myers JE. Peromyscus leucopus and Microtus pennsylvanicus simultaneously infected with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti. J Clin Microbiol. 1986;23(1):135-7.
  83. Anderson JF, Magnarelli LA, LeFebvre RB, Andreadis TG, McAninch JB, Perng GC, Johnson RC. Antigenically variable Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from cottontail rabbits and Ixodes dentatus in rural and urban areas. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27(1):13-20.
  84. Anderson JF, Mintz ED, Gadbaw JJ, Magnarelli LA. Babesia microti, human babesiosis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut. J Clin Microbiol. 1991;29(12):2779-83.
  85. Anderson JM, Swanson KI, Schwartz TR, Glass GE, Norris DE. Mammal diversity and infection prevalence in the maintenance of enzootic Borrelia burgdorferi along the western Coastal Plains of Maryland. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006;6(4):411-22.
  86. Anderson JF, Magnarelli LA. Spirochetes in Ixodes-Dammini and Babesia-Microti on Prudence Island Rhode-Island USA. J Infect Dis. 1983;148(6):1124.
  87. Anderson JF, Magnarelli LA, McAninch JB. Ixodes-Dammini and Borrelia-Burgdorferi in Northern New England and Upstate New York. J Parasitol. 1987;73(2):419-21.
  88. Anderson JF, Magnarelli LA, Burgdorfer W, Barbour AG. Spirochetes in Ixodes dammini and mammals from Connecticut USA. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1983;32(4):818-24.
  89. Ang CW, Notermans DW, Hommes M, Simoons-Smit AM, Herremans T. Large differences between test strategies for the detection of anti-Borrelia antibodies are revealed by comparing eight ELISAs and five immunoblots. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30(8):1027-32.
  90. Ang CW, Brandenburg AH, van Burgel ND, Bijlmer HA, Herremans T, Stelma F, Lunel FV, van Dam AP; Dutch Working Group on Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis. A Dutch nationwide evaluation of serological assays for detection of Borrelia antibodies in clinically well-defined patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;83(3):222-8.
  91. Arimitsu Y, Seki M, Nakao M, eMiyamaoto K. Comparison of antibody titres against borrelial strains isolated in Japan by the microcapsule agglutination test for serological studies of early Lyme disease. Microbiol Immunol. 1994;38(4):269-72.
  92. Arimitsu Y, Takashima I, Yoshii Z, Higashi Y, Kameyama S, Mizuguchi J. Application of the microcapsule agglutination test to serologic studies of an early stage of Lyme disease in Japan. J Infect Dis. 1991;163(3):682-83.
  93. Armstrong PM, Brunet LR, Spielman A, Telford SR. Risk of Lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a Lone Star tick-infested community. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(10):916-25.
  94. Arnaboldi PM, Sambir M, Dattwyler RJ. Decorin binding proteins A and B in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease in North America. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(10):1426-36.
  95. Arnaboldi PM, Seedarnee R, Sambir M, Callister SM, Imparato JA, Dattwylera RJ. Outer surface protein C peptide derived from borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto as a target for serodiagnosis of early lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20(4):474-81.
  96. Aronowitz RA. The rise and fall of the lyme disease vaccines: a cautionary tale for risk interventions in American medicine and public health. Milbank Q. 2012;90(2):250-77.
  97. Aronowitz RA. Lyme disease: the social construction of a new disease and its social consequences. Milbank Q. 1991;69(1):79-112.
  98. Arrese Estrada J, Melotte P, Hermanns JF, Pierard GE. Identification immunohistochimique des spirochetes de type Borrelia. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1991;118:277-9.
  99. Arteaga F, Garcia-Monco JC. [Association of Lyme disease with work and leisure activities]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 1998;16(6):265-8.
  100. Arteaga F, Golightly MG, Garcia Perez A, Barral M, Anda P, Garcia-Monco JC. Disparity between serological reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi and evidence of past disease in a high-risk group. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27(5):1210-3.
  101. Arteaga Perez F, Garcia-Monco Carra JC. [Risk factors associated with the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi]. Rev Clin Esp. 1999;199(3):136-41.
  102. Artsob H, Barker IK, Fister R, Sephton G, Dick D, Lynch JA, Key D. Serological studies on the infection of dogs in Ontario with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Can Vet J. 1993;34(9):543-8.
  103. Artsob H, Drebot M, Dibernardo A, Ogden J, Baikie M, Maloney R, Goltz J, Whitney H, Lindsay R. Ixodes scapularis and its associated pathogens in Atlantic Canada. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69(3 Suppl):238.
  104. Artsob H, Garvie M. Quality control assessment of Canadian laboratories testing for Lyme disease. Can J Infect Dis. 1991;2(1):41-5.
  105. Artsob H, Garvie M, Cawthorn RJ, Horney B, Maloney R, Dick D, McBurney S. Isolation of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) collected on Prince Edward Island, Canada. J Med Entomol. 1992;29(6):1063-6.
  106. Artsob H, Huibner S. Complement fixation test for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:637-8.
  107. Arzouni JP, Laveran M, Beytout J, Ramousse O, Raoult D. Comparison of western blot and microimmunofluorescence as tools for Lyme disease seroepidemiology. Eur J Epidemiol. 1993;9(3):269-73.
  108. Arzouni JP, Bres P, Laveran H, Raoult D. The Use of Western Blot as a Seroepidemiologic Tool for Lyme Borreliosis. Program and Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 1991;31:208.
  109. Ashley ST, Meentemeyer V. Climatic analysis of Lyme disease in the United States. Clim Res. 2004;27(3):177-87.
  110. Assous M. A propos du diagnostic biologique de la Borreliose de Lyme. Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses. 1989;19:734-40.
  111. Atkinson SF, Sarkar S, Aviña A, Schuermann JA, Williamson P. A determination of the spatial concordance between Lyme disease incidence and habitat probability of its primary vector Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick). Geospatial Health. 2014;9(1):203.
  112. Aucott JN, Crowder LA, Yedlin V, Kortte KB. Bull's-eye and nontarget skin lesions of Lyme disease: An internet survey of identification of erythema migrans. Dermatol Res Pract. 2012;2012:451727.
  113. Auwaerter PG, Bakken JS, Dattwyler RJ, Dumler JS, Halperin JJ, McSweegan E, Nadelman RB, O'Connell S, Sood SK, Weinstein A, Wormser GP. Scientific evidence and best patient care practices should guide the ethics of Lyme disease activism. J Med Ethics. 2011;37(2):68-73.
  114. Avery RA, Frank G, Eppes SC. Diagnostic utility of Borrelia burgdorferi cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction-in children with Lyme meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24(8):705-8.
  115. Awerbuch T, Sandberg S, Deblinger R, Spielman A. Effect of simulated deer reduction on the abundance of the vector of Lyme disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;47(4 Suppl):214.
  116. Ayaslioglu E, Erkek E, Kaygusuz S, Kilic D, Inal A, Keskin G. Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi antibody seroprevalence in patients with Behçet's disease using 3 different serological assays. Turk J Med Sci. 2004;34(6):375-8.
  117. Babady NE, Patel R, Sloan LM, Vetter EA, Spurbeck DK, Binnicker MJ. Positivity Rate for Detection of Borrelia Burgdorferi in Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Synovial Fluid and Tissue by Real-Time Pcr. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2008;108:138.
  118. Babady NE, Sloan LM, Vetter EA, Patel R, Binnicker MJ. Percent positive rate of Lyme real-time polymerase chain reaction in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and tissue. Diag Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;62(4):464-6.
  119. Bacon RM, Biggerstaff BJ, Schriefer ME, Gilmore RD Jr, Philipp MT, Steere AC, Wormser GP, Marques AR, Johnson BJ. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant VlsE1 or peptide antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi compared with 2-tiered testing using whole-cell lysates. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(8):1187-99.
  120. Bacon RM, Gilmore RD Jr, Quintana M, Piesman J, Johnson BJ. DNA evidence of Borrelia lonestari in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeast Missouri. J Med Entomol. 2003;40(4):590-2.
  121. Bacon RM, Kugeler KJ, Mead PS; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Surveillance for Lyme disease—United States, 1992-2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57(10):1-9.
  122. Bacon RM, Pilgard MA, Johnson BJ, Piesman J, Biggerstaff BJ, Quintana M. Rapid detection methods and prevalence estimation for Borrelia lonestari glpQ in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) pools of unequal size. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5(2):146-56.
  123. Badon SJ, Cable RG, Morse EE, Aslanzadeh J, Malawista SE. Evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi in a blood donation. Blood. 1995;86(10 Suppl 1):355A.
  124. Baetzing-Feigenbaum J, Brenner H, Kallischnigg G, Rueden H, Talaska T. Seroprevalences of Tick-Borne and Other Zoonoseses in a High Risk Population of Forestry Workers and Foresters in the Federal Country of Brandenburg, Germany. Infect. 2001;29(Suppl 1):50-1.
  125. Bakken L, Callister SM, Case KL, Schell RF. Wisconsin Proficiency Program for Lyme disease: a program for improving detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Immun Newsletter. 1991;11:186-8.
  126. Bakken LL. Role of experience and context in learning to diagnose Lyme disease. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2002;22(3):131-41.
  127. Bakken LL, Callister SM, Wand PJ, Schell RF. Interlaboratory comparison of test results for detection of Lyme disease by 516 participants in the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene/College of American Pathologists Proficiency Testing Program. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35(3):537-43.
  128. Bakken LL, Case KL, Callister SM, Bourdeau NJ, Schell RF. Performance of 45 laboratories participating in a proficiency testing program for Lyme disease serology. JAMA. 1992;268(7):891-5.
  129. Balakrishnan N, Musulin S, Varanat M, Bradley JM, Breitschwerdt EB. Serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in North Carolina. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:116.
  130. Ball R, Braun M, Lathrop S, Haber P, Mootrey GT, Hayes NED. Lyme vaccine safety data reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (Vaers) of the USA from the first year of use. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2000;9(Suppl 1):S61-2.
  131. Banerjee S, Banerjee M, Cimolai N, Malleson P, Proctor E. Seroprevalence survey of borreliosis in children with chronic arthritis in British Columbia, Canada. J Rheumatol. 1992;19(10):1620-4.
  132. Banerjee S, Stephen C, Fernando K, Coffey S, Dong M. Evaluation of dogs as sero-indicators of the geographic distribution of Lyme borreliosis in British Columbia. Can Vet J. 1996;37(3):168-9.
  133. Banerjee SN. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbia. Can commun Dis Rep. 1993;19(24):204-5.
  134. Banerjee SN, Banerjee M, Fernando K, Scott JD, Mann R, Morshed MG. Presence of spirochete causing Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, in southern Ontario. CMAJ. 2000;162(11):1567-9.
  135. Baranova E, Solov Ev P, Panfertsev E, Baranova A, Feduykina G, Kolombet L, Morshed MG, Biketov S. Rational design of antigens to improve the serodiagnosis of tick-borne borreliosis in central regions of Russia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;807:9-21.
  136. Barbour AG. Expert advice and patient expectations: laboratory testing and antibiotics for Lyme disease. JAMA. 1998;279(3):239-40.
  137. Barbour AG, Bunikis J, Travinsky B, Hoen AG, Diuk-Wasser MA, Fish D, Tsao JL. Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81(6):1120-31.
  138. Barbour AG, Maupin GO, Teltow GJ, Carter CJ, Piesman J. Identification of an uncultivable Borrelia species in the hard tick Amblyomma americanum: possible agent of a Lyme disease-like illness. J Infect Dis. 1996;173(2):403-9.
  139. Barbour AG. The Diagnosis of Lyme Disease Rewards and Perils. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110(7):501-2.
  140. Barbour AG, Bunikis J, Fish D, Hanincova K. Association between body size and reservoir competence of mammals bearing Borrelia burgdorferi at an endemic site in the northeastern United States. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:299.
  141. Barclay SS, Melia MT, Auwaerter PG. Misdiagnosis of late-onset Lyme arthritis by inappropriate use of Borrelia burgdorferi immunoblot testing with synovial fluid. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19(11):1806-9.
  142. Barker IK, Lindsay LR, Campbell GD, Surgeoner GA, McEwen. The groundhog tick Ixodes cookei (Acari: ixodidae): a poor potential vector of Lyme borreliosis. J Wildl Dis. 1993;29(3):416-22.
  143. Barker IK, Surgeoner GA, Artsob H, McEwen SA, Elliott LA, Campbell GD, Robinson JT. Distribution of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada. J Med Entomol. 1992;29(6):1011-22.
  144. Barker IK, Surgeoner GA, McEwen SA, Artsob H. Distribution of the Lyme disease agent in wildlife reservoirs in Ontario. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1989;15(27):141-2.
  145. Barker TL, Richards AL, Laksono E, Sanchez JL, Feighner BH, McBride WZ, Rubertone MV, Hyams KC. Serosurvey of Borrelia burgdorferi infection among U.S. military personnel: a low risk of infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65(6):804-9.
  146. Barone SR, Bohrer SS, Erhardt WA. Parental knowledge of and attitudes toward LYMErix (recombinant Osp--a lyme vaccine). Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2002;41(1):33-6.
  147. Barranquero A, Borobio MV, Sifontes O, Martínez-Manzanares C, Izquierdo G. [Positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with symptoms compatible with Lyme's disease]. An Med Interna. 1994;11(5):212-6.
  148. Barrios JM, Verstraeten WW, Maes P, Aerts JM, Farifteh J, Coppin P. Relating land cover and spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis in Belgium. Int J Environ Health Res. 2013;23(2):132-54.
  149. Barrios JM, Verstraeten WW, Maes, P, Aerts JM, Farifteh J, Coppin P. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9(12):4346-64.
  150. Barrios JM, Verstraeten WW, Maes P, Aerts JM, Farifteh J, Coppin P. Seasonal vegetation variables and their impact on the spatio-temporal patterns of nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis in Belgium. Appl Geogr. 2013;45:230.
  151. Barth C, Straubinger RK, Krupka I, Müller E, Sauter-Louis C, Hartmann K. Comparison of different diagnostic assays for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibodies in dogs. Vet Clin Pathol. 2014;43(4):496-504.
  152. Bartholomew DM, Rowley WA, Novak MG, Platt KB. Ixodes scapularis and other ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) associated with Lyme disease in Iowa. J Vector Ecol. 1995;20(1):1-6.
  153. Barton WE, Gray EW, Shipes D. An initial investigation of the status of Borrellia burgodorferi and its suspected primary vector, Ixodes scapularis, in South Carolina. J S C Med Assoc. 1992;88(1):5-8.
  154. Bartosik K, Lachowska- Kotowska P, Szymanska J, Pabis A, Buczek A. Lyme borreliosis in south-eastern Poland: relationships with environmental factors and medical attention standards. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2011;18(1):131-7.
  155. Bartůnek P, Gorican K, Veiser T, Mrázek V, Varejka P, Hulínská D. [Information value of detection of borrelia antibodies in the healthy blood donors and in a population at risk]. Cas Lek Cesk. 2007;146(7):603-7.
  156. Bashura JP. Lyme disease beliefs and prevention related behaviors in Newtown, CT golfers. University of Connecticut Health Center. 2001; Paper 14.
  157. Battaly GR, Fish D. Relative importance of bird species as hosts for immature Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in a suburban residential landscape of southern New York State. J Med Entomol. 1993;30:740-7.
  158. Bauerfeind R, Kreis U, Weiss R, Wieler LH, Baljer G. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in urine specimens from dogs by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1998;287(4):347-61.
  159. Bayles BR, Evans G, Allan BF. Knowledge and prevention of tick-borne diseases vary across an urban-to-rural human land-use gradient. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4(4):352-8.
  160. Bazovska S, Kondas M, Simkovicova M, Kmety E, Traubner P. Significance of specific antibody determination in Lyme borreliosis diagnosis. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2001;102(10):454-7.
  161. Beall MJ, Chandrashekar R, Eberts MD, Cyr KE, Diniz PP, Mainville C, Hegarty BC, Crawford JM, Breitschwerdt EB. Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8(4):455-64.
  162. Beaujean DJMA, Crutzen R, Gassner F, Ameling C, Wong A, van Steenbergen JEV, Ruwaard D. Comparing the effect of a leaflet and a movie in preventing tick bites and Lyme disease in the Netherlands. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):495.
  163. Becker M. Identification of salivary antigens from the deer tick Ixodes scapularis as novel vaccine candidates. University of Rhode Island. 2013; Paper 53.
  164. Beitinjaneh F, Rizvi SA, Coyle PK, Krupp LB. Diagnostic Accuracy of Serologic Testing for Lyme Disease. Neurology. 2001;56(8 Suppl 3):A479-80.
  165. Bell CR, Specht HB, Coombs BA. The search for Ixodes dammini and Borrelia burgdorferi in Nova Scotia. Can J Infect Dis. 1992;3(5):224-30.
  166. Bellovin SM. Single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(18):1349.
  167. Belongia EA, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Chyou PH, Mueller-Rizner N, Finkel MF, Schriefer ME. Clinical and epidemiological features of early Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29(6):1472-7.
  168. Belongia EA, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Mueller-Rizner N, Vandermause M, Finkel MF, Kazmierczak JJ. Tickborne infections as a cause of nonspecific febrile illness in Wisconsin. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(10):1434-9.
  169. Benach JL, Coleman JL. Clinical and geographic characteristics of Lyme disease in New York. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987 Feb;263(3):477-82.
  170. Bennet, L, Berglund, J. Reinfection with Lyme borreliosis: a retrospective follow-up study in southern Sweden. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987;34(3):477-82.
  171. Bennet L, Halling A, Berglund, J. Increased incidence of Lyme borreliosis in southern Sweden following mild winters and during warm, humid summers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25(7):426-32.
  172. Bennet L, Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Effect of gender on clinical and epidemiologic features of Lyme borreliosis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7(1):34-41.
  173. Bennet R, Eriksson M, Lindgren V, Zweygberg-Wirgart B. The specificity of serology when neuroborreliosis is considered in children. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003;43:290.
  174. Bennet R, Lindgren V, Wirgart ZB. Borrelia antibodies in children evaluated for Lyme neuroborreliosis. Infect. 2008;36(5):463-6.
  175. Bennett K. Perceptions of Lyme borreliosis. J Spirochetal Tick-borne Dis. 2000;7(FALL):42-51.
  176. Bensaci M, Bhattacharya D, Clark R, Hu LT. Oral vaccination with vaccinia virus expressing the tick antigen subolesin inhibits tick feeding and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi. Vaccine. 2012;30(42):6040-6.
  177. Benzaia D. Protect Yourself from Lyme disease the New York Medical College guide to prevention detection and treatment. Dell Publishing: New York, New York, USA. Illus. Paper 1989:IX+118P.
  178. Beran J, De Clercq N, Dieussaert I, Van Hoecke C. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a Lyme disease vaccine in children 2-5 years old. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31(6):1504-7.
  179. Berardi VP, Weeks KE, Steere AC. Serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease: analysis of IgM and IgG antibody responses by using an antibody-capture enzyme immunoassay. J Infect Dis. 1988;158(4):754-60.
  180. Berger BW, Johnson RC, Kodner C, Coleman L. Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from the blood of two patients with erythema migrans lesions lacking extracutaneous signs and symptoms of Lyme disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30(1):48-51.
  181. Berger BW, Johnson RC, Kodner C, Coleman L. Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from erythema migrans lesions and perilesional skin. J Clin Microbiol. 1992;30(2):359-61.
  182. Bergmann AR, Schmidt BL, Derler AM, Aberer E. Importance of sample preparation for molecular diagnosis of lyme borreliosis from urine. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40(12):4581-4.
  183. Bergström S1, Sjöstedt A, Dotevall L, Kaijser B, Ekstrand-Hammarström B, Wallberg C, Skogman G, Barbour AG. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis by an enzyme immunoassay detecting immunoglobulin G reactive to purified Borrelia burgdorferi cell components. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1991;10(5):422-7.
  184. Bernard WV, Cohen D, Bosler E, Zamos D. Serologic survey for Borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-Atlantic veterinary teaching hospital. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990;196(8):1255-8.
  185. Berrada ZL, Telford SR 3rd. Burden of tick-borne infections on American companion animals. Top Companion Anim Med. 2009;24(4):175-81.
  186. Berry GJ, Cherepkol J, Keeler SP, Huffman JE. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella Spp., Bartonella henselae, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Monroe County, Pennsylvania. J Pa Acad Sci. 2008;81(Sp. Iss. SI):109-10.
  187. Berzina I, Matise I. Association between the use of the acaricides, household type, tick bite and seropositivity against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in clinically healthy dogs in Latvia. Environ Exper Biol. 2013;11(1):47.
  188. Wilske B, Schierz G, Preac-Mursic V, Pfister H-W, Weber K, Von Busch K, Baruschke A. IgM- and IgG-immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in erythema migrans and neuroborreliosis. Lyme Borreliosis II, Zbl Bakt. 1989;Suppl 18:290-8.
  189. Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V, Schierz G, Liegle G, Gueye W. Detection of IgM- and IgG Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi using different starins as antigen. Lyme Borreliosis II, Zbl Bakt. 1989;Suppl 18:299-309.
  190. Bettridge J, Renard M, Zhao F, Bown KJ, Birtles RJ. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus populations across central Britain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013;13(3):139-46.
  191. Bhattacharya D, Bensaci M, Luker KE, Luker G, Wisdom S, Telford SR, Hu LT. Development of a baited oral vaccine for use in reservoir-targeted strategies against Lyme disease. Vaccine. 2011;29(44):7818-25.
  192. Bhide M, Yilmaz Z, Golcu E, Torun S, Mikula I. Seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs and horses in Turkey. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008;15(1):85-90.
  193. Bhide MR, Curlik J, Travnicek M, Lazar P. Protein A/G dependent ELISA a promising diagnostic tool in Lyme disease seroprevalence in game animals and hunting dogs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;27(3):191-9.
  194. Bil-Lula I, Matuszek P, Pfeiffer T, Woźniak M. Lyme Borreliosis--the utility of improved real-time PCR assay in the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi infections. Adv Clin Exp Medicine. 2015;24(4):663-70.
  195. Bilski B. Occurrence of cases of borreliosis certified as an occupational disease in the province of Wielkopolska (Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009;16(2):211-7.
  196. Bin Muzaffar S, Smith RP Jr, Jones IANL, Lavers J, Lacombe EH, Cahill BK, Lubelczyk CB, Rand PW. The Trans-Atlantic Movement of the Spirochete Borrelia Garinii the Role of Ticks and Their Seabird Hosts. Stud Avian Biol. 2012:23-30.
  197. Binet L, Girardet K, Péter O. Tests de confirmation pour la borreliose de Lyme. Immunoanal Biol Spéc. 1997;12(6):316-24.
  198. Bischof R, Rogers DG. Serologic survey of select infectious diseases in coyotes and raccoons in Nebraska. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41(4):787-91.
  199. Bjork J, Brown C, Friedlander H, Schiffman E, Neitzel D. Validation of random sampling as an estimation procedure for Lyme disease surveillance in Massachusetts and Minnesota. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016;Aug 3. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12297
  200. Bjurman NK, Bradet G, Lloyd VK. Lyme disease risk in dogs in New Brunswick. Can Vet J. 2016;57(9):981-4.
  201. Blaauw I, Nohlmans L, van den Bogaard T, van der Linden S. Diagnostic tools in Lyme borreliosis: clinical history compared with serology. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45(11):1229-36.
  202. Blagburn BL, Spencer JA, Butler JM, Land TM, Billeter SA, Dykstra CC, Stafford KC, Pough MB, Levy SA, Endrizzi M, Hostetler J. Prevention of transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum from ticks to dogs using K9 Advantix and Frontline Plus Applied 25 days before exposure to infected ticks. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2005;3:69-75.
  203. Blanc F, Jaulhac B, Fleury M, de Seze J, de Martino SJ, Remy V, Blaison G, Hansmann Y, Christmann D, Tranchant C. Relevance of the antibody index to diagnose Lyme neuroborreliosis among seropositive patients. Neurology. 2007;69(10):953-8.
  204. Blaskovic D, Barák I. Oligo-chip based detection of tick-borne bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;243(2):473-8.
  205. BobbaG, Olien PJ, Capuano F, Blocki FA, Schmidt JA. Liaison (R) Borrelia assay: a recombinant Antigen based, automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clin Chem. 2006;52(6 Suppl S):A39.
  206. BobbaG, Terhaar PJ, Blocki FA, Schmidt JA. Clinical evaluation of the Liaison (R) Borrelia burgdorferi assay, a new automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clin Chem. 2007;53(6 Suppl S):A64.
  207. Bogachkina S, Rakitin I, Meltser A, Parkov O, Chhindzheria I, Antyikova L, Datskevich A. Importance of acaricide treatment for prevention of natural focal infections of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis in St. Petersburg. EpiNorth - Journal of the Network for Communicable Disease Control in Northern and Eastern Europe. 2011;12(3):76-81.
  208. Bogdziewicz M, Szymkowiak J. Oak acorn crop and Google search volume predict Lyme disease risk in temperate Europe. Basic and Appl Ecol. 2016;17(4):300.
  209. Bohme M, Schwenecke S, Fuchs E, Wiebecke D, Karch H. Screening of blood donors and recipients for Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies: no evidence of B. burgdorferi infection transmitted by transfusion. Infusionsther Transfusionsmed. 1992;19(4):204-7.
  210. Boltri JM, Hash RB, Vogel RL. Patterns of Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment by family physicians in a southeastern state. J Community Health. 2002;27(6):395-402.
  211. Bonneau S, Reymond N, Gupta S, Navarro C. Efficacy of a fixed combination of permethrin 54.5% and fipronil 6.1% (Effitix®) in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8(1):204.
  212. Borcić B, Kaić B, Kralj V. Some epidemiological data on TBE and Lyme borreliosis in Croatia. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1999;289(5-7):540-7.
  213. Borde JP, Meier S, Fingerle V, Klier C, Hübner J, Kern WV. CXCL13 may improve diagnosis in early neuroborreliosis with atypical laboratory findings. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:344.
  214. Bosler EM, Evans RD, Schneider EM. Biopsy of canine ear tissue for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi following Ixodes dammini feeding. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992;78(2-3):317-9.
  215. Bosler EM, Ormiston BG, Coleman JL, Hanrahan JP, Benach JL. Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete in populations of white-tailed deer and white-footed mice. Yale J Biol Med. 1984;57(4):651-9.
  216. Bouchard C, Beauchamp G, Leighton PA, Lindsay R, Bélanger D, Ogden NH. Does high biodiversity reduce the risk of Lyme disease invasion? Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:195.
  217. Bouchard C, Beauchamp G, Nguon S, Trudel L, Milord F, Lindsay LR, Bélanger D, Ogden NH. Associations between Ixodes scapularis ticks and small mammal hosts in a newly endemic zone in southeastern Canada: implications for Borrelia burgdorferi transmission. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2(4):183-90.
  218. Bouchard C, Leighton PA, Beauchamp G, Nguon S, Trudel L, Milord F, Lindsay LR, Bélanger D, Ogden NH. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada. J Med Entomol. 2013;50(2):384-93.
  219. Boulware DR, Forgey WW, Martin WJ 2nd. Medical risks of wilderness hiking. Am J Med. 2003;114(4):288-93.
  220. Bowen GS, Schulze TL, Parkin WL. Lyme disease in New Jersey, 1978-1982. Yale J Biol Med. 1984;57(4):661-8.
  221. Bowen GS, Schulze TL, Hayne C, Parkin WE. A focus of Lyme disease in Monmouth County, New Jersey. Am J Epidemiol. 1984;120(3):387-94.
  222. Bowman D, Little SE, Lorentzen L, Shields J, Sullivan MP, Carlin EP. Prevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in the United States: results of a national clinic-based serologic survey. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160(1-2):138-48.
  223. Boyce WM, Brown RN, Zingg BC, Lefebvre RB, Lane RS. First isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi in southern California. J Med Entomol. 1992;29(3):496-500.
  224. Bracero LA, Wormser GP, Leikin E, Tejani N. Prevalence of seropositivity to the Lyme disease spirochete during pregnancy in an epidemic area: a preliminary report. J Matern Fetal Invest. 1992;2:265-8.
  225. Branda JA, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Ferraro MJ, Johnson BJ, Wormser GP, Steere AC. 2-tiered antibody testing for early and late Lyme disease using only an immunoglobulin G blot with the addition of a VlsE band as the second-tier test. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(1):20-6.
  226. Branda JA, Linskey K, Kim YA, Steere AC, Ferraro MJ. Two-tiered antibody testing for Lyme disease with use of 2 enzyme immunoassays, a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(6):541-7.
  227. Branda JA, Strle F, Strle K, Sikand N, Ferraro MJ, Steere AC. Performance of United States serologic assays in the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis acquired in Europe. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(3):333-40.
  228. Brandenburg AK, Meijer BC, Steendam B, Van Elsacker-Niele AM. Evaluation of Nine Commerci Available Eia Kits and Two Immunobil for the Serodiagnosis of Lyme Disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004;104:646.
  229. Bransfield RC, Hassler D, Maiwald M, Petney TN, Piras MA, Porqueddu EM, Aceti A, Anderson RE, Fix AD, Strickland GT, Barbour AG. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease [1] (multiple letters). JAMA. 1998;280(12):1049-51.
  230. Bratton RL, Whiteside JW, Hovan MJ, Engle RL, Edwards FD. Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83(5):566-71.
  231. Braun HB, Kelly, P, Wittgens, T, Staub, Foster P, Michel G. Automated detection of anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies using the Abbott Imx(R) Analyzer: Applications in therapy monitoring and detection of neuroborreliosis. Clin Chem. 1999;45(6 PART 2):A158.
  232. Breitschwerdt EB, Nicholson WL, Kiehl AR, Steers C, Meuten DJ, Levine JF. Natural infections with Borrelia spirochetes in two dogs from Florida. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Feb;32(2):352-7.
  233. Brett ME, Hinckley AF, Zielinski-Gutierrez EC, Mead PS. U.S. healthcare providers' experience with Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;Jun;5(4):404-8.
  234. Brettschneider S, Bruckbauer H, Klugbauer N, Hofmann H. Diagnostic value of PCR for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in skin biopsy and urine samples from patients with skin borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Sep;36(9):2658-65.
  235. Brewer NT, Cuite CL, Herrington JE, Weinstein ND. Risk compensation and vaccination: can getting vaccinated cause people to engage in risky behaviors? Ann Behav Med. 2007 Aug;34(1):95-9.
  236. Brewer NT, Weinstein ND, Cuite CL, Herrington JE. Risk perceptions and their relation to risk behavior. Ann Behav Med. 2004 Apr;27(2):125-30.
  237. Briciu VT, Sebah D, Coroiu G, Lupşe M, Cârstina D, Ţăţulescu D, Mihalca AD, Gherman CM, Leucuţa D, Meyer F, Hizo-Teufel C, Fingerle V, Huber I. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR as diagnostic tools for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans. Exp Appl Acarol. 2016 May;69(1):49-60.
  238. Brinkerhoff RJ, Bent SJ, Folsom-O'Keefe CM, Tsao K, Hoen AG, Barbour AG, Diuk-Wasser MA. Genotypic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi strains detected in Ixodes scapularis larvae collected from North American songbirds. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Dec;76(24):8265-88.
  239. Brinkerhoff RJ, Folsom-O'Keefe CM, Streby HM, Bent SJ, Tsao K, Diuk-Wasser MA. Regional variation in immature Ixodes scapularis parasitism on North American songbirds: implications for transmission of the Lyme pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 2011 Mar;48(2):422-8.
  240. Brinkerhoff RJ, Gilliam WF, Gaines D. Lyme disease, Virginia, USA, 2000-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;20(10):1661-8.
  241. Brinkman C, Meek J. Evaluation of two Lyme disease enzyme immunoassay (Eia) procedures and a Western blot (Wb) procedure. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1995;95:38.
  242. Brissette CA, Rossmann E, Bowman A, Cooley AE, Riley SP, Hunfeld KP, Bechtel M, Kraiczy P, Stevenson B. The borrelial fibronectin-binding protein RevA is an early antigen of human Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Feb;17(2):274-80.
  243. Bronson E, Spiker H, Driscoll CP. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2014;50(4):829-36.
  244. Brown M, Redecha P, Christian C. The prevalence of Lyme disease in an endemic region. Arthritis Rheum. 1990 Feb;33(2):299-301.
  245. Brown RN, Lane RS. Reservoir competence of four chaparral-dwelling rodents for Borrelia burgdorferi in California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Jan;54(1):84-91.
  246. Brown RN, Lane RS. Natural and experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infections in woodrats and deer mice from California. J Wildl Dis. 1994 Jul;30(3):389-98.
  247. Brown RN, Lane RS. Lyme disease in California: a novel enzootic transmission cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. Science. 1992 Jun 5;256(5062):1439-42.
  248. Brown SM, Lehman PM, Kern RA, Henning JD. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, within southwestern Pennsylvania. J Vector Ecol. 2015;40(1):180-3.
  249. Brownstein JS, Skelly DK, Fish D. A multi-scale spatial approach for evaluating the impact of environmental change on Lyme disease risk. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69(3 Suppl):238-9.
  250. Brownstein JS, Skelly DK, Holford TR, Fish D. Forest fragmentation predicts local scale heterogeneity of Lyme disease risk. Oecologia. 2005 Dec;146(3):469-75.
  251. Brunet LR, Spielman A, Telford SR 3rd. Density of Lyme disease spirochetes within deer ticks collected from zoonotic sites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Sep;53(3):300-2.
  252. Brunner M. New method for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antigen complexed to antibody in seronegative Lyme disease. J Immunol Methods. 2001 Mar;249(1-2):185-90.
  253. Brunner M, Sigal LH. Use of serum immune complexes in a new test that accurately confirms early Lyme disease and active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Sep;39(9):3213-21.
  254. Brunner M, Stein S, Mitchell PD, Sigal LH. Immunoglobulin M capture assay for serologic confirmation of early Lyme disease: analysis of immune complexes with biotinylated Borrelia burgdorferi sonicate enhanced with flagellin peptide epitope. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Apr;36(4):1074-80.
  255. Brunner M, Stein S, and Sigal L. Enzyme-linked Igm capture immune complex biotinylated-antigen assay (Emiba) detection of anti-B. burgdorferi (Bb) antibodies: a new immunoassay for early and active Lyme disease (Ld). Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(9 Suppl):S142.
  256. Bryan HM, Darimont CT, Paquet PC, Ellis JA, Goji N, Gouix M, Smits JE. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans. Can J Vet Res. 2011 Jan;75(1):11-7.
  257. Bryant J, Yi A, Savukinas D, Hodder S, Gilfillan R. Evaluation of rapid enzyme immunoassay for canine Lyme disease antibody detection. Ann NY Acad Sci.1988;539:447-8.
  258. Bryant L, Callister SM, Jobe DA, Padilla M, Schell RF. Characterization of the protective antibody response in humans after vaccination with a Borrelia burgdorferi Ospa vaccine. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38(9 Suppl):S346.
  259. Brzeski KE, Harrison RB, Waddell WT, Wolf KN, Rabon DR, Taylor SS. Infectious disease and red Wolf conservation: Assessment of disease occurrence and associated risks. J Mammal. 2015;96(4):751.
  260. Buczek A, Rudek A, Bartosik K, Szymanska J, Wojcik-Fatla A. Seroepidemiological study of Lyme borreliosis among forestry workers in southern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009;16(2):257-61.
  261. Buczek A, Ciura D, Bartosik K, Zając Z, Kulisz J. Threat of attacks of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Lyme borreliosis within urban heat islands in south-western Poland. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Dec;7:562.
  262. Buechner SA, Lautenschlager S, Itin P, Bircher A, Erb P. Lymphoproliferative responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with erythema migrans, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, lymphadenosis benigna cutis, and morphea. Arch Dermatol. 1995 Jun;131(6):673-7.
  263. Buffrini L, Grignolo MC, Rovetta G, Monteforte P. Polymerase chain reaction in Lyme borreliosis. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2000;26(2):67-70.
  264. Bunikis I, Kutschan-Bunikis S, Bonde M, Bergström S. Multiplex PCR as a tool for validating plasmid content of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Microbiol Methods. 2011 Aug;86(2):243-7.
  265. Bunikis J, Tsao J, Luke CJ, Luna MG, Fish D, Barbour AG. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of Peromyscus Leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where Lyme Borreliosis is highly endemic. J Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 15;189(8):1515-23.
  266. Bunnell JE, Magnarelli LA, Dumler JS. Infection of laboratory mice with the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent does not induce antibodies to diagnostically significant Borrelia burgdorferi antigens. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Jun;37(6):2077-9.
  267. Bunnell JE, Price SD, Das A, Shields TM, Glass GE. Geographic information systems and spatial analysis of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Middle Atlantic region of the U.S.A. J Med Entomol. 2003 Jul;40(4):570-6.
  268. Burbelo PD, Issa AT, Ching KH, Cohen JI, Iadarola MJ, Marques A. Rapid, simple, quantitative, and highly sensitive antibody detection for lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Jun;17(6):904-9.
  269. Burbelo PD, Swedo SE, Thurm A, Bayat A, Levin AE, Marques A, Iadarola MJ. Lack of serum antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in children with autism. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Jul;20(7):1092-3.
  270. Burbelo PD, Bren KE, Ching KH, Coleman A, Yang X, Kariu T, Iadarola MJ, Pal U. Antibody Profiling of Borrelia Burgdorferi Infection in Horses. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Sep;18(9):1562-7.
  271. Burdge DR, O'Hanlon DP. Experience at a referral center for patients with suspected Lyme disease in an area of nonendemicity: first 65 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Apr;16(4):558-60.
  272. Burek V, Misić-Mayerus L, Maretić T. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in various population groups in Croatia. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(5):683-4.
  273. Burgdorfer W, Barbour AG, Hayes SF, Benach JL, Grunwaldt E, Davis JP. Lyme disease-a tick-borne spirochetosis? Science. 1982 Jun 18;216(4552):1317-9.
  274. Burgdorfer W, Hayes SF, Benach JL. Development of Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid tick vectors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:172-9.
  275. Burgdorfer W, Lane RS, Barbour AG, Gresbrink RA, Anderson JR. The western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus: a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1985 Sep;34(5):925-30.
  276. Burgess EC. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Wisconsin horses and cows. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:235-43.
  277. Burgess EC. Natural exposure of Wisconsin dogs to the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). Lab Anim Sci. 1986 Jun;36(3):288-90.
  278. Burgess EC. Borreliosis (Lyme disease). 1988. In Manual of Small Animal Infectious Diseases. New York. pp. 153-9.
  279. Burgess EC, Schneider E, Bosler E. Testing for Borrelia burgdorferi. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Oct;195(7):844-6.
  280. Burgess EC, Wachal MD, Cleven TD. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in dairy cows, rodents, and birds from four Wisconsin dairy farms. Vet Microbiol. 1993 May;35(1-2):61-77.
  281. Burgess EC, Windberg LA. Borrelia sp. infection in coyotes, black-tailed jack rabbits and desert cottontails in southern Texas. J Wildl Dis. 1989 Jan;25(1):47-51.
  282. Burgess EC, French JB Jr, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A. Systemic disease in Peromyscus leucopus associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Mar;42(3):254-9.
  283. Burke G, Wikel SK, Spielman A, Telford SR, McKay K, Krause PJ; Tick-borne Infection Study Group. Hypersensitivity to ticks and Lyme disease risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jan;11(1):36-41.
  284. Burkert S, Rössler D, Münchhoff P, Wilske B. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using recombinant borrelial antigens for serodiagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1996 May;185(1):49-57.
  285. Burkot TR, Clover JR, Happ CM, DeBess E, Maupin GO. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from Neotoma fuscipes, Peromyscus maniculatus, Peromyscus boylii, and Ixodes pacificus in Oregon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Mar;60(3):453-7.
  286. Burkot TR, Maupin GO, Dolan M, Happ CH, Zeidner N. The vector potential of Ixodes spinipalpis for Lyme disease and Hge. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(3 Suppl):328.
  287. Burkot TR, Maupin GO, Schneider BS, Denatale C, Happ CM, Rutherford JS, Zeidner NS. Use of a sentinel host system to study the questing behavior of Ixodes spinipalpis and its role in the transmission of Borrelia bissettii, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and Babesia microti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Oct;65(4):293-9.
  288. Burkot TR, Mullen GR, Anderson R, Schneider BS, Happ CM, Zeidner NS. Borrelia lonestari DNA in adult Amblyomma americanum ticks, Alabama. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 May-Jun;7(3):471-3.
  289. Burkot TR, Patrican L, Piesman J. Field trial of an outer surface protein A (OspA) antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis. 50(3). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Mar;50(3):354-8.
  290. Burkot TR, Schneider BS, Pieniazek NJ, Happ CM, Rutherford JS, Slemenda SB, Hoffmeister E, Maupin GO, Zeidner NS. Babesia microti and Borrelia bissettii transmission by Ixodes spinipalpis ticks among prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, in Colorado. Parasitology. 2000 Dec;121 Pt 6:595-9.
  291. Burkot TR, Schriefer ME, Larsen SA. Cross-reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi proteins in serum samples from residents of a tropical country nonendemic for Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1997 Feb;175(2):466-9.
  292. Burkot TR, Wirtz RA, Luft B, Piesman J. An OspA antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting North American isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi in larval and nymphal Ixodes dammini. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Feb;31(2):272-8.
  293. Burri C, Moran Cadenas F, Douet V, Moret J, Gern L. Ixodes ricinus density and infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato along a North-facing altitudinal gradient in the Rhone Valley (Switzerland). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007 Spring;7(1):50-8.
  294. Busson L, Reynders M, Van den Wijngaert S, Dahma H, Decolvenaer M, Vasseur L, Vandenberg Evaluation of commercial screening tests and blot assays for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Jul;73(3):246-51.
  295. Butler AD, Sedghi T, Petrini JR, Ahmadi R. Tick-borne disease preventive practices and perceptions in an endemic area. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7(2):331-7.
  296. Cabannes, A., Lucchese, F., Pelse, H., Biesel, N., Eymonnot, M., and Appriou, M. Castration and feline borreliosis in Gironde (France).: Castration et borreliose feline dans le departement de la Gironde. Rev Med Vet-Toulouse. 2000;151:949-54.
  297. Callister SM, Agger WA, Schell RF, Ellingson JL. Borrelia burgdorferi infection surrounding La Crosse, Wis. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Dec;26(12):2632-6.
  298. Callister SM, Case KL, Agger WA, Schell RF, Johnson RC, Ellingson JL. Effects of bovine serum albumin on the ability of Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium to detect Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Feb;28(2):363-5.
  299. Callister SM, Jobe DA, Agger WA, Schell RF, Kowalski TJ, Lovrich SD, Marks JA. Ability of the borreliacidal antibody test to confirm Lyme disease in clinical practice. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002 Jul;9(4):908-12.
  300. Callister SM, Jobe DA, Schell RF, Lovrich SD, Onheiber KL, Korshus JB. Detection of borreliacidal antibodies in dogs after challenge with Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes scapularis ticks. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Oct;38(10):3670-4.
  301. Callister SM, Jobe DA, Schell RF, Pavia CS, Lovrich SD. Sensitivity and specificity of the borreliacidal-antibody test during early Lyme disease: a "gold standard"? Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996 Jul;3(4):399-402.
  302. Callister SM, Nelson JA, Schell RF, Jobe DA, Bautz R, Agger WA, Coggins J. Survey for Ixodes spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Feb;29(2):403-6.
  303. Callister SM, Schell RF, Lovrich SD. Lyme disease assay which detects killed Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Sep;29(9):1773-6.
  304. Callister SM, Schell RF, Lim LC, Jobe DA, Case KL, Bryant GL, Molling PE. Detection of borreliacidal antibodies by flow cytometry. An accurate, highly specific serodiagnostic test for Lyme disease. Arch Intern Med. 1994 Jul 25;154(14):1625-32.
  305. Callister SM, Agger WA, Schell RF, Brand KM. Efficacy of the urinary bladder for isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from naturally infected wild Peromyscus leucopus. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Apr;27(4):773-4.
  306. Callister SM, Jobe DA, Stuparic-Stancic A, Miyamasu M, Boyle J, Dattwyler RJ, Arnaboldit PM. Detection of IFN-gamma secretion by T cells collected before and after successful treatment of early Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):1235.
  307. Callister SM, LaFleur RL, Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Wasmoen TL. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins C and F in experimentally infected Beagle dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015 Jul;27(4):526-30.
  308. Cameron D, Gaito A, Harris N, Bach G, Bellovin S, Bock K, Bock S, Burrascano J, Dickey C, Horowitz R, Phillips S, Meer-Scherrer L, Raxlen B, Sherr V, Smith H, Smith P, Stricker R; ILADS Working Group. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of Lyme disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2004;2(1 Suppl):S1-13.
  309. Cameron DJ. Proof that chronic lyme disease exists. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2010;2010, Article ID 876450. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/876450
  310. Campagna J, Lavoie PE, Birnbaum NS, Furman DP. Lyme disease in northern California. West J Med. 1983 Sep;139(3):319-23.
  311. Campbell GL, Fritz CL, Fish D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Estimation of the incidence of Lyme disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Nov 15;148(10):1018-26.
  312. Campbell GL, Paul WS, Schriefer ME, Craven RB, Robbins KE, Dennis DT. Epidemiologic and diagnostic studies of patients with suspected early Lyme disease, Missouri, 1990-1993. J Infect Dis. 1995 Aug;172(2):470-80.
  313. Cann KJ, Wilson ML, Akintunde C, Archard L, Wright DJ. Detection of Lyme disease spirochaete DNA in clinical samples. In Lyme Borreliosis, Eds JS Axford and DHE Rees, Plenum Press, New York, 1994. pp. 269-77.
  314. Capelli G, Ravagnan S, Montarsi F, Ciocchetta S, Cazzin S, Porcellato E, Babiker AM, Cassini R, Salviato A, Cattoli G, Otranto D. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy. Parasit Vectors. 2012 Mar 27;5:61.
  315. Capligina V, Ranka R, Brangulis K, Bormane A, Baumanis, V. Application of real-time Taqman Multiplex PCR in epidemiologic study of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in tick samples. FEBS J. 2010;277(Suppl 1):102.
  316. Caporale DA, Johnson CM. The spread of human tick-borne pathogens in central Wisconsin. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004;104:658.
  317. Caporale DA, Johnson CM, Millard BJ. Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in southern Kettle Moraine State Forest, Wisconsin, and characterization of strain W97F51. J Med Entomol. 2005;42(3):457-72.
  318. Capps PA, Pinger RR, Russell KM, Wood ML. Community health nurses' knowledge of Lyme disease: implications for surveillance and community education. J Community Health Nurs. 1999;16(1):1-15.
  319. Caputa AC, Murtaugh MP, Bey RF, Loken KI. 110-kilodalton recombinant protein which is immunoreactive with sera from humans, dogs, and horses with Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Nov;29(11):2418-23.
  320. Caputo GM. Lyme anxiety. JAMA. 1991 Jul;266(3):359.
  321. Carmichael RJ, Holbrook TC, Little SE. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia Spp. in horses in Oklahoma. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24(3):710-1.
  322. Carmichael RC, Duell JR, Holbrook TC, Herrin BH, Leutenegger CM, O'Connor TP, Little SE. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. are common in Oklahoma horses. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Aug;14(8):552-6.
  323. Caron DM. What beekeepers should know about Lyme disease. Am Bee J. 1991;131:301-2.
  324. Carrade D, Foley J, Sullivan M, Foley CW, Sykes JE. Spatial distribution of seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Washington, Oregon, and California. Vet Clin Pathol. 2011 Sep;40(3):293-302.
  325. Carroll MC, Ginsberg HS, Hyland KE, Hu R. Distribution of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in residential lawns on Prudence Island, Rhode Island. J Med Entomol. 1992 Nov;29(6):1052-5.
  326. Cartter ML, Farley TA, Ardito HA, Hadler JL. Lyme disease prevention--knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among high school students in an endemic area. Conn Med. 1989 Jun;53(6):354-6.
  327. Cartter ML, Hadler JL. Reinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Conn Med. 1989 Jun;53(6):376-7.
  328. Cartter ML, Mshar P, Hadler JL. The epidemiology of Lyme disease in Connecticut. Conn Med. 1989 Jun;53(6):320-3.
  329. Casteel M, Sonenshine DE. Abundance of adult Ixodes scapularis and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in eastern Virginia. Va J Sci. 1996;47(4):293-300.
  330. Castellaw AH, Chenney EF, Varela-Stokes AS. Tick-borne disease agents in various wildlife from Mississippi. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Apr;11(4):439-42.
  331. Castellaw AH, Showers J, Goddard J, Chenney EF, Varela-Stokes AS. SDetection of vector-borne agents in lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), from Mississippi. J Med Entomol. 2010 May;47(3):473-6.
  332. Castro MB, Nicholson WL, Kramer VL, Childs JE. Persistent infection in Neotoma fuscipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae) with Ehrlichia phagocytophila sensu lato. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Oct;65(4):261-7.
  333. Cerar T, Ogrinc K, Cimperman J, Lotric-Furlan S, Strle F, Ruzić-Sabljić E. Validation of cultivation and PCR methods for diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Oct;46(10):3375-9.
  334. Cerar T, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Cimperman J, Strle F. Comparison of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and LIAISON in patients with different clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006 Nov;118(21-22):686-90.
  335. Cerar T, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Glinsek U, Zore A, Strle F. Comparison of PCR methods and culture for the detection of Borrelia spp. in patients with erythema migrans. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 Jul;14(7):653-8.
  336. Cerar T, Ruzic-Sabljic EVA, Cimperman J, Strle F. Comparison of immunofluorescence assay (Ifa) and enzyme immuno assay (Eia) for borrelial antibody detection in patients with signs and symptoms suggesting neuroborreliosis. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296(Suppl 40):283-4.
  337. Cetin E, Sotoudeh M, Auer H, Stanek G. Paradigm Burgenland: risk of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection indicated by variable seroprevalence rates in hunters. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006 Nov;118(21-22):677-81.
  338. Cevenini R, Sambri V, Massaria F, Franchini R, D'Antuono A, Borda G, Negosanti M. Surface immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Sep;30(9):2456-61.
  339. Chambers M, Swango L, Wright J. New Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for Lyme Disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1993;93:553.
  340. Chambers MA, Swango LJ, Wright JC. Novel indirect fluorescent antibody test for Lyme disease. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1996 Apr;8(2):196-201.
  341. Chan SS, Wong YC, Hodgkiss IJ. A preliminary study of C-reactive protein in the diagnosis and monitoring of Lyme disease. Biomed Environ Sci. 1996 Dec;9(4):424-9.
  342. Chandrashekar R, Daniluk D. Serologic diagnosis of equine borreliosis: evaluation of an in-clinic Elisa (Snap(R)3dx(R)). J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18(3):455.
  343. Chandrashekar R, Daniluk D, Esty C. Serologic diagnosis of equine borreliosis and Anaplasmosis: evaluation of an in-clinic Elisa Snap (R) 4dx (R)). J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22(3):820.
  344. Chandrashekar R, Daniluk D, Moffitt S, Lorentzen L, Williams J. Serologic diagnosis of equine borreliosis: evaluation of an in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SNAPReg. 4DxReg.). Int J Appl Res Vet M. 2008;6:145.
  345. Chandrashekar R, Mainville CA, Beall MJ, O'Connor T, Eberts MD, Alleman AR, Gaunt SD, Breitschwerdt EB. Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2010 Dec;71(12):1443-50.
  346. Chang DJ, Ceniza MF, Sigal LH. "Lyme Disease Testing" Utilization in a Hospital-Based Setting. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(9 Suppl):S142.
  347. Chang Y, Novosol V, McDonough SP, Chang CF, Jacobson RH, Divers T, Quimby FW, Shin S, Lein DH. Vaccination against lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein A (rOspA) in horses. Vaccine. 1999 Oct 14;18(5-6):540-8.
  348. Chang YF, Appel MJ, Jacobson RH, Shin SJ, Harpending P, Straubinger R, Patrican LA, Mohammed H, Summers BA. Recombinant OspA protects dogs against infection and disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 1995 Sep;63(9):3543-9.
  349. Chang YF, Novosel V, Chang CF, Kim JB, Shin SJ, Lein DH. Detection of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks by polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1998 Jan;10(1):56-9.
  350. Chanlongbutra A, Wong D, Khavari K, Fritz C. Prevention of Vector-borne Diseases at National Park Service Units in California: Results from an Employee Survey. California Department of Public Health. 2009:1-13.
  351. Chen H, Stratton HH, Caraco TB, White DJ. Spatiotemporal Bayesian analysis of Lyme disease in New York state, 1990-2000. J Med Entomol. 2006 Jul;43(4):777-84.
  352. Chen H, White DJ, Caraco TB, Stratton HH. Epidemic and spatial dynamics of Lyme disease in New york State, 1990-2000. J Med Entomol. 2005 Sep;42(5):899-908.
  353. Cherepko J, Berry GJ, Keeler SP, Huffman JE. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Bartonella henselae, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Monroe County, Pennsylvania show a risk for co- and tri- infections. J Pa Acad Sci. 2010;84(2-3):74-8.
  354. Chesky M, Scalco R, Failace L, Read S, Jobim LF. Polymerase chain reaction for the laboratory diagnosis of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2000 Sep;58(3B):836-42.
  355. Chmielewska-Badora J. Seroepidemiologic study on Lyme borreliosis in the Lublin region. Ann Agric Environ Med. 1998;5(2):183-6.
  356. Chmielewska-Badora J, Cisak E, Wójcik-Fatla A, Zwoliński J, Buczek A, Dutkiewicz J. Correlation of tests for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in patients with diagnosed borreliosis. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(2):307-11.
  357. Chmielewska-Badora J, Moniuszko A, Żukiewicz-Sobczak W, Zwoliński J, Piątek J, Pancewicz S. Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and Babesia microti. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(2):271-4.
  358. Chmielewski T, Fiett J, Gniadkowski M, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S. Improvement in the laboratory recognition of lyme borreliosis with the combination of culture and PCR methods. Mol Diagn. 2003;7(3-4):155-62.
  359. Chomel BB1, Carniciu ML, Kasten RW, Castelli PM, Work TM, Jessup DA. Antibody prevalence of eight ruminant infectious diseases in California mule and black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus). J Wildl Dis. 1994 Jan;30(1):51-9.
  360. Chou J, Wünschmann A, Hodzic E, Borjesson DL. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in tissues from dogs with presumptive Lyme borreliosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Oct;229(8):1260-5.
  361. Chou CH, Yeh TM, Lu YP, Shih WL, Chang CD, Chien CH, S. Liu SH, Wu HY,Tsai FJ, Huang HH, Liao MH. Prevalence of zoonotic pathogens by molecular detection in stray dogs in central Taiwan. Thai J Vet Med. 2014;44(3):363.
  362. Chow CC, Evans AS Jr, Noonan-Toly CM, White D, Johnson GS, Marks SJ, Caldwell MC, Hayes EB. Lyme disease trends—Dutchess County, New York, 1992-2000. Mt Sinai J Med. 2003 May;70(3):207-13.
  363. Christen HJ, Eiffert H, Ohlenbusch A, Hanefeld F. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in cerebrospinal fluid of children with acute peripheral facial palsy. Eur J Pediatr. 1995 May;154(5):374-7.
  364. Christen HJ, Hanefeld F, Eiffert H, Thomssen R. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in childhood. A prospective multicentre study with special regard to neuroborreliosis. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1993 Feb;386:1-75.
  365. Christenson VD, White DH. Evaluation of four commercially available ELISA assays for the serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Lab Anal. 1991;5(5):340-3.
  366. Christiann F, Rayet P, Patey O, Lafaix C. Epidemiology of Lyme disease in France: Lyme borreliosis in the region of Berry sud: a six year retrospective. Eur J Epidemiol. 1996 Oct;12(5):479-83.
  367. Christiann F, Rayet P, Patey O, Gern L, Lafaix C. Interest of a rural monitoring group in a survey of Lyme borreliosis as emergent infectious disease.: Interet d'un observatoire rural dans la surveillance epidemiologique d'une maladie emergente: la maladie de Lyme. Med Mal Infect. 1998;28:387-9.
  368. Christiann F, Rayet P, Patey O, Ngueodjibaye DB, Theron-le Gargasson JF, Lafaix C. Lyme borreliosis in central France: a sero-epidemiologic examination involving hunters. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997 Oct;13(7):855.
  369. Christova, I. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent assay, and recombinant immunoblotting in the serodiagnosis of early Lyme borreliosis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Dec;16(3):261-8.
  370. Christova I, Taseva E, Todorova I. Tetanus antibody index in evaluation of interthecal antibody production in patiens with Lyme neuroborreliosis. Probl Inf Parasit Dis. 2000;28(1):11-2.
  371. Christova I, Tasseva E, Russimova D. Serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Bulgaria: Comparison of the two most commonly used commercial ELISA kits and the in house ELISA. Probl Inf Parasit Dis. 2002;30(1):16-9.
  372. Chu HJ, Chavez LG Jr, Blumer BM, Sebring RW, Wasmoen TL, Acree WM. Immunogenicity and efficacy study of a commercial Borrelia burgdorferi bacterin. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992 Aug;201(3):403-11.
  373. Chu J, Daly R, Rehnberg B. Study of Lyme disease Patients of a suburban outpatient clinic: prevalence of symptoms, efficacy of the Western blot, and factors affecting the duration of antibiotic treatment. J Pa Acad Sci. 2008;81(Sp. Iss. SI):112.
  374. Ciesielski CA, Markowitz LE, Horsley R, Hightower AW, Russell H, Broome CV. Lyme disease surveillance in the United States, 1983-1986. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Sep-Oct;11 Suppl 6:S1435-41.
  375. Ciesielski CA, Markowitz LE, Horsley R, Hightower AW, Russell H, Broome CV. The geographic distribution of Lyme disease in the United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:283-8.
  376. Cimmino MA, Fumarola D. The risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection is not increased in pet owners. JAMA. 1989 Dec;262(21):2997-8.
  377. Cinco M, Balanzin D, Benussi P, Trevisan G. Seroprevalence and incidence of Lyme borreliosis in forestry workers in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Northern Italy). Alpe Adria Microbiol J. 1993;2:91-8.
  378. Cinco M, Barbone F, Grazia Ciufolini M, Mascioli M, Anguero Rosenfeld M, Stefanel P, Luzzati R. Seroprevalence of tick-borne infections in forestry rangers from northeastern Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004 Dec;10(12):1056-61.
  379. Cinco M, Costantini C, Wilske B, Graziosi G, Trevisan G, Florian F. Use of polymerase chain reaction and specific monoclonal antibodies as rapid method to recognize Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii among Italian isolates of B. burgdorferi. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1994 Dec;183(6):307-13.
  380. Cinco M, Murgia R. Evaluation of the C6 enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in north-eastern Italy. New Microbiol. 2006 Apr;29(2):139-41.
  381. Cinco M, Murgia R, Bonin S, Padovan D, Stanta, G. Detection of three species of Borrelia burgdorferi in I. ricinus in northern Italy by polymerase chain reaction. Alpe Adria Microbiol J. 1996;5(4):253-60.
  382. Cinco M, Murgia R, Ruscio, M, Rapagna F, Lamalfa S. IgM and IgG significant reactivity to Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii among Italian patients affected by early Lyme borreliosis. Alpe Adria Microbiol J. 1999;8(1):63-72.
  383. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Dutkiewicz J, Zwoliński J. Preliminary studies on the relationship between Ixodes ricinus activity and tick-borne infection among occupationally-exposed inhabitants of eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2001;8(2):293-5.
  384. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Zwoliński J, Wójcik-Fatla A, Polak J, Dutkiewicz J. Risk of tick-borne bacterial diseases among workers of Roztocze National Park (south-eastern Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(1):127-32.
  385. Cisak E, Chmielewska-Badora J, Zwoliński J, Wojcik-Fatla A, Zajac V, Skórska C, Dutkiewicz J. Study on Lyme borreliosis focus in the Lublin region (eastern Poland). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008;15(2):327-32.
  386. Cisak E, Wójcik-Fatla A, Zając V, Sroka J, Dutkiewicz J. Risk of Lyme disease at various sites and workplaces of forestry workers in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(3):465-8.
  387. Cisak E1, Zając V, Wójcik-Fatla A, Dutkiewicz J. Risk of tick-borne diseases in various categories of employment among forestry workers in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(3):469-74.
  388. Cisak E, Wójcik-Fatla A, Zając V, Dutkiewicz J. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens at various workplaces in forest exploitation environment. Med Pr. 2014;65(5):575-81.
  389. Clabough D, Lyons R. Controlling Lyme disease. Equine Veterinary Data. 1989;10:23.
  390. Clark K. Borrelia species in host-seeking ticks and small mammals in northern Florida. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Nov;42(11):5076-86.
  391. Clark K, Hendricks A, Burge D. Molecular identification and analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in lizards in the southeastern United States. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 May;71(5):2616-25.
  392. Clark KL, Oliver JH Jr, Grego JM, James AM, Durden LA, Banks CW. Host associations of ticks parasitizing rodents at Borrelia burgdorferi enzootic sites in South Carolina. J Parasitol. 2001 Dec;87(6):1379-86.
  393. Clark KL, Oliver JH Jr, James AM, Durden LA, Banks CW. Prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection among rodents and host-seeking ticks in South Carolina. J Med Entomol. 2002 Jan;39(1):198-206.
  394. Clark KL, Leydet B, Hartman S. Lyme borreliosis in human patients in Florida and Georgia, USA. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10(7):915-31.
  395. Clayton JL, Jones SG, Dunn JR, Schaffner W, Jones TF. Enhancing Lyme disease surveillance by using administrative claims data, Tennessee, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(9):1632.
  396. Clover JR, Lane RS. Evidence implicating nymphal Ixodes pacificus (Acari: ixodidae) in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995 Sep;53(3):237-40.
  397. Clow KM, Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Michel P, Pearl DL, Jardine CM. Distribution of ticks and the risk of Lyme disease and other tick-borne pathogens of public health significance in Ontario, Canada. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016;16(4):215-22.
  398. Cogswell FB1, Bantar CE, Hughes TG, Gu Y, Philipp MT. Host DNA can interfere with detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in skin biopsy specimens by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Apr;34(4):980-2.
  399. Cohen D1, Bosler EM, Bernard W, Meirs D 2nd, Eisner R, Schulze TL. Epidemiologic studies of Lyme disease in horses and their public health significance. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:244-57.
  400. Cohen ND, Carter CN, Thomas MA Jr, Angulo AB, Eugster AK. Clinical and epizootiologic characteristics of dogs seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi in Texas: 110 cases (1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990 Oct;197(7):893-8.
  401. Cohen ND, Heck FC, Heim B, Flad DM, Bosler EM, Cohen D. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of horses in central Texas. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992 Oct 1;201(7):1030-4.
  402. Cohen EB, Auckland LD, Marra PP, Hamer SA. Avian migrants facilitate invasions of neotropical ticks and tick- borne pathogens into the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81(24):8366-78.
  403. Ji BX, Collins MT. Seroepidemiology of Borrelia burgdorferi in Wisconsin dairy cattle. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1993;93:527.
  404. Collins SL, Miller MK, Wright SM. Detection of Borrelia species among ticks collected from selected eastern States. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004;104:195.
  405. Collins CR, Kays RW. Patterns of mortality in a wild population of white-footed mice. Northeast Nat. 2014;21(2):323.
  406. Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The State of the Science; Institute of Medicine. Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes: Workshop Report (2011). The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 2011:1-542.
  407. Comstedt P, Hanner M, Schüler W, Meinke A, Schlegl R, Lundberg U. Characterization and optimization of a novel vaccine for protection against Lyme borreliosis. Vaccine. 2015;33(44):5982-8.
  408. Comstedt P, Hanner M, Schuler W, Meinke A, Lundberg U. Design and development of a novel vaccine for protection against Lyme borreliosis. PloS one. 2014;9(11):e113294.
  409. Conaty S, Dattwyler R. Asymptomatic Lyme disease: A ticking time bomb? Consultant. 2002 July;42:973-4.
  410. Conlan MF. Feds urged to lead attack on Lyme disease. Drug Topics. 1998 June;142(11):58.
  411. Conlon JA, Mather TN, Tanner P, Gallo G, Jacobson RH. Efficacy of a nonadjuvanted, outer surface protein A, recombinant vaccine in dogs after challenge by ticks naturally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Vet Ther. 2000 Spring;1(2):96-107.
  412. Connally NP, Durante AJ, Yousey-Hindes KM, Meek JI, Nelson RS, Heimer R. Peridomestic Lyme disease prevention: results of a population-based case-control study. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Sep;37(3):201-6.
  413. Connally NP, Ginsberg HS, Mather TN. Assessing peridomestic entomological factors as predictors for Lyme disease. J Vector Ecol. 2006;31:364-70.
  414. Connery JH, O'connell AF Jr, Smith RP, Lacombe EH, Rand PW. Visitor Risk Assessment and Ecology of Lyme Disease in Acadia National Park, Maine. Science and the management of protected areas: proceedings of an international conference held at Acadia University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 14-19 May 1991. 1992. pp. 523-526 ref.18.
  415. Cooke DW. Prevalence of "Natural Antibody" to Borrelia Burgdorferi. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35(9 Suppl):S36.
  416. Cooke WD, Bartenhagen NH. Seroreactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in the absence of Lyme disease. J Rheumatol. 1994;21(1):126-31.
  417. Cooper JD, Feder HM Jr. Inaccurate information about Lyme disease on the Internet. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23(12):1105-8.
  418. Corpuz M, Hilton E, Lardis MP, Singer C, Zolan J. Problems in the use of serologic tests for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Arch Intern Med. 1991 Sep;151(9):1837-40.
  419. Costello CM, Steere AC, Pinkerton RE, Feder HM Jr. A prospective study of tick bites in an endemic area for Lyme disease. Conn Med. 1989 Jun;53(6):338-40.
  420. Costero A. Identification of the Lyme disease vector in Canada.: Recherche des vecteurs de la maladie de Lyme au Canada. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1990;16(30):142-7.
  421. Coughlin RT, Fish D, Mather TN, Ma J, Pavia C, Bulger P. Protection of dogs from Lyme disease with a vaccine containing outer surface protein (Osp) A, OspB, and the saponin adjuvant QS21. J Infect Dis. 1995 Apr;171(4):1049-52.
  422. Coulter P, Lema C, Flayhart D, Linhardt AS, Aucott JN, Auwaerter PG, Dumler JS. Two-year evaluation of Borrelia burgdorferi culture for definitive identification of Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004;104:188.
  423. Courtney JW, Dryden RL, Schneider BS, Wileto P, Massung RF. Characterization of Anaplasma phagocytophila and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis from Pennsylvania. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002;102:507.
  424. Courtney JW, Kostelnik LM, Zeidner NS, Massung RF. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Jul;42(7):3164-8.
  425. Courtney JW, Massung RF. Multiplex Taqman PCR assay for rapid detection of Anaplasma phagocytophila and Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Jun;990:369-70.
  426. Couzens GS. How to detect Lyme disease. Phys Sportsmed. 1992;20(4):140-7.
  427. Coyle BS, Strickland GT, Liang YY, Peña C, McCarter R, Israel E. The public health impact of Lyme disease in Maryland. J Infect Dis. 1996 May;173(5):1260-2.
  428. Coyle DR, Murphy MW, Paskewitz SM, Orrock JL, Lee X, Murphy RJ, McGeehin MA, Raffa K F. Belowground herbivory in red pine stands initiates a cascade that increases abundance of Lyme disease vectors. For Ecol Manage. 2013;302:354-62.
  429. Coyle PK. Lyme Disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2002;2(6):479-87.
  430. Craft JE, Grodzicki RL, Steere AC. Antibody response in Lyme disease: evaluation of diagnostic tests. J Infect Dis. 1984 May;149(5):789-95.
  431. Craft JE, Grodzicki RL, Shrestha M, Fischer DK, García-Blanco M, Steere AC. The antibody response in Lyme disease. Yale J Biol Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;57(4):561-5.
  432. Craven RB, Quan TJ, Bailey RE, Dattwyler R, Ryan RW, Sigal LH, Steere AC, Sullivan B, Johnson BJ, Dennis DT, Gubler DJ. Improved serodiagnostic testing for Lyme disease: results of a multicenter serologic evaluation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996 Apr-Jun;2(2):136-40.
  433. Creson JR, Lim LC, Glowacki NJ, Callister SM, Schell RF. Detection of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody responses with the borreliacidal antibody test, indirect fluorescent-antibody assay performed by flow cytometry, and western immunoblotting. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996 Mar;3(2):184-90.
  434. Cretella S, Gordon S, Flavell RA, Fikrig E. Evaluation of a Lyme disease enzyme immunoassay using the 41-G fragment of flagellin. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995 Jul;14(7):609-13.
  435. Cromley EK, Cartter ML, Mrozinski RD, Ertel SH. Residential setting as a risk factor for Lyme disease in a hyperendemic region. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Mar 1;147(5):472-7.
  436. Crook A. Many people worried about deer ticks and Lyme disease: Although it is a more serious problem in other areas, pet owners should still know the signs. Charlottetown Guardian. 2000;July 22:C2.
  437. Crowder CD, Matthews HE, Schutzer S, Rounds MA, Luft BJ, Nolte O, Campbell SR, Phillipson CA, Li F, Sampath R, Ecker DJ, Eshoo MW. Genotypic variation and mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes ticks from North America and Europe. PLoS One. 2010 May;5(5):e10650.
  438. Crowder CD, Carolan HE, Rounds MA, Honig V, Mothes B, Haag H, Nolte O, Luft BJ, Grubhoffer L, Ecker DJ, Schutzer SE, Eshoo MW. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ticks in Europe and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;20(10):1678-82.
  439. Crowder LA, Yedlin VA, Weinstein ER, Kortte KB, Aucott JN. Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: the neglected disease in our own backyard. Public Health. 2014 Sept;128(9):784-91.
  440. Curi MB. Public awareness of Lyme disease in obstetric, pediatric, and student settings in northwestern Connecticut. Conn Med. 1993 Oct;57(10):661-3.
  441. Curran AS. Lyme disease: prevention and control. N J Med. 1990 Jul;87(7):541-3.
  442. CurranKL, Fish D, Piesman J. Reduction of nymphal Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in a residential suburban landscape by area application of insecticides. J Med Entomol. 1993 Jan;30(1):107-13.
  443. Curran KL, Kidd JB, Vassallo J, Van Meter VL. Borrelia burgdorferi and the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in deer ticks, Delaware. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Jul-Aug;6(4):408-11.
  444. Cutler SJ, Wright DJ. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosing Lyme disease. J Clin Pathol. 1989 Aug;42(8):869-71.
  445. Cutler SJ, Wright DJ. Predictive value of serology in diagnosing Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Pathol. 1994 Apr;47(4):344-9.
  446. Cutler SJ, Wright DJ, Luckhurst VH. Simplified method for the interpretation of immunoblots for Lyme borreliosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1993 Apr;6(4):281-5.
  447. Cutler SJ, Wright DJ. Evaluation of Three Commercial Tests for Lyme Disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990 May-Jun;13(3):271-2.
  448. Cyr TL, Jenkins MC, Hall RD, Masters EJ, McDonald GA. Improving the specificity of 16S rDNA-based polymerase chain reaction for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-causative agents of human Lyme disease. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98(4):962-70.
  449. Gómez-Díaz E, Doherty PF Jr, Duneau D, McCoy KD. Cryptic vector divergence masks vector-specific patterns of infection: An example from the marine cycle of Lyme borreliosis. Evol Appl. 2010 Jul;3(4):391-401.
  450. Dail D, Pachner AR. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in infected tissue using magnetic bead DNA capture. FASEB J. 2001;15(4):A589.
  451. Daltroy L, Phillips C, Shadick N, Wright E, Lew R, Fossel A, Fossel K, Kinney G, Liang M. An educational program to increase Lyme disease preventive behaviors among visitors to an endemic area: preliminary results of a controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(9 Suppl):S360.
  452. Daltroy LH, Phillips C, Lew R, Wright E, Shadick NA, Liang MH. A controlled trial of a novel primary prevention program for Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses. Health Educ Behav. 2007 Jun;34(3):531-42.
  453. Damrow T, Freedman H, Lane RS, Preston KL. Is Ixodes (ixodiopsis) angustus a vector of Lyme disease in Washington State? West J Med. 1989 May;150(5):580-2.
  454. Daniel M, Kříž B, Valter J, Kott I, Danielová V. The influence of meteorological conditions of the preceding winter on the incidences of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis in the Czech Republic. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(Suppl 1):60-7.
  455. Daniel M, Kolár J, Zeman P, Pavelka K, Sádlo J. Tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis: comparison of habitat risk assessments using satellite data (an experience from the Central Bohemian region of the Czech Republic). Cent Eur J Public Health. 1999 Feb;7(1):35-9.
  456. Danielová V, Daniel M, Rudenko N, Golovchenko M. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in selected South Bohemian locations (Czech Republic). Cent Eur J Public Health. 2004 Sep;12(3):151-6.
  457. Danielová V, Daniel M, Schwarzová L, Materna J, Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Holubová J, Grubhoffer L, Kilián P. Integration of a tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato into mountain ecosystems, following a shift in the altitudinal limit of distribution of their vector, Ixodes ricinus (Krkonose mountains, Czech Republic). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010 Apr;10(3):223-30.
  458. Daniels TJ, Boccia TM, Varde S, Marcus J, Le J, Bucher DJ, Falco RC, Schwartz I. Geographic risk for lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in southern New York state. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998 Dec;64(12):4663-9.
  459. Daniels TJ, Falco RC, McHugh EE, Vellozzi J, Boccia T, Denicola AJ, Pound JM, Miller JA, George JE, Fish D. Acaricidal treatment of white-tailed deer to control Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a New York Lyme disease-endemic community. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Aug;9(4):381-7.
  460. Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Schwartz I, Varde S, Robbins RG. Deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and the agents of Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a New York City park. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997 Jul-Sep;3(3):353-5.
  461. Daniels TJ, Fish D, Falco RC. Evaluation of host-targeted acaricide for reducing risk of Lyme disease in southern New York state. J Med Entomol. 1991 Jul;28(4):537-43.
  462. Daniels TJ, Fish D, Schwartz I. Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Lyme disease risk by deer exclusion. J Med Entomol. 1993 Nov;30(6):1043-9.
  463. Daniels TJ, Fish D, Levine JF, Greco MA, Eaton AT, Padgett PJ, LaPointe DA. Canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and prevalence of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) on deer as a measure of Lyme disease risk in the northeastern United States. J Med Entomol. 1993 Jan;30(1):171-8.
  464. Daniluk D, Thatcher B, Saucier J, Krah R, Beall M, O’Connor T, Chandrashekar R, Stillman BA. Serosurvey of antibodies against B burgdorferi, E canis, E ewingii, E chaffeensis, and Anaplasma in dogs from the United States. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22(3):782.
  465. Danishefsky K, Ramachandra N, Coleman J, Schwartz I. Direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs by hybridization to ribosomal RNA. J Med Entomol. 2000 Jan;37(1):102-7.
  466. Datz C. Lyme disease in dogs. NAVC Clinician. 2007;5:9-12.
  467. Davidson MM, Chisholm SM, Wiseman AD, Joss AW, Ho-Yen DO. Improved serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Clin Mol Pathol. 1996 Apr;49(2):M80-4.
  468. Davidson MM, Ling CL, Chisholm SM, Wiseman AD, Joss AW, Ho-Yen DO. Evidence-Based Diagnosis of Lyme Disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Jul;18(7):484-9.
  469. Davis JP, Schell WL, Amundson TE, Godsey MS Jr, Spielman A, Burgdorfer W, Barbour AG, LaVenture M, Kaslow RA. Lyme disease in Wisconsin: epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and entomologic findings. Yale J Biol Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;57(4):685-96.
  470. Davis RS, Ramirez RA, Anderson JL, Bernhardt SA. Distribution and habitat of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Utah. J Med Entomol. 2015;52(6):1361.
  471. Dayian G, Morse DL, Schryver GD, Stevens RW, Birkhead GS, White DJ, Hechemy KE. Implementation of a proficiency testing program for Lyme disease in New York State. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1994 May;118(5):501-5.
  472. de Mik EL1, van Pelt W, Docters-van Leeuwen BD, van der Veen A, Schellekens JF, Borgdorff MW. The geographical distribution of tick bites and erythema migrans in general practice in The Netherlands. Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Apr;26(2):451-7.
  473. De Meeûs T, Lorimier Y, Renaud F. Lyme borreliosis agents and the genetics and sex of their vector, Ixodes ricinus. Microbes Infect. 2004 Mar;6(3):299-304.
  474. Deblinger RD, Rimmer DW. Efficacy of a permethrin-based acaricide to reduce the abundance of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):708-11.
  475. Debue M, Gautier P, Hackel C, Van Elsen A, Herzog A, Bigaignon G, Bollen A. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in biological samples using the polymerase chain reaction assay. Res Microbiol. 1991 Jun;142(5):565-72.
  476. Decker D, Gavin TA. Public attitudes toward a suburban deer herd. Wildl Soc Bull. 1987;15(2):173-80.
  477. Deelman E, Szymanski BK, Caraco T. Simulating Lyme disease using parallel discrete event simulation. “1996 winter simulation conference proceedings", Winter Simulation Conference, pp. i-xviii, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1109/WSC.1996.873253
  478. Defosse D, Hyland K, Maclachlan A, Amr Z. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in an atypical vector ecology. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1988;88:362.
  479. Degeilh B, Guiguen C, Gilot B. A study of the distribution of Ixodes ricinus (Linn., 1758) (Acarina: Ixodoidea) in relation to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi in Brittany: infectious risk for humans.: Etude de la repartition d'Ixodes ricinus (Linne, 1758) (Acarina: Ixodoidea) en relation avec la bacterie Borrelia burgdorferi en bretagne: essai d'evaluation du risque infectieux pour l'homme. Ann Soc Entomol Fr. 1999;35:534-9.
  480. Degeilh B, Pichot J, Gilot B, Allen S, Doche B, Guiguen C. Dynamics of human primary-infestation with Lyme borreliosis (Erythema chronicum migrans) and dynamics of vector tick populations (Ixodes ricinus Linne, 1758): attempt at correlation. Acarologia (Paris). 1996;37(1):7-17.
  481. Dehnert M, Fingerle V, Klier C, Talaska T, Schlaud M, Krause G, Wilking H, Poggensee G. Seropositivity of Lyme borreliosis and associated risk factors: a population-based study in Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS). PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e41321. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041321
  482. Delgado S, Cármenes P. Seroepidemiological survey for Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) in dogs from northwestern of Spain. Eur J Epidemiol. 1995 Jun;11(3):321-324.
  483. DeNatale CE, Burkot TR, Schneider BS, Zeidner NS. Novel potential reservoirs for Borrelia sp. and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Colorado. J Wildl Dis. 2002 Apr;38(2):478-82.
  484. Dennis DT. Lyme disease vaccine: the United States' experience. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;291(Suppl 33):140.
  485. Deruaz D, Eid P, Deruaz J, Sempéré A, Bourgouin C, Rodhain F, Pérez-Eid C. Use of enzyme-labelled protein G assay for the detection of anti Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in wild animal sera. Eur J Epidemiol. 1996 Oct;12(5):515-9.
  486. Dessau RB, Bangsborg JM, Ejlertsen T, Skarphedinsson S, Schønheyder HC. Utilization of serology for the diagnosis of suspected Lyme borreliosis in Denmark: survey of patients seen in general practice. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Nov;10:317. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-317
  487. Dessau RB, Ejlertsen T, Hilden J. Simultaneous use of serum IgG and IgM for risk scoring of suspected early Lyme borreliosis: graphical and bivariate analyses. APMIS. 2010 Apr;118(4):313-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0463.2010.02594.x
  488. Dessau RB. Diagnostic accuracy and comparison of two assays for Borrelia-specific IgG and IgM antibodies: proposals for statistical evaluation methods, cut-off values and standardization. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62(Pt 12):1835.
  489. Dessau RB, Møller JK, Kolmos B, Henningsson AJ. Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis: The more the better? J Med Microbiol. 2015;64(3):224.
  490. Di Renzi S, Martini A, Binazzi A, Marinaccio A, Vonesch N, D'Amico W, Moro T, Fiorentini C, Ciufolini MG, Visca P, Tomao P. Risk of acquiring tick-borne infections in forestry workers from Lazio, Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Dec;29(12):1579-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-010-1028-6
  491. Díaz-Míguez D, Fernández-Fernández F, Sesma P, Rodríguez-Mayo MD. [Are seroprevalence studies useful in Lyme disease?]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 1993 Oct;11(8):460-1.
  492. Dibernardo A, Cote T, Ogden NH, Lindsay LR. The prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection, and co-infections with other Borrelia spp. in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Canada. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:183.
  493. Dickeson DJ, Chen SC, Sintchenko VG. Concordance of four commercial enzyme immunoassay and three immunoblot formats for the detection of Lyme borreliosis antibodies in human serum: the two-tier approach remains. Pathol. 2016;48(3):251.
  494. Dingler RJ. Surveillance for ticks and the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in birds in California. Master of Science Thesis, University of California Davis. 2012.
  495. Dingler RJ, Wright SA, Donohue AM, Macedo PA, Foley JE. Surveillance for Ixodes pacificus and the tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in birds from California's Inner Coast Range. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5(4):436.
  496. Diniz PPVP, Morgado M, Hegarty BC, Cherry N, Sullivan M, Breitschwerdt EB. Dynamics of Exposure to Vector-Borne Organisms in Dogs in North America: 2004-2006. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22(3):784.
  497. Diniz PPVP, Morgado M, Hegarty BC, Cherry N, Sullivan M, Breitschwerdt EB. Dynamics of vector-borne disease exposure in dogs in the USA and Canada over 4 years (2004-2007). WSAVA Congress, São Paulo, Brazil, July 21-24, 2009.
  498. Diuk-Wasser MA, Hoen AG, Cislo P, Brinkerhoff R, Hamer SA, Rowland M, Cortinas R, Vourc'h G, Melton F, Hickling GJ, Tsao JI, Bunikis J, Barbour AG, Kitron U, Piesman J, Fish D. Human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, in eastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Feb;86(2):320-7. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0395
  499. Diuk-Wasser MA, Vourc'h G, Cislo P, Hoen AG, Melton F, Hamer SA, Rowland M, Cortinas R, Hickling GJ, Tsao JI, Barbour AG, Kitron U, Piesman J, Fish D. Field and climate-based model for predicting the density of host-seeking nymphal Ixodes scapularis, an important vector of tick-borne disease agents in the eastern United States. Global Ecol Biogeogr. 2010;19(4):504-14.
  500. Divers TJ, Chang YF, McDonough SP. Equine Lyme disease: a review of experimental disease production, treatment efficacy, and vaccine protection. In: 49th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 2003, New Orleans, Louisiana, (Ed.). Publisher: American Association of Equine Practitioners, Lexington KY. Internet Publisher: Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service (www.ivis.org), Ithaca, New York, USA.
  501. Dlesk A, Bjarnason DF, Goldberg JW, Lee M, Marx J, Mitchell P, Washington WL. Lyme disease Ld seropositivity by Elisa among farmers in an endemic area. Arthritis Rheum. 1987;30(4 Suppl):S49.
  502. Dlesk A, Broste SK, Gries DJ, Mitchell PD, Rowe KE. Lyme seroreactivity among USA forest service USFS workers from a nonendemic area for Lyme disease Ld. Arthritis Rheum. 1989;32(4 Suppl):S46.
  503. Dlesk A, Broste SK, McCarty PA, Mitchell PD. Prevalence of Lyme seropositivity by indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay Ifa in normal adult individuals from an endemic area. Arthritis Rheum. 1988;31(4 Suppl):S98.
  504. Doby JM, Betremieux C, Degeilh B. Importance of using antigens prepared from different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi for the diagnosis of Lyme disease in animals.: Interet de l'utilisation d'antigenes prepares a partir de souches differentes de Borrelia burgdorferi pour le diagnostic de la borrelliose de Lyme chez l'animal. Rev Med Vet-Toulouse. 1992;143:617-22.
  505. Doby JM, Bigaignon G, Doby-Dubois M. [Risk of contamination by Borrelia burgdorferi S. lato in a forest environment. Survey during 13 months of abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus and its level of infestation by the Lyme borreliosis agent in Brittany]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1995;88(1):61-4.
  506. Doby JM, Chevrier S, Couatarmanac’H A. Tickborne spirochaetosis due to Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in Brittany. Results of a serological survey of 400 horses.: Spirochetose a tiques par Borrelia burgdorferi chez le cheval en Bretagne. Resultats d'une enquete serologique portant sur 400 chevaux. Bull Soc Fr Parasitol. 1987;5(2):285-98.
  507. Doby JM, Couatarmanac'h A. Human populations at risk from tick spirochaetoses? First results of a serological survey in forest workers.: Populations humaines a risque dans les spirochetoses a tiques? Premiers resultats d'une enquete serologique chez des professionnels de la foret. Med Mal Infect. 1986;12:759-61.
  508. Doby JM, Couatarmanac'h A, Fages J, Chevrier S. Tick spirochaetoses among forestry workers. A serological study of 653 subjects in 10 departments in western France.: Les spirochetoses a tiques chez les professionels de la foret. Enquete serologique chez 653 sujets de 10 departements de l'ouest de la France. Arch Mal Prof. 1989;50(8):751-7.
  509. Doggett JS, Kohlhepp S, Gresbrink R, Metz P, Gleaves C, Gilbert D. Lyme disease in Oregon. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Jun;46(6):2115-8. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00394-08
  510. Dolan MC, Jordan RA, Schulze TL, Schulze CJ, Manning MC, Ruffolo D, Schmidt JP, Piesman J, Karchesy JJ. Ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey. J Econ Entomol. 2009 Dec;102(6):2316-24.
  511. Dolan MC, Maupin GO, Panella NA, Golde WT, Piesman J. Vector competence of Ixodes scapularis, I. spinipalpis, and Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) in transmitting Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. J Med Entomol. 1997;34(2):128-35.
  512. Dolan MC, Maupin GO, Schneider BS, Denatale C, Hamon N, Cole C, Zeidner NS, Stafford KC 3rd. Control of immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) on rodent reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi in a residential community of southeastern Connecticut. J Med Entomol. 2004 Nov;41(6):1043-54.
  513. Dolan MC, Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Dietrich G, Schulze CJ, Hojgaard A, Ullmann AJ, Sackal C, Zeidner NS, Piesman J. Elimination of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent reservoirs and Ixodes scapularis ticks using a doxycycline hyclate-laden bait. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Dec;85(6):1114-20. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0292
  514. Donnelly EF. Lyme disease in Rhode Island, 1990-1998. Med Health R I. 1999 Oct;82(10):370-1.
  515. Donta ST. The brain spect scan in chronic Lyme disease. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003;43:407.
  516. Dorward DW, Schwan TG, Garon CF. Immune capture and detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in urine, blood, or tissues from infected ticks, mice, dogs, and humans. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jun;29(6):1162-70.
  517. Dou X, Lyu Y, Jiang Y, Tian L, Li X, Lin C, Sun Y, Guan Z, Zhang X, Wang Q. Seroprevalence of Lyme disease and associated risk factors in rural population of Beijing. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 May 15;8(5):7995-9.
  518. Dou XF, Lyu YN, Jiang Y, Lin CY, Tian LL, Wang QY, Yang YS, Li C, Sun YL, Guan ZZ, Zhang XC, Li XY. Lyme borreliosis-associated risk factors in residents of Beijing suburbs: A preliminary case-control study. Biomed Environ Sci. 2014 Oct;27(10):807-10. https://doi.org/10.3967/bes2014.116
  519. Drebot MA, Julian M, Chen Z, Artsob H. Analysis of Ixodes scapularis from Canada for the possible presence of pathogens. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(3 Suppl):417-8.
  520. Dressler F, Whalen JA, Reinhardt BN, Steere AC. Western blotting in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1993 Feb;167(2):392-400.
  521. Dressler F, Yoshinari NH, Steere AC. The T-Cell proliferative assay in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 1991 Oct;115(7):533-9.
  522. Drew D, Hewitt H. A qualitative approach to understanding patients' diagnosis of lyme disease. Public Health Nurs. 2006 Jan-Feb;23(1):20-6.
  523. Drew ML21, Loken KI, Bey RF, Swiggum RD. Ixodes dammini: occurrence and prevalence of infection with Borrelia spp. in Minnesota. J Wildl Dis. 1988 Oct;24(4):708-10.
  524. Du W, Ma X, Nyman D, Povlsen K, Akguen N, Schneider EM. Antigen biochips verify and extend the scope of antibody detection in Lyme borreliosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Dec;59(4):355-63.
  525. Dudley TA, Erwin D, Ewell A. Clinical Comparison of Two Commercially Available Lyme Screening Elisa Assays. Clin Chem. 2007;53(6 Suppl S):A141.
  526. Duell JR, Carmichael R, Herrin BH, Holbrook TC, Talley J, Little SE. Prevalence and species of ticks on horses in central Oklahoma. J Med Entomol. 2013;50(6):1330.
  527. Duffy DC, Campbell SR. Ambient air temperature as a predictor of activity of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 1994 Jan;31(1):178-80.
  528. Duffy DC, Campbell SR, Clark D, DiMotta C, Gurney S. Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) deer tick mesoscale populations in natural areas: effects of deer, area, and location. J Med Entomol. 1994 Jan;31(1):152-8.
  529. Duffy DC, Clark DD, Campbell SR, Gurney S, Perello R, Simon N. Landscape patterns of abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) on Shelter Island, New York. J Med Entomol. 1994 Nov;31(6):875-9.
  530. Duffy DC, Downer R, Brinkley C. The effectiveness of helmeted guineafowl in the control of the deer tick the vector of Lyme disease. Wilson Bulletin. 1992;104(2):342-5.
  531. Dumler JS, Auwaerter PG, Aucott JN, Bobba G. Comparison of the Liaison Borrelia burgdorferi chemiluminescent immunoassay with a two-tiered immunodiagnosis of EM-associated and culture-proven Lyme borreliosis. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2008;48:272.
  532. Dumler, SJ. Molecular methods for Ehrlichiosis and Lyme disease. Clin Lab Med. 2003 Dec;23(4):867-84, vi.
  533. Dumoff A. Diagnosing Lyme disease: A case study of complications in standards of care. Altern Complement Ther. 2006;Feb:12(1):43-7.
  534. Duncan AW, Correa MT, Levine JF, Breitschwerdt EB. The dog as a sentinel for human infection: prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi C6 antibodies in dogs from southeastern and mid-Atlantic States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004 Fall;4(3):221-9.
  535. Duobinis-Gray L, Witt S, Stuart J, Zimmerer E. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in various tick hosts from mammals in western Kentucky utilizing the polymerase chain reaction technique. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1993;93:124.
  536. Durden LA, McLean RG, Oliver JH Jr, Ubico SR, James AM. Ticks, Lyme disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal Georgia and South Carolina. J Parasitol. 1997 Dec;83(6):1178-82.
  537. Durden LA, Wilson N. Parasitic and phoretic arthropods of sylvatic and commensal white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in central Tennessee, with notes on Lyme disease. J Parasitol. 1991 Apr;77(2):219-23.
  538. Durrani AZ, Goyal SM. A retrospective study of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs in Minnesota. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2012;36(2):137-41. https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1012-633
  539. Durrani, A Z, Goyal, S M. Retrospective study on seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ELK and moose in Minnesota. J Anim Plant Sci. 2011;21(3):481-4.
  540. Durrani AZ, Goyal SM. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in Minnesota. J Anim Plant Sci. 2011;21(1):8-11.
  541. Durrani AZ, Goyal SM, Kamal N. Retrospective Study on Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies in Horses in Minnesota. J Equine Vet Sci. 2011;31(8):427-9.
  542. Dworkin MS, Anderson DE Jr, Schwan TG, Shoemaker PC, Banerjee SN, Kassen BO, Burgdorfer W. Tick-borne relapsing fever in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;26(1):122-31.
  543. Dzięgiel B, Adaszek Ł, Carbonero A, Łyp P, Winiarczyk M, Dębiak P, Winiarczyk S. Detection of canine vector-borne diseases in eastern Poland by ELISA and PCR. Parasitol Res. 2016 Mar;115(3):1039-44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4832-1
  544. Dzierzecka M, Kita J. The use of chosen serological diagnostic methods in Lyme disease in horses. Part II. Western blot. Pol J Vet Sci. 2002;5(2):79-84.
  545. Dzierzecka M, Kita J. The use of chosen serological diagnostic methods in Lyme disease in horses. Part I. Indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pol J Vet Sci. 2002;5(2):71-7.
  546. Ebani VV, Bertelloni F, Pinzauti P, Cerri D. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Italian horses. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(2):237-40.
  547. Ebani VV, Bertelloni F, Torracca B, Cerri D. Serological survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia canis infections in rural and urban dogs in Central Italy. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014;21(4):671-5. https://doi.org/10.5604/12321966.1129912
  548. Edelman R, Palmer K, Russ KG, Secrest HP, Becker JA, Bodison SA, Perry JG, Sills AR, Barbour AG, Luke CJ, Hanson MS, Stover CK, Burlein JE, Bansal GP, Connor EM, Koenig S. Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) expressing Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) lipoprotein in adult volunteers: a candidate Lyme disease vaccine. Vaccine. 1999 Feb;17(7-8):904-14.
  549. Eder G, Barrett N, Crowe B, Gerencer M, Livey IAN, Loew-Baselli A, Dorner F. A candidate Ospc Lyme disease vaccine under clinical investigation. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1999;289(5-7):688-9.
  550. Edwards MJ, Barbalato LA, Makkapati A, Pham KD, Bugbee LM. Relatively low prevalence of Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6(6):812.
  551. Egenvall A, Franzén P, Gunnarsson A, Engvall EO, Vågsholm I, Wikström UB, Artursson K. Cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and granulocytic Ehrlichia spp. and demographic, clinical and tick-exposure factors in Swedish horses. Prev Vet Med. 2001 May;49(3-4):191-208.
  552. Eichenfield AH, Athreya BH. Lyme Disease of Ticks and Titers. J Pediatr. 1989;114(2):328-33.
  553. Eiffert H, Lotter H, Thomssen R. Use of peroxidase-labelled antigen for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in human and animal sera. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23(1):79-87.
  554. Eisen L, Eisen RJ, Lane RS. Geographical distribution patterns and habitat suitability models for presence of host-seeking ixodid ticks in dense woodlands of Mendocino County, California. J Med Entomol. 2006 Mar;43(2):415-27.
  555. Eisen L, Eisen RJ, Chang CC, Mun J, Lane RS. Acarologic risk of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes: long-term evaluations in north-western California, with implications for Lyme borreliosis risk-assessment models. Med Vet Entomol. 2004 Mar;18(1):38-49.
  556. Eisen L, Eisen RJ, Mun J, Salkeld DJ, Lane RS. Transmission cycles of Borrelia burgdorferi and B. bissettii in relation to habitat type in northwestern California. J Vector Ecol. 2009 Jun;34(1):81-91. https://doi.org/10.3376/038.034.0110
  557. Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Lane RS. Predicting density of Ixodes pacificus nymphs in dense woodlands in Mendocino County, California, based on geographic information systems and remote sensing versus field-derived data. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Apr;74(4):632-40.
  558. Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Castro MB, Lane RS. Environmentally related variability in risk of exposure to Lyme disease spirochetes in northern California: effect of climatic conditions and habitat type. Environ Entomol. 2003;32(5):1010-8. https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-32.5.1010
  559. Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Girard YA, Fedorova N, Mun J, Slikas B, Leonhard S, Kitron U, Lane RS. A spatially-explicit model of acarological risk of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes pacificus nymphs in northwestern California based on woodland type, temperature, and water vapor. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010 Mar;1(1):35-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2009.12.002
  560. Eisen RJ, Lane RS, Fritz CL, Eisen L. Spatial patterns of Lyme disease risk in California based on disease incidence data and modeling of vector-tick exposure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Oct;75(4):669-76.
  561. Eisen RJ, Mun J, Eisen L, Lane RS. Life stage-related differences in density of questing ticks and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within a single cohort of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):768-73.
  562. Eisen RJ, Piesman J, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Eisen L. What do we need to know about disease ecology to prevent Lyme disease in the northeastern United States? Med Entomol. 2012 Jan;49(1):11-22.
  563. Eisen L, Lane RS. Vectors of Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato. In Lyme Borreliosis: Biology, Epidemiology and Control. Eds: J. gray, O. Kahl, R.S. Lane and G. Stanek. 2002 CAB International. pp. 91-115.
  564. Eisendle K, Grabner T, Zelger B. Focus floating microscopy: "gold standard" for cutaneous borreliosis? Am J Clin Pathol. 2007 Feb;127(2):213-22.
  565. Eissfeller P, Reichhuber C, Riemer A, Soutscek E. Does the commercially available recombinant Test system for serodiagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis provided by MIKROGEN GmbH require enhancement by any new antigen? Int J Med Microbiol. 2003;293(Suppl 36):427.
  566. Ekerfelt C, Ernerudh J, Forsberg P, Jonsson AL, Vrethem M, Arlehag L, Forsum U. Lyme borreliosis in Sweden: diagnostic performance of five commercial Borrelia serology kits using sera from well-defined patient groups: brief report. APMIS. 2004;112(1):74-8.
  567. Elfassy OJ, Goodman FW, Levy SA, Carter LL. Efficacy of an amitraz-impregnated collar in preventing transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by adult Ixodes scapularis to dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jul;219(2):185-9.
  568. Elias SP, Lubelczyk CB, Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Holman MS, Smith RP Jr. Deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern coastal Maine woodlands. J Med Entomol. 2006 Nov;43(6):1142-52.
  569. Aberer E, Neumann R, Klade H, Reiner M, Stanek G. Screening of Dermatological Patients for Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme Borreliosis II, Zbl Bakt. 1989;Suppl 18:178-182.
  570. Embers ME, Wormser GP, Schwartz I, Martin DS, Philipp MT. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that harbor only a portion of the lp28-1 plasmid elicit antibody responses detectable with the C6 test for Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007 Jan;14(1):90-3.
  571. Embers ME, Hasenkampf NR, Barnes MB, Didier ES, Philipp MT, Tardo AC. Five-antigen fluorescent bead-based assay for diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016 Apr 4;23(4):294-303. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00685-15
  572. Endris RG, Cooke D, Amodie D, Sweeney DL, Katz TL. Repellency and efficacy of 65% permethrin and selamectin spot-on formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs. Vet Ther. 2002 Spring;3(1):64-71.
  573. Endris RG, Matthewson MD, Cooke MD, Armodie D. Repellency and efficacy of 65% permethrin and 9.7% fipronil against Ixodes ricinus. Vet Ther. 2000;1(3):159-68.
  574. EnDyna, Inc, Agency USEP. Strategies, Research Priorities, and Partnerships for Community IPM to Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases: An Executive Summary of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Promoting Community IPM to Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases Conference (Arlington, Virginia March 30-31, 2011). 2011:1-14.
  575. Eng TR, Wilson ML, Spielman A, Lastavica CC. Greater risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in dogs than in people. J Infect Dis. 1988 Dec;158(6):1410-1.
  576. Engel W, Vogt A, Batsford SR. Validity of prior absorption of serum samples with Reiter's spirochetes in serological diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000 Dec;19(12):960-3.
  577. Engstrom SM, Shoop E, Johnson RC. Immunoblot interpretation criteria for serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Feb;33(2):419-27.
  578. Eppes SC, Klein JD, Caputo GM, Rose CD. Physician beliefs, attitudes, and approaches toward Lyme disease in an endemic area. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1994 Mar;33(3):130-4.
  579. Ertel SH, Nelson RS, Cartter ML. Effect of surveillance method on reported characteristics of Lyme disease, Connecticut, 1996-2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;18(2):242-7. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.101219
  580. Eschner AK. Effect of passive immunoglobulin transfer on results of diagnostic tests for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in pups born to a seropositive dam. Vet Ther. 2008 Fall;9(3):184-91.
  581. Eschner AK, Mugnai K. Immunization with a recombinant subunit OspA vaccine markedly impacts the rate of newly acquired Borrelia burgdorferi infections in client-owned dogs living in a coastal community in Maine, USA. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Feb 10;8:92. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0676-x
  582. Eshoo MW, Crowder CC, Rebman AW, Rounds MA, Matthews HE, Picuri JM, Soloski MJ, Ecker DJ, Schutzer SE, Aucott JN. Direct molecular detection and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from whole blood of patients with early Lyme disease. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36825. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036825
  583. Eshoo MW, Carolan HE, Massire C, Chou DM, Crowder CD, Rounds MA, et al. Survey of Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California Reveals a Diversity of Microorganisms and a Novel and Widespread Anaplasmataceae Species. PloS one. 2015;10(9):e0135828.
  584. Estrada-Peña A. Diluting the dilution effect: a spatial Lyme model provides evidence for the importance of habitat fragmentation with regard to the risk of infection. Geospat Health. 2009 May;3(2):143-55.
  585. Estrada-Peña A. Increasing habitat suitability in the United States for the tick that transmits Lyme disease: a remote sensing approach. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Jul;110(7):635-40.
  586. Evans R, Mavin S, Ho-Yen DO. Audit of the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in Scotland. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Dec;54(Pt 12):1139-41.
  587. Evans R, Mavin S, McDonagh S, Chatterton Jean MW, Milner R, Ho-Yen Darrel O. More Specific Bands in the Igg Western Blot in Sera From Scottish Patients With Suspected Lyme Borreliosis. J Clin Pathol. 2010 Aug;63(8):719-21. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2010.076307
  588. Exner M. Successful vaccination for Lyme disease: a novel mechanism? Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2001 Sep;1(5):783-93.
  589. Exner MM, Lewinski MA. Isolation and detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA from cerebral spinal fluid, synovial fluid, blood, urine, and ticks using the Roche MagNA Pure system and real-time PCR. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003 Aug;46(4):235-40.
  590. Fabbi M, Sambri V, Marangoni A, Magnino S, Solari Basano F, Cevenini R, Genchi C. Borrelia in pigeons: no serological evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1995 Oct;42(8):503-7.
  591. Fahrer H, Sauvain MJ, Van Der Linden S, Gerber N, Gern L, Zhioua E, Aeschlimann A. Lyme borreliosis how useful is the serology? Preliminary report from a Swiss prospective study. Br J Rheumatol. 1987;26(Suppl 2):114.
  592. Falco RC, Daniels TJ, Fish D. Increase in abundance of immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in an emergent Lyme disease endemic area. J Med Entomol. 1995 Jul;32(4):522-6.
  593. Falco RC, McKenna DF, Daniels TJ, Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Fish D, Wormser GP. Temporal relation between Ixodes scapularis abundance and risk for Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Apr;149(8):771-6.
  594. Falco RC, Smith HA, Fish D, Mojica BA, Bellinger MA, Harris HL, Hechemy KE. The distribution of canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in a Lyme-Disease endemic area. Am J Public Health. 1993 Sep;83(9):1305-10.
  595. Falco RC, Wormser GP, Daniels TJ. Suburbanization in developed nations. In: Mayer K, Pizer H, eds. The social ecology of infectious diseases. New York: Academic Press, 2007, pp. 138-70.
  596. Fallon BA, Pavlicova M, Coffino SW, Brenner C. A comparison of lyme disease serologic test results from 4 laboratories in patients with persistent symptoms after antibiotic treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Dec;59(12):1705-10. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu703
  597. Fallon BA, Das S, Plutchok JJ, Tager F, Liegner K, Van Heertum R. Functional Brain Imaging and Neuropsychological Testing in Lyme Disease. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Jul;25 Suppl 1:S57-63.
  598. Faulde M, Scharninghausen J, Tisch M. Preventive effect of permethrin-impregnated clothing to Ixodes ricinus ticks and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in Germany. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(Suppl 1):321-4.
  599. Faulde MK, Mross KG. Fabric impregnation using acaricides: effective and safe method for the prevention of tick-infestation and tick-borne diseases.: Bekleidungsimpragnierung mit Akariziden: Effektive und anwendersichere Methode zur Pravention vor Zeckenbefall und zeckenubertragenen Infektionserkrankungen. Hygiene Medizin. 2008;33:135-41.
  600. Faulde MK, Robbins RG. Tick infestation risk and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection-induced increase in host-finding efficacy of female Ixodes ricinus under natural conditions. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008 Feb;44(2):137-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-008-9131-4
  601. Faulde MK, Rutenfranz M, Hepke J, Rogge M, Görner A, Keth A. Human tick infestation pattern, tick-bite rate, and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection risk during occupational tick exposure at the Seedorf military training area, northwestern Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5(5):594.
  602. Faulde MK, Rutenfranz M, Keth A, Hepke J, Rogge M, Görner A. Pilot study assessing the effectiveness of factory-treated, long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites during occupational tick exposure in highly infested military training areas, Germany. Parasitol Res. 2015 Feb;114(2):671-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4232-y
  603. Favia G, Cancrini G, Carfì A, Grazioli D, Lillini E, Iori A. Molecular identification of Borrelia valaisiana and HGE-like Ehrlichia in Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled in north-eastern Italy: first report in Veneto region. Parassitologia. 2001 Sep;43(3):143-6.
  604. Fawcett PT, Rose C, Gibney KM, Chase CA, Kiehl B, Doughty RA. Detection of antibodies to the recombinant P39 protein of Borrelia burgdorferi using enzyme immunoassay and immunoblotting. J Rheumatol. 1993 Apr;20(4):734-8.
  605. Fawcett PT, Rose CD, Budd SM, Gibney KM. Effect of immunization with recombinant OspA on serologic tests for Lyme borreliosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001 Jan;8(1):79-84.
  606. Fawcett PT, Rosé CD, Gibney KM, Doughty RA. Comparison of immunodot and western blot assays for diagnosing Lyme borreliosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1998 Jul;5(4):503-6.
  607. Fawcett PT, Gibney KM, Rose CD, Doughty RA. Evaluation of proposed Western blot interpretation criteria for pediatric Lyme borreliosis. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38(9 Suppl):S362.
  608. Fawcett PT, Rosé CD, Gibney KM. Comparative evaluation of adsorption with E. coli on ELISA test for Lyme borreliosis. J Rheumatol. 1995 Apr;22(4):684-8.
  609. Fawcett PT, Rosé CD, Maduskuie V. Long-term effects of immunization with recombinant lipoprotein outer surface protein a on serologic test for lyme disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 Jul;11(4):808-10.
  610. Fawcett PT, Rosé CD, Gibney KM, Doughty RA. Correlation of seroreactivity with response to antibiotics in pediatric Lyme borreliosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1997 Jan;4(1):85-8.
  611. Fawcett PT, Rosé CD, McColgan S, Gibney KM, Doughty R. Comparison of immunodot and Western blot for use in pediatric Lyme borreliosis. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(9 Suppl):S284.
  612. Fawcett PT, Gibney KM, Rose CD, Klein JD, Doughty RA. Adsorption with a soluble E. coli antigen fraction improves the specificity of ELISA tests for Lyme disease. J Rheumatol. 1991 May;18(5):705-8.
  613. Fawcett PT, O'Brien AE, Doughty RA. An adsorption procedure to increase the specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Lyme disease without decreasing sensitivity. Arthritis Rheum. 1989 Aug;32(8):1041-4.
  614. Feder HM Jr. Lyme disease vaccine: good for dogs, adults, and children? Pediatrics. 2000 Jun;105(6):1333-4.
  615. Feder HM Jr. Differences are voiced by two Lyme camps at a Connecticut public hearing on insurance coverage of Lyme disease. Pediatrics. 2000 Apr;105(4 Pt 1):855-7.
  616. Feder HM Jr, Gerber MA, Cartter ML, Sikand V, Krause PJ. Prospective assessment of Lyme disease in a school-aged population in Connecticut. J Infect Dis. 1995 May;171(5):1371-4.
  617. Feder HM Jr. Tick Bite Prevention: Get Naked? JAMA. 1993 Jan;269(4):475.
  618. Fedorova N, Kleinjan JE, James D, Hui LT, Peeters H, Lane RS. Remarkable diversity of tick or mammalian-associated Borreliae in the metropolitan San Francisco Bay Area, California. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5(6):951-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.07.015
  619. Feir D, Santanello CR, Li BW, Xie CS, Masters E, Marconi R, Weil G. Evidence supporting the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Missouri. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Oct;51(4):475-82.
  620. Feldman KA, Connally NP, Hojgaard A, Jones EH, White JL, Hinckley AF. Abundance and infection rates of Ixodes scapularis nymphs collected from residential properties in Lyme disease-endemic areas of Connecticut, Maryland, and New York. J Vector Ecol. 2015;40(1):198.
  621. Felz MW, Chandler FW Jr, Oliver JH Jr, Rahn DW, Schriefer ME. Solitary erythema migrans in Georgia and South Carolina. Arch Dermatol. 1999 Nov;135(11):1317-26.
  622. Felz M. Lyme disease in Georgia a physician survey of disease incidence and diagnostic difficulties. Southern Med J. 1991;84(9):2S28.
  623. Ferrouillet C, Milord F, Lambert L, Vibien A, Ravel A. Lyme disease: Knowledge and practices of family practitioners in southern Quebec. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2015 May-Jun;26(3):151-6.
  624. Fidelus-Gort R, Gilmour RW, Kashatus WC. Serological responses in Lyme disease: the influence of sex, age, and environment. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1993 May-Jun;23(3):221-9.
  625. Fietz J, Tomiuk J, Matuschka FR, Richterc D. Seasonal prevalence of lyme disease spirochetes in a heterothermic mammal, the edible dormouse (glis glis). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014;80(12):3615.
  626. Figueroa R, Bracero LA, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Beneck D, Coleman J, Schwartz I. Confirmation of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes by polymerase chain reaction in placentas of women with reactive serology for Lyme antibodies. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1996;41(4):240-243.
  627. Fikrig E, Huguenel ED, Berland R, Rahn DW, Hardin JA, Flavell RA. Serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease using recombinant outer surface proteins A and B and flagellin. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jun;165(6):1127-32.
  628. Finch C, Al-Damluji MS, Krause PJ, Niccolai L, Steeves T, O'Keefe CF, Diuk-Wasser MA. Integrated assessment of behavioral and environmental risk factors for lyme disease infection on Block Island, Rhode Island. PLoS One. 2014 Jan;9(1):e84758. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084758
  629. Fine AM, Brownstein JS, Nigrovic LE, Kimia AA, Olson KL, Thompson AD, Mandl KD. Integrating spatial epidemiology into a decision model for evaluation of facial palsy in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Jan;165(1):61-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.250
  630. Fiola DS. Ticks and Lyme disease. Shade Tree. 1990;63:61-5.
  631. Fischer RJ, Johnson TL, Raffel SJ, Schwan TG. Identical strains of Borrelia hermsii in mammal and bird. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Dec;15(12):2064-6. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1512.090792
  632. Fish, D. Vaccines versus vectors. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1(4):249.
  633. Fister RD, Weymouth LA, McLaughlin JC, Ryan RW, Tilton RC. Comparative evaluation of three products for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antibody in human serum. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Dec;27(12):2834-7.
  634. Fitzner J, Ammon A, Baumann I, Talaska T, Schönberg A, Stöbel K, Fingerle V, Wilske B, Petersen L. Risk factors in Lyme borreliosis: a German case-control study. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jun;291 Suppl 33:220.
  635. Fix AD, Peña CA, Strickland GT. Racial differences in reported Lyme disease incidence. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Oct;152(8):756-9.
  636. Fix AD, Strickland GT, Grant J. Tick bites and Lyme disease in an endemic setting: problematic use of serologic testing and prophylactic antibiotic therapy. JAMA. 1998 Jan 21;279(3):206-10.
  637. Fleer KA, Foley P, Calder L, Foley JE. Arthropod vectors and vector-borne bacterial pathogens in Yosemite National Park. J Med Entomol. 2011 Jan;48(1):101-10.
  638. Fleur RLL, Callister SM, Dant JC, Wasmoen TL, Jobe DA, Lovrich SD. Vaccination with the ospA- and ospB-negative borrelia burgdorferi strain 50772 provides significant protection against canine lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015;22(7):836.
  639. Flisiak R, Kalinowska A, Bobrowska E, Prokopowicz D. Enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 1996;41(1):83-9.
  640. Flisiak R, Wierzbicka I, Prokopowicz D. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 1998;43:210-20.
  641. Floden AM, Gonzalez T, Gaultney RA, Brissette CA. Evaluation of RevA, a fibronectin-binding protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, as a potential vaccine candidate for Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20(6):842.
  642. Floris R, Menardi G, Bressan R, Trevisan G, Ortenzio S, Rorai E, Cinco M. Evaluation of a genotyping method based on the ospA gene to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in multiple samples of lyme borreliosis patients. New Microbiol. 2007 Oct;30(4):399-410.
  643. Fogel J, Chawla GS. Susceptibility, likelihood to be diagnosed, worry and fear for contracting Lyme disease. J Infect Public Health. 2017 Jan - Feb;10(1):64-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.02.011
  644. Fogel J, Co S. Awareness that dogs can be carriers for ticks that transmit Lyme disease. Calif J Health Promot. 2016;14(2):74.
  645. Foley JE, Brown RN, Gabriel MW, Henn J, Drazenovich N, Kasten R, Green SL, Chomel BB. Spatial analysis of the exposure of dogs in rural north-coastal California to vectorborne pathogens. Vet Rec. 2007 Nov;161(19):653-7.
  646. Foley JE, Nieto NC. The ecology of tick-transmitted infections in the redwood chipmunk (Tamias ochrogenys). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011 Jun;2(2):88-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.11.003
  647. Foley JE, Queen EV, Sacks B, Foley P. GIS-facilitated spatial epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in coyotes (Canis latrans) in northern and coastal California. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005 May;28(3):197-212.
  648. Foley J, Ott-Conn C, Worth J, Poulsen A, Clifford D. An ixodes minor and borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered mojave desert rodent. Ecol Evol. 2014 Mar;4(5):576-81. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.957
  649. Foley J, Rejmanek D, Foley C, Matocq M. Fine-scale genetic structure of woodrat populations (Genus: Neotoma) and the spatial distribution of their tick-borne pathogens. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016;7(1):243-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.10.017
  650. Foley JE, Nieto NC, Foley P. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi Ss in two high risk habitats in northwestern California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75(5 Suppl S):29.
  651. Ford K, Nadolny R, Stromdahl E, Hickling G. Tick surveillance and disease prevention on the appalachian trail. Park Sci. 2015;32(1):36.
  652. Forrester JD, Brett M, Matthias J, Stanek D, Springs CB, Marsden-Haug N, Oltean H, Baker JS, Kugeler KJ, Mead PS, Hinckley A. Epidemiology of Lyme disease in low-incidence states. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015 Sep;6(6):721-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.06.005
  653. Fox NN. Tick-borne diseases: An evaluation of a Lyme disease prevention education program for eight, nine, and ten year olds. Theses, Wilmington University. Dissertation Abstracts International. 2009;69:4635.
  654. Fraile FMT, Ramos MJL, Tormo PN., Gimeno Cardona C. Serological Diagnosis of Lyme Disease in Valencia (Spain). Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14(Suppl 1):E358.
  655. Frank C, Fix AD, Peña CA, Strickland GT. Mapping Lyme disease incidence for diagnostic and preventive decisions, Maryland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Apr;8(4):427-9.
  656. Frank DH, Fish D, Moy FH. Landscape features associated with lyme disease risk in a suburban residential environment. Landsc Ecol. 1998;13(1):27-36.
  657. Frank JC. Taking a hard look at Borrelia burgdorferi. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Jun;194(11):1521.
  658. Freitag, A. Detection of B. burgdorferi DNA using polymerase chain reaction in skin and urine samples from naturally infected individuals: comparison of several primer combinations.: Nachweis von B. burgdorferi DNA mit der polymerase-Kettenreaktion in Haut- und Urinproben naturlich infizierter Individuen: Vergleich verschiedener Primer-Kombinationen. Thesis. Publisher Justus-Liebig-Universität, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin. 2000; pp. 74.
  659. Freitag M, Poggensee G, Scharnetzky E, Hunfeld KP. German Investigation on Lyme borreliosis: evaluation of therapeutic and diagnostic cost (Gilead). A Quality Control Project. Int J Med Microbiol 2009;299(Suppl 46):96.
  660. Fritz CL, Bronson LR, Smith CR, Schriefer ME, Tucker JR, Schwan TG. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Mar;42(3):1123-8.
  661. Fritz CL, Kjemtrup AM, Conrad PA, Flores GR, Campbell GL, Schriefer ME, Gallo D, Vugia DJ. Seroepidemiology of emerging tickborne infectious diseases in a Northern California community. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jun;175(6):1432-9.
  662. Fritz CL, Payne JR, Schwan TG. Serologic evidence for Borrelia hermsii infection in rodents on federally owned recreational areas in California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Jun;13(6):376-81. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2012.1137
  663. Fritzen CM, Huang J, Westby K, Freye JD, Dunlap B, Yabsley MJ, Schardein M, Dunn JR, Jones TF, Moncayo AC. Infection prevalences of common tick-borne pathogens in adult lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Oct;85(4):718-23. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0583
  664. Fritzen C, Huang J, Westby K, Freye James D, Dunlap B, Dunn J, Moncayo A. Infection rates of common tickborne pathogens in Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) from Kentucky. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83(5 Suppl S):195-6.
  665. Fryxell RT, Steelman CD, Szalanski AL, Kvamme KL, Billingsley PM, Williamson PC. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A. Parasit Vectors. 2012 Jul;5:139. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-139
  666. Fujita, H, Sato, T, Ohara, Y, Homma M. An indirect microhemagglutination test for Lyme disease. Microbiol Immunol. 1991;35(7):589-92.
  667. Fulton JP. Estimating the incidence of new onset Lyme disease in Rhode Island. Med Health R I. 2008 Jul;91(7):229-31.
  668. Funk RA, Pleasant RS, Witonsky SG, Reeder DS, Werre SR, Hodgson DR. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in horses presented for Coggins testing in southwest Virginia and change in positive test results approximately 1 year later. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(4):1300.
  669. Gabriele-Rivet V, Arsenault J, Badcock J, Cheng A, Edsall J, Goltz J, Kennedy J, Lindsay LR, Pelcat Y, Ogden NH. Different ecological niches for ticks of public health significance in Canada. PLoS One. 2015 Jul;10(7):e0131282. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131282
  670. Gahan TF, Chapman J, Mueller-Anneling L, Loeffelholz M, Gilchrist MJR, Quinlisk P. Serologic evidence for under-recognition of tick-borne illness in Iowa. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1999;99:189.
  671. Gaito A, Gjivoje V, Lutz S, Baxter B. Comparative analysis of the infectivity rate of both Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in humans and dogs in a New Jersey community. Infect Drug Resist. 2014;7:199.
  672. Galaviz-Silva L, Pérez-Treviño KC, Molina-Garza ZJ. Distribution of ixodid ticks on dogs in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and their association with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Exp Appl Acarol. 2013 Dec;61(4):491-501. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-013-9707-5
  673. Gallivan GJ, Barker IK, Artsob H, Magnarelli LA, Robinson JT, Voigt DR. Serologic survey for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer in Ontario. J Wildl Dis. 1998 Apr;34(2):411-4.
  674. Galloway TD, Christie JE, Sekla L, Stackiw W. Current status of the Lyme borreliosis vector, Ixodes dammini, in Manitoba. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1991 Nov;17(47):259-260.
  675. Gardulf A, Wohlfart I, Gustafson R. A prospective cross-over field trial shows protection of lemon eucalyptus extract against tick bites. J Med Entomol. 2004 Nov;41(6):1064-7.
  676. Garnett JM, Connally NP, Stafford KC 3rd, Cartter ML. Evaluation of deer-targeted interventions on Lyme disease incidence in Connecticut. Public Health Rep. 2011 May-Jun;126(3):446-54.
  677. Garris GI. Control of ticks. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1991;21:173-83.
  678. Garro AC, Rutman MS, Simonsen K, Jaeger JL, Chapin K, Lockhart G. Prevalence of Lyme meningitis in children with aseptic meningitis in a Lyme disease-endemic region. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Nov;30(11):990-2. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31822e8e68
  679. Gary AT, Webb JA, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. The low seroprevalence of tick-transmitted agents of disease in dogs from southern Ontario and Quebec. Can Vet J. 2006 Dec;47(12):1194-1200.
  680. Gary AT, Webb JA, Hegarty BC, Breitschwerdt EB. Seroprevalence of tick-transmitted disease in southeastern Canadian dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2005;19(3):438.
  681. Gasmi S, Ogden NH, Leighton PA, Lindsay LR, Thivierge K. Analysis of the human population bitten by Ixodes scapularis ticks in Quebec, Canada: Increasing risk of Lyme disease. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Oct;7(6):1075-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.09.006
  682. Gassner F, Verbaarschot P, Smallegange RC, Spitzen J, Van Wieren SE, Takken W. Variations in Ixodes ricinus density and Borrelia infections associated with cattle introduced into a woodland in The Netherlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Dec;74(23):7138-44. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00310-08
  683. Gatewood AG, Liebman KA, Vourc'h G, Bunikis J, Hamer SA, Cortinas R, Melton F, Cislo P, Kitron U, Tsao J, Barbour AG, Fish D, Diuk-Wasser MA. Climate and tick seasonality are predictors of Borrelia burgdorferi genotype distribution. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Apr;75(8):2476-83. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02633-08
  684. Gaumond G, Tyropolis A, Grodzicki S, Bushmich S. Comparison of direct fluorescent antibody staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis ticks. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006 Nov;18(6):583-6.
  685. Gauthier DT, Mansfield LS. Western immunoblot analysis for distinguishing vaccination and infection status with Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) in dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1999 May;11(3):259-65.
  686. Gazi H, Özkütük N, Ecemis T, Atasoylu G, Köroglu G, Kurutepe S, Horasan GD. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Francisella tularensis and Borrelia burgdorferi in rural population of Manisa, Western Turkey. J Vector Borne Dis. 2016 Apr-Jun;53(2):112-7.
  687. Ge N, Murphy GL, Kocan AA. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in tissues of experimentally infected Peromyscus leucopus by the polymerase chain reaction. SAAS Bull Biochem Biotechnol. 1993;6:8-15.
  688. Gecheva GG, Georgieva GP, Manev H, Machaldjiski, I. Species and seasonal activity of ixodic ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Med J Infect Parasit Dis. 1994;99:197-200.
  689. Geier DA, Geier MR. Lyme vaccination safety. J Spirochetal Tick-borne Dis. 2002;9(SPRING/SUMMER):16-22.
  690. Georgieff J, Tammemagi M, Dibernardo A, Lindsay R. Recent Trends in Borrelia Burgdorferi Infections in Small Mammal Hosts and Tick Vector in an Endemic Area, Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(11 Suppl S):S124.
  691. Gerber B, Haug K, Eichenberger S, Reusch CE, Wittenbrink MM. Comparison of a rapid immunoassay for antibodies to the C6 antigen with conventional tests for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in Europe. Vet Rec. 2009 Nov;165(20):594-7.
  692. Gerber MA, Shapiro ED, Bell GL, Sampieri A, Padula SJ. Recombinant outer surface protein C ELISA for the diagnosis of early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1995 Mar;171(3):724-7.
  693. Gerber MA, Shapiro ED, Krause PJ, Cable RG, Badon SJ, Ryan RW. The risk of acquiring Lyme disease or babesiosis from a blood transfusion. J Infect Dis. 1994 Jul;170(1):231-4.
  694. Gerber MA, Zalneraitis EL. Childhood neurologic disorders and Lyme disease during pregnancy. Pediatr Neurol. 1994 Jul;11(1):41-3.
  695. Gerber MA, Shapiro ED, and Group Pediatric Lyme Disease Collaborative Study. Lyme disease in children: a prospective study. Pediatr Res. 1994;37(4 PART 2):175A.
  696. Gern L, Leuba-Garcia S, Frossard E. Characterization and follow-up of the IgG antibody response against Borrelia burgdorferi using Western blot in a seropositive (ELISA) population from an endemic area. Bull Soc Neuchl Sci Nat. 1993;116(2):5-14.
  697. Giery ST, Ostfeld RS. The role of lizards in the ecology of Lyme disease in two endemic zones of the northeastern United States. J Parasitol. 2007 Jun;93(3):511-7.
  698. Giffordjones W. Prevention's best treatment for Lyme disease. Windsor Star. 2012 Sept 6. C.4.
  699. Gilbert DN, Metz P, Kohlhepp SJ. Low level zoonotic Lyme disease exists in southern Oregon. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004;104;187.
  700. Gilfillian R, Kane D, O'Brien ME, Rouvet D, Dasbach, J. Detection of Lyme disease in dogs by indirect immunofluorescent antibody assays. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988;539:458-9.
  701. Gill JS, Gahan T, Nelson J, Mueller-Anneling L, Daly C, Gilchrist MJR. Serologic surveillance for Lyme disease, human monocytic Ehrlichiosis, and human granulocytic in Iowa using white-tailed deer as sentinal. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997;97:141.
  702. Gill JS, Johnson RC, Sinclair MK, Weisbrod AR. Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Saint Croix State Park, Minnesota. J Wildl Dis. 1993 Jan;29(1):64-72.
  703. Gill JS, McLean RG, Neitzel DF, Johnson RC. Serologic analysis of white-tailed deer sera for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western immunoblotting. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Feb;31(2):318-22.
  704. Gill JS, McLean RG, Shriner RB, Johnson RC. Serologic surveillance for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Minnesota by using white-tailed deer as sentinel animals. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Feb;32(2):444-51.
  705. Roberts Times G. Lyme disease risk on the rise. Telegraph-Journal. 18 July 2012:A.4.
  706. Ginsberg HS. Transmission risk of Lyme disease and implications for tick management. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Jul;138(1):65-73.
  707. Ginsberg HS. Ecology and management of ticks and Lyme disease at Fire Island National Seashore and selected eastern National Parks. Scientific Monograph NPS/NRSUNJ/NRSM-92/20. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service. 1992.
  708. Ginsberg HS, Ewing CP. Habitat distribution of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) an Lyme disease spirochetes on Fire Island, New York. J Med Entomol. 1989 May;26(3):183-9.
  709. Ginsberg HS, Ewing CP. Deer ticks, Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae), and Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Maine. J Med Entomol. 1988 Jul;25(4):303-4.
  710. Ginsberg HS. Lyme disease and conservation. Conserv Biol. 1994;8(2):343-53.
  711. Ginsberg HS, Zhioua E. Habitat distribution and survivorship of Ixodes scapularis, and implications for transmission dynamics of Lyme disease spirochetes in a natural community. Bull Ecol Soc Am. 1996;77(3 Suppl PART 2):164.
  712. Girard YA, Swift P, Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Fleer K, Foley JE, Torres SG, Johnson CK. Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Nov;12(11):913-21. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0858
  713. Glas, GE, Morgan JM 3rd, Johnson DT, Noy PM, Israel E, Schwartz BS. Infectious disease epidemiology and GIS: a case study of Lyme disease. Geo Info Systems. 1992;2(10):65-9.
  714. Glass GE, Schwartz BS, Morgan JM 3rd, Johnson DT, Noy PM, Israel E. Environmental risk factors for Lyme disease identified with geographic information systems. Am J Public Health. 1995 Jul;85(7):944-8.
  715. Glavanakov S, White DJ, Caraco T, Lapenis A, Robinson GR, Szymanski BK, Maniatty WA. Lyme disease in New York State: spatial pattern at a regional scale. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Nov;65(5):538-45.
  716. Gleim ER, Garrison LE, Vello MS, Savage MY, Lopez G, Berghaus RD, Yabsley MJ. Factors associated with tick bites and pathogen prevalence in ticks parasitizing humans in Georgia, USA. Parasit Vectors. 2016 Mar;9:125. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1408-6
  717. Glinski BM, Bankowski MJ, Newton BJ, Janda WM, Miller K, Peeples ME. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in canine serum Western blot. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1990;90:363.
  718. Goddard J. Ticks and Lyme disease. Infect Med. 1997;14(9):698-700, 702.
  719. Goddard J. Ticks and tickborne diseases affecting military personnel. USAFSAM-SR-89-2. 1989 Sept.
  720. Goddard J, Sumner JW, Nicholson WL, Paddock CD, Shen J, Piesman J. Survey of ticks collected in Mississippi for Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Borrelia species. J Vector Ecol. 2003 Dec;28(2):184-9.
  721. Godfroid E, Min Hu C, Humair PF, Bollen A, Gern L.PCR-reverse line blot typing method underscores the genomic heterogeneity of Borrelia valaisiana species and suggests its potential involvement in Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Aug;41(8):3690-8.
  722. Godsey MS Jr, Amundson TE, Burgess EC, Schell W, Davis JP, Kaslow R, Edelman R. Lyme disease ecology in Wisconsin: distribution and host preferences of Ixodes dammini, and prevalence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Jul;37(1):180-7.
  723. Goettner G, Schulte-Spechtel U, Hillermann R, Liegl G, Wilske B, Fingerle V. Improvement of Lyme borreliosis serodiagnosis by a newly developed recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM line immunoblot assay and addition of VlsE and DbpA homologues. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Aug;43(8):3602-9.
  724. Goettner G, Schulte-Spechtel U, Fingerle V, Liegle G, Wilske B. Development of a new recombinant Borrelia IgG. Int J Med Microbiol. 2003;293(Suppl 36):334.
  725. Golde WT. A Vaccine for Lyme disease: Current progress. Infect Med. 1998;15(1):38, 40-2.
  726. Goldoft MJ, Schulze TL, Parkin WE, Gunn RA. Lyme disease in New Jersey. NJ Med. 1990;87(7):579-84.
  727. Goldstein MD, Schwartz BS, Friedmann C, Maccarillo B, Borbi M, Tuccillo R. Lyme disease in New Jersey outdoor workers: a statewide survey of seroprevalence and tick exposure. Am J Public Health. 1990 Oct;80(10):1225-9.
  728. Goldstein RE. Borrelia burgdorferi, Lyme nephritis and total Lyme disease management. The North American Veterinary Conference -2006. 2006:1020-3.
  729. Goldstein RE, Cordner AP, Sandler JL, Bellohusen BA, Erb HN. Microalbuminuria and comparison of serologic testing for exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in nonclinical Labrador and Golden Retrievers. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007 May;19(3):294-7.
  730. Goldstein RE, Eberts MD, Beall MJ, Thatcher B, Chandrashekar R, Alleman AR. Performance comparison of SNAP® 4Dx® plus and AccuPlex®4 for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2014;12(2):141.
  731. Goltz L, Varela-Stokes A, Goddard J. Survey of adult Ixodes scapularis Say for disease agents in Mississippi. J Vector Ecol. 2013;38(2):401.
  732. Golubić D, Rijpkema S, Tkalec-Makovec N, Ruzić E. Epidemiologic, ecologic and clinical characteristics of Lyme borrelliosis in northwest Croatia. Acta Med Croatica. 1998;52(1):7-13.
  733. Gomes SM, Brisson D, Dattwyler R. Oral vaccine against Borrelia burgdorferi. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2005;105:251-2.
  734. Gomes-Solecki MJ, Brisson DR, Dattwyler RJ. Oral vaccine that breaks the transmission cycle of the Lyme disease spirochete can be delivered via bait. Vaccine. 2006 May;24(20):4440-9.
  735. Gomes-Solecki MJ, Meirelles L, Glass J, Dattwyler RJ. Epitope length, genospecies dependency, and serum panel effect in the IR6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007 Jul;14(7):875-9.
  736. Gomes-Solecki MJ, Wormser GP, Schriefer M, Neuman G, Hannafey L, Glass JD, Dattwyler RJ. Recombinant assay for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease regardless of OspA vaccination status. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jan;40(1):193-7.
  737. Gomes-Solecki MJ, Dunn JJ, Luft BJ, Castillo J, Dykhuizen DE, Yang X, Glass JD, Dattwyler RJ. Recombinant chimeric Borrelia proteins for diagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jul;38(7):2530-5.
  738. Gomes-Solecki MJC, Glass JD, Dattwyler RJ. New vaccine candidates for the prevention of Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002;102:196.
  739. Gomes-Solecki MJ, Wormser GP, Persing DH, Berger BW, Glass JD, Yang X, Dattwyler RJ. A first-tier rapid assay for the serodiagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Sep;161(16):2015-20.
  740. Goodman JL, Bradley JF, Ross AE, Goellner P, Lagus A, Vitale B, Berger BW, Luger S, Johnson RC. Bloodstream invasion in early Lyme disease: results from a prospective, controlled, blinded study using the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Med. 1995 Jul;99(1):6-12.
  741. Goodman LB, Rollins A, Wagner B. Comparison of multiplex with single-antigen serological detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in horses. AAEP Proceedings. 2012;58:564.
  742. Goodwin BJ, Ostfeld RS, Schauber EM. Spatiotemporal variation in a Lyme disease host and vector: black-legged ticks on white-footed mice. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001 Summer;1(2):129-38.
  743. Gooskens J, Templeton KE, Claas EC, van Dam AP. Evaluation of an internally controlled real-time PCR targeting the ospA gene for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Sep;12(9):894-900.
  744. Goossens HA, Maes JH, van den Bogaard AE. The prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi, an indicator for Lyme borreliosis in dogs? A comparison of serological tests. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2003 Nov;128(21):650-7.
  745. Goossens HA, van den Bogaard AE, Nohlmans MK. Serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis using detection of different immunoglobulin (sub)classes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Clin Lab. 2001;47(1-2):41-9.
  746. Goossens HA, van den Bogaard AE, Nohlmans MK. Evaluation of fifteen commercially available serological tests for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;18(8):551-60.
  747. Goossens HA, van den Bogaard AE, Nohlmans MK. Reduced specificity of combined IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassay testing for Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000 May;19(5):400-2.
  748. Goossens HA, Nohlmans MK, van den Bogaard AE. Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme borreliosis. Infection. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):231.
  749. Gordillo G, Solorzano Santos F, Torres, J, Velazquez E, Ramon G, Garcia R, Vargas M. Epidemiological, clinical and zoonotic evidences for the existence of Lyme disease in central of Mexico. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14(Suppl 1):E378-E379.
  750. Gordillo G, Torres J, Solorzano F, Cedillo-Rivera R, Tapia-Conyer R, Muñoz O. Serologic evidences suggesting the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Mexico. Arch Med Res. 1999;Jan-Feb 30(1):64-8.
  751. Gordillo-Pérez G, Torres J, Solórzano-Santos F, Garduño-Bautista V, Tapia-Conyer R, Muñoz O. [Seroepidemiologic study of Lyme's borreliosis in Mexico City and the northeast of the Mexican Republic]. Salud Publica Mex. 2003 Sep-Oct;45(5):351-5.
  752. Gordillo-Pérez G, Vargas M, Solórzano-Santos F, Rivera A, Polaco OJ, Alvarado L, Muñóz O, Torres J. Demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in ticks from the northeast of Mexico. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 May;15(5):496-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02776.x
  753. Gould LH, Nelson RS, Griffith KS, Hayes EB, Piesman J, Mead PS, Cartter ML. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding Lyme disease prevention among Connecticut residents, 1999-2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008 Dec;8(6):769-76. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0221
  754. Graham CB, Pilgard MA, Maes SE, Hojgaard A, Eisen RJ. Paired real-time PCR assays for detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in North American Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Oct;7(6):1230-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.07.009
  755. Gray JS, Hayden TJ, Casey S, Kirstein F, Rijpkema S, Curtin S. A lyme disease serosurvey of deer in Irish National Parks. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 1996;96B(1):27-32.
  756. Grear JS, Koethe R, Hoskins B, Hillger R, Dapsis L, Pongsiri M. The effectiveness of permethrin-treated deer stations for control of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis on Cape Cod and the islands: a five-year experiment. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:292.
  757. Greene RT. Questions "push" for vaccination against Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992;Nov 201(10):1491-3.
  758. Greene RT. An update on the serodiagnosis of canine Lyme borreliosis. J Vet Intern Med. 1990 May-Jun;4(3):167-71.
  759. Greene RT, Hirsch DA, Rottman PL, Gerig TM. Interlaboratory comparison of titers of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi and evaluation of a commercial assay using canine sera. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jan;29(1):16-20.
  760. Greene RT, Levine JF, Breitschwerdt EB, Berkhoff HA. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in North Carolina. Am J Vet Res. 1988 Apr;49(4):473-6.
  761. Greene RT, Walker RL, Nicholson WL, Levine JF. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in the dog. Vet Microbiol. 1991 Jan;26(1-2):179-90.
  762. Greene SK, Levin-Rector A, Hadler JL, Fine AD. Disparities in reportable communicable disease incidence by census tract-level poverty, New York City, 2006-2013. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(9):e27.
  763. Committee on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The State of the Science. Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes Workshop Report. Available from The National Academies Press at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13134
  764. Grignolo MC, Buffrini L, Farris A, Bianchi G. Autoimmune diseases and laboratory tests for Lyme disease. Alpe Adria Microbiol J. 1998;7:72-3.
  765. Grodzicki RL, Steere AC. Comparison of immunoblotting and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using different antigen preparations for diagnosing early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1988 Apr;157(4):790-7.
  766. Grosenbaugh DA, Rissi DR, Krimer PM. Demonstration of the ability of a canine Lyme vaccine to reduce the incidence of histological synovial lesions following experimentally-induced canine Lyme borreliosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2016;180:29.
  767. Gruver KS, Guthrie JW. Parasites and selected diseases of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in the trans-pecos region of Texas. J Wildl Dis. 1996 Jul;32(3):560-2.
  768. Gueglio B, Poinsignon Y, Berthelot JM, Marjolet M. Western blot specificity in the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (experiences in Nantes).: Borreliose de Lyme: specificite du Western blot (experience nantaise). Med Mal Infect. 1996;26:332-7.
  769. Guerra M, Kitron U, Jones C, Walker E, Paskewitz S, Stancil A. Use of canine serology to determine the distribution of Ixodes scapularis-transmitted diseases. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(3 Suppl):425-6.
  770. Guerra MA, Walker ED, Kitron U. Canine surveillance system for Lyme borreliosis in Wisconsin and northern Illinois: geographic distribution and risk factor analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Nov;65(5):546-52.
  771. Guerra MA, Walker ED, Kitron U. Quantitative approach for the serodiagnosis of canine Lyme disease by the immunoblot procedure. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jul;38(7):2628-32.
  772. Guerra MA. Predicting the risk of Lyme disease in the midwestern United States: Surveillance methods, environmental determinants, and geographic distribution. Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2000.
  773. Gupta SK, Schönberg A, Hiepe T. Prevalence of ticks in relation to their role as vector of Borrelia burgdorferi under autochthone conditions. Appl Parasitol. 1995 May;36(2):97-106.
  774. Gustafson R, Forsgren M, Gardulf A, Granström M, Svenungsson B. Antibody prevalence and clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in Swedish orienteers. Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(5):605-11.
  775. Gustafson R, Gardulf A, Svenungsson B. Comparison of culture, indirect immunofluorescence and dark-field microscopy for detection of spirochetes from Ixodes ricinus ticks. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989 Jun;8(6):570-2.
  776. Guttman DS, Wang PW, Wang IN, Bosler EM, Luft BJ, Dykhuizen DE. Multiple infections of Ixodes scapularis ticks by Borrelia burgdorferi as revealed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Mar;34(3):652-6.
  777. Guy EC, Stanek G. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme disease by the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Pathol. 1991 Jul;44(7):610-1.
  778. Gylfe A, Bergström S, Lundström J, Olsen B. Reactivation of Borrelia Infection in Birds. Nature. 2000 Feb;403(6771):724-5.
  779. Hahn BL, Padmore LJ, Ristow LC, Curtis MW, Coburn J. Live attenuated Borrelia burgdorferi targeted mutants in an infectious strain background protect mice from challenge infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016 Aug;23(8):725-31. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00302-16
  780. Hallman WK, Smith-Fiola DC. Growing fear: Home horticulture and the threat of Lyme disease. In People-plant relationships: Setting research priorities. 1994. Eds. Flagler J, Poincelot RP. Food Products Press/ Haworth Press, England. pp. 265-73.
  781. Hallman WK, Weinstein N, Kadakia S, Chess C. Precautions taken against Lyme disease at three recreational parks in endemic areas of New Jersey. Environ Behav. 1995;27:437-53.
  782. Halos L, Bord S, Cotté V, Gasqui P, Abrial D, Barnouin J, Boulouis HJ, Vayssier-Taussat M, Vourc'h G. Ecological factors characterizing the prevalence of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in pastures and woodlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Jul;76(13):4413-20. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00610-10
  783. Halperin JJ, Volkman DJ, Wu P. Central nervous system abnormalities in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neurology. 1991 Oct;41(10):1571-82.
  784. Halpern MD, Jain S, Jewett MW. Enhanced detection of host response antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi using immuno-PCR. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20(3):350.
  785. Halpern MD, Molins CR, Schriefer M, Jewett MW. Simple objective detection of human lyme disease infection using immuno-PCR and a single recombinant hybrid antigen. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(8):1094.
  786. Hamann-Brand A, Flondor M, Brade V. Evaluation of a passive hemagglutination assay as screening test and of a recombinant immunoblot as confirmatory test for serological diagnosis of Lyme disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994 Jul;13(7):572-5.
  787. Hamer SA, Goldberg TL, Kitron UD, Brawn JD, Anderson TK, Loss SR, Walker ED, Hamer GL. Wild birds and urban ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;18(10):1589-95. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120511
  788. Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Keith R, Sidge JL, Walker ED, Tsao JI. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A. Parasit Vectors. 2012 Oct;5:231. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-231
  789. Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Sidge JL, Rosen ME, Walker ED, Tsao JI. Diverse Borrelia burgdorferi strains in a bird-tick cryptic cycle. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Mar;77(6):1999-2007. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02479-10
  790. Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Sidge JL, Walker ED, Tsao JI. Synchronous phenology of juvenile Ixodes scapularis, vertebrate host relationships, and associated patterns of Borrelia burgdorferi ribotypes in the midwestern United States. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3(2):65-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2011.11.004
  791. Hamer SA, Lehrer E, Magle SB. Wild birds as sentinels for multiple zoonotic pathogens along an urban to rural gradient in greater Chicago, Illinois. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012 Aug;59(5):355-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01462.x
  792. Hamer SA, Roy PL, Hickling GJ, Walker ED, Foster ES, Barber CC, Tsao JI. Zoonotic pathogens in Ixodes scapularis, Michigan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Jul;13(7):1131-3.
  793. Hamer SA, Tsao JI, Walker ED, Hickling GJ. Invasion of the lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis: implications for Borrelia burgdorferi endemicity. Ecohealth. 2010 Aug;7(1):47-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-010-0287-0
  794. Hamer SA, Tsao JI, Walker ED, Mansfield LS, Foster ES, Hickling GJ. Use of tick surveys and serosurveys to evaluate pet dogs as a sentinel species for emerging Lyme disease. Am J Vet Res. 2009 Jan;70(1):49-56. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.70.1.49
  795. Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Walker ED, Tsao JI. Increased diversity of zoonotic pathogens and Borrelia burgdorferi strains in established versus incipient Ixodes scapularis populations across the Midwestern United States. Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Oct;27:531-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.06.003
  796. Han GS, Stromdahl EY, Wong D, Weltman AC. Exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in gettysburg national military park, south-central pennsylvania, 2009. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Apr;14(4):227-33. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2013.1363
  797. Han JI, Chang DW, Na KJ. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis. J Vet Sci. 2015;16(3):341.
  798. Han S, Hickling GJ, Tsao JI. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):316.
  799. Hanifeh M, Malmasi A, Virtala A-M K, Nikbakht-Brujeni GR, Salehi TZ, Rahbari S. Seroprevalence, geographic distribution and risk factor analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in naturally exposed dogs of Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2012;6(25):5353-61.
  800. Hanrahan JP, Benach JL, Coleman JL, Bosler EM, Grabau JC, Morse DL. Epidemiologic features of Lyme disease in New York. Yale J Biol Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;57(4):643-50.
  801. Hanrahan JP, Benach JL, Coleman JL, Bosler EM, Morse DL, Cameron DJ, Edelman R, Kaslow RA. Incidence and cumulative frequency of endemic Lyme disease in a community. J Infect Dis. 1984 Oct;150(4):489-96.
  802. Hans AM, Thomas GTJ, Thomas NM. Evaluation of host-targeted applications of permethrin for control of Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). Med Vet Entomol. 1995;9:207-10.
  803. Hansen, K, Asbrink, E. Serodiagnosis of erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans by the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Mar;27(3):545-51.
  804. Hansen K, Hindersson P, Pedersen NS. Measurement of antibodies to the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellum improves serodiagnosis in Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Feb;26(2):338-46.
  805. Hansen K, Lebech AM. Lyme neuroborreliosis: a new sensitive diagnostic assay for intrathecal synthesis of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific immunoglobulin G, A, and M. Ann Neurol. 1991 Aug;30(2):197-205.
  806. Hansen K1, Pii K, Lebech AM. Improved immunoglobulin M serodiagnosis in Lyme borreliosis by using a mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with biotinylated Borrelia burgdorferi flagella. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jan;29(1):166-73.
  807. Hansmann Y, Leyer C, Lefebvre N, Revest M, Rabaud C, Alfandari S, Christmann D, Tattevin P. Feedback on difficulties raised by the interpretation of serological tests for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Med Mal Infect. 2014;44(5):199-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2014.03.009
  808. Hanson MS, Edelman R. Progress and controversy surrounding vaccines against Lyme disease. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003 Oct;2(5):683-703.
  809. Hartelt K, Wurst E, Collatz J, Zimmermann G., Kleespies RG, Oehme RM, Kimmig P, Steidle JLM, Mackenstedt, U. Biological control of the tick Ixodes ricinus with entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes: Preliminary results from laboratory experiments. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(Suppl 1):314-20. 10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.10.003
  810. Hashimoto Y, Takahashi H, Kishiyama K, Sato Y, Nakao M, Miyamoto K, Iizuka H. Lyme disease with facial nerve palsy: rapid diagnosis using a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Feb;138(2):304-9.
  811. Hassett AL, Radvanski DC, Buyske S, Savage SV, Sigal LH. Psychiatric comorbidity and other psychological factors in patients with "chronic Lyme disease". Am J Med. 2009 Sep;122(9):843-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.02.022
  812. Hatchette TF, Johnston BL, Schleihauf E, Mask A, Haldane D, Drebot M, Baikie M, Cole TJ, Fleming S, Gould R, Lindsay R. Epidemiology of Lyme disease, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2002-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct;21(10):1751-8. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2110.141640
  813. Hauser U, Krahl H, Peters H, Fingerle V, Wilske B. Impact of strain heterogeneity on Lyme disease serology in Europe: comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using different species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Feb;36(2):427-36.
  814. Hauser, U, Lehnert, G, and W, B. Validity of interpretation criteria for standardized Western blots (immunoblots) for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis based on sera collected throughout Europe. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Jul;37(7):2241-7.
  815. Hauser U, Lehnert G, Wilske B. Diagnostic value of proteins of three Borrelia species (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and implications for development and use of recombinant antigens for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1998 Jul;5(4):456-62.
  816. Hauser U, Lehnert G, Lobentanzer R, Wilske B. Interpretation criteria for standardized Western blots for three European species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Jun;35(6):1433-44.
  817. Hauser U, Wilske B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with recombinant internal flagellin fragments derived from different species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato for the serodiagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1997 Oct;186(2-3):145-51.
  818. Hayes EB, Maupin GO, Mount GA, Piesman J. Assessing the prevention effectiveness of local Lyme disease control. J Public Health Manag Pract. 1999 May;5(3):84-92.
  819. Haynes JOYM, Lee PP, Seipelt RL, Wright SM. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sequences in a biopsy from a Tennessee patient. J Tenn Acad Sci. 2005;80(3-4):57-9.
  820. Hayney MS, Grunske MM, Boh LE. Lyme disease prevention and vaccine prophylaxis. Ann Pharmacother. 1999 Jun;33(6):723-9.
  821. Healy TL. The impact of Lyme disease on school children. J Sch Nurs. 2000 Apr;16(2):12-8.
  822. Hedberg CW, Osterholm MT, MacDonald KL, White KE. An interlaboratory study of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jun;155(6):1325-7.
  823. Hegarty BC, Qurollo BA, Thomas B, Park K, Chandrashekar R, Beall MJ, Thatcher B, Breitschwerdt EB. Serological and molecular analysis of feline vector-borne anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis using species-specific peptides and PCR. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Jun 12;8:320. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0929-8
  824. Heikkilä T, Huppertz HI, Seppälä I, Sillanpää H, Saxen H, Lahdenne P. Recombinant or peptide antigens in the serology of Lyme arthritis in children. J Infect Dis. 2003 Jun 15;187(12):1888-94.
  825. Heimberger T, Jenkins S, Russell H, Duma R. Epidemiology of Lyme disease in Virginia. Am J Med Sci. 1990 Nov;300(5):283-7.
  826. Heller EL, Wright CL, Nadolny RM, Hynes WL, Gaff HD, Walters EL. New records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern Virginia. J Med Entomol. 2016;53(2):441-5.
  827. Heller JE, Benito-Garcia E, Maher NE, Chibnik LB, Maher CP, Shadick NA. Behavioral and attitudes survey about Lyme disease among a Brazilian population in the endemic area of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010 Jun;12(3):377-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-008-9187-6
  828. Helmy N. Seasonal abundance of Ornithodoros (O.) savignyi and prevalence of infection with Borrelia spirochetes in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2000 Aug;30(2):607-19.
  829. Heltzel JA. Lyme disease preventing the preventable. American Birds. 1991;45(5):1064-6.
  830. Henke SE, Pence DB, Demarais S, Johnson JR. Serologic survey of selected zoonotic disease agents in black-tailed jack rabbits from western Texas. J Wildl Dis. 1990 Jan;26(1):107-11.
  831. Henningsson AJ, Malmvall BE, Ernerudh J, Matussek A, Forsberg P. Neuroborreliosis--an epidemiological, clinical and healthcare cost study from an endemic area in the south-east of Sweden. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 Aug;16(8):1245-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03059.x
  832. Henningsson AJ, Christiansson M, Tjernberg I, Löfgren S, Matussek A. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: A comparison of three CSF anti-Borrelia antibody assays. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 May;33(5):797-803. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-013-2014-6
  833. Henningsson AJ, Gyllemark P, Lager M, Skogman BH, Tjernberg I. Evaluation of two assays for CXCL13 analysis in cerebrospinal fluid for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. APMIS. 2016 Nov;124(11):985-90. https://doi.org/10.1111/apm.12596
  834. Henry B, Crabtree A, Roth D, Blackman D, Morshed M. Lyme disease: knowledge, beliefs, and practices of physicians in a low-endemic area. Can Fam Physician. 2012 May;58(5):e289-95.
  835. Henry B, Morshed M. Lyme disease in British Columbia: Are we really missing an epidemic? BC Med J. 2011;53(5):224-9.
  836. Henry B, Roth D, Reilly R, MacDougall L, Mak S, Li M, Muhamad M. How big is the Lyme problem? Using novel methods to estimate the true number of Lyme disease cases in British Columbia residents from 1997 to 2008. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Jul;11(7):863-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0142
  837. Hernández-Novoa B, Orduña A, Bratos MA, Eiros JM, Fernández JM, Gutiérrez MP, Alonso PA, Mantecón MA, Almaraz A, Oteo JA, Rodríguez-Torres A. Utility of a commercial immunoblot kit (BAG-Borrelia blot) in the diagnosis of the preliminary stages of Lyme disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003 Sep;47(1):321-9.
  838. Herrin BH, Zajac AM, Little SE. Confirmation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis, Southwestern Virginia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014;14(11):821.
  839. Herrington JE. Risk perceptions regarding ticks and Lyme disease: a national survey. Am J Prev Med. 2004 Feb;26(2):135-40.
  840. Herrington JE Jr. A national survey of risk perceptions and practices to prevent tick-borne Lyme disease and mosquito-borne viral encephalitis. 2002. Thesis. Colorado State University. ProQuest Information and Learning Company.
  841. Herrmann C, Gern L. Survival of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs under cold conditions is negatively influenced by frequent temperature variations. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Sep;4(5):445-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.05.002
  842. Herrmann C, Voordouw MJ, Gern L. Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, have higher energy reserves. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43(6):477.
  843. Herrmann JA, Dahm NM, Ruiz MO, Brown WM. Temporal and spatial distribution of tick-borne disease cases among humans and canines in Illinois (2000-2009). Environ Health Insights. 2014 Nov;8(Suppl 2):15-27. https://doi.org/10.4137/EHI.S16017
  844. Hersh MH, Ostfeld RS, McHenry DJ, Tibbetts M, Brunner JL, Killilea ME, LoGiudice K, Schmidt KA, Keesing F. Co-infection of blacklegged ticks with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi is higher than expected and acquired from small mammal hosts. PLoS One. 2014 Jun;9(6):e99348. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099348
  845. Hilborn ED, Catanzaro DG, Jackson LE. Repeated holdout cross-validation of model to estimate risk of Lyme disease by landscape characteristics. Int J Environ Health Res. 2012;22(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2011.588320
  846. Hill D, Holmes T. Provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Lyme disease in Arkansas. J Community Health. 2015;40(2):339.
  847. Hilton E, Devoti J, Sood S. Recommendation to include OspA and OspB in the new immunoblotting criteria for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Jun;34(6):1353-4.
  848. Hilton E, DeVoti J, Benach JL, Halluska ML, White DJ, Paxton H, Dumler JS. Seroprevalence and seroconversion for tick-borne diseases in a high-risk population in the northeast United States. Am J Med. 1999 Apr;106(4):404-9.
  849. Hinckley AF, Connally NP, Meek JI, Johnson BJ, Kemperman MM, Feldman KA, White JL, Mead PS. Lyme disease testing by large commercial laboratories in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep;59(5):676-81. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu397
  850. Hinckley AF, Meek JI, Ray JAE, Niesobecki SA, Connally NP, Feldman KA, Jones EH, Backenson PB, White JL, Lukacik G, Kay AB, Miranda WP, Mead PS. Effectiveness of residential acaricides to prevent Lyme and other tick-borne diseases in humans. J Infect Dis. 2016 Jul;214(2):182-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv775
  851. Hinrichsen VL, Whitworth UG, Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Mather TN. Assessing the association between the geographic distribution of deer ticks and seropositivity rates to various tick-transmitted disease organisms in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Apr;218(7):1092-7.
  852. Hjetland R, Eliassen KE, Lindbæk M, Nilsen RM, Grude N, Ulvestad E. Tick bites in healthy adults from western Norway: Occurrence, risk factors, and outcomes. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Jun;4(4):304-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.02.003
  853. Hjetland R, Nilsen RM, Grude N, Ulvestad E. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects. APMIS. 2014 Nov;122(11):1114-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/apm.12267
  854. Hoen AG, Rollend LG, Papero MA, Carroll JF, Daniels TJ, Mather TN, Schulze TL, Stafford KC 3rd, Fish D. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Aug;9(4):431-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0155
  855. Hofmann H. Lyme borreliosis - problems of serological diagnosis. Infection. 1996 Nov-Dec;24(6):470-2.
  856. Hofmann H, Bruckner H, Heuser B, Brettschneider S. B. Burgdorferi PCR with different primers from skin biopsies and urine compared to culture and serology in skin borreliosis. J Dermatol Sci. 1998;16(Suppl 1):S196.
  857. Hofmann H, Wallich R, Lorenz I, Bechtel M. Comparison of a new line assay using purified and recombinant antigens with a European lysate blot for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Int J med Microbiol. 2006;296(Suppl 40):288-90.
  858. Hofmeister EK, Childs JE. Ear biopsy location influences detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by PCR, but not by culture in naturally infected Peromyscus leucopus. J Wildl Dis. 1995 Jul;31(3):345-51.
  859. Hofmeister EK, Ellis BA, Glass GE, Childs JE. Longitudinal study of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus at a Lyme disease-enzootic site in Maryland. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Apr;60(4):598-609.
  860. Hofmeister EK, Kolbert CP, Abdulkarim AS, Magera JM, Hopkins MK, Uhl JR, Ambyaye A, Telford SR 3rd, Cockerill FR 3rd, Persing DH. Cosegregation of a novel Bartonella species with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in Peromyscus leucopus. J Infect Dis. 1998 Feb;177(2):409-16.
  861. Hofmeister EK, Markham RB, Childs JE, Arthur RR. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction and culture for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in naturally infected Peromyscus leucopus and experimentally infected C.B-17 scid/scid mice. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Oct;30(10):2625-31.
  862. Hofstad H, Matre R, Nyland H, Ulvestad E. Bannwarth's syndrome: Serum and CSF IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi examined by ELISA. Acta Neurol Scand. 1987 Jan;75(1):37-45.
  863. Hojgaard A, Lukacik G, Piesman J. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, with two different multiplex PCR assays. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014;5(3):349.
  864. Holden K, Boothby JT, Anand S, Massung RF. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a coastal region of California. J Med Entomol. 2003 Jul;40(4):534-9.
  865. Holden K, Boothby JT, Kasten RW, Chomel BB. Co-detection of Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes pacificus ticks from California, USA. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006 Spring;6(1):99-102.
  866. Holman MS, Caporale DA, Goldberg J, Lacombe E, Lubelczyk C, Rand PW, Smith RP. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis, Southern Coastal Maine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Apr;10(4):744-6.
  867. Holt N, Murray M, Cuddon PA, Lappin MR. Seroprevalence of various infectious agents in dogs with suspected acute canine polyradiculoneuritis. J Vet Intern Med. 2011 Mar-Apr;25(2):261-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0692.x
  868. Honegr K, Hulínská D, Beran J, Dostál V, Havlasová J, Cermáková Z. Long term and repeated electron microscopy and PCR detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato after an antibiotic treatment. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2004 Mar;12(1):6-11.
  869. Honsberger NA, Six RH, Heinz TJ, Weber A, Mahabir SP, Berg TC. Efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected Ixodes scapularis to dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2016;222:67.
  870. Hoogkamp-Korstanje JAA, De Koning J. Clinic and diagnostic of infections by Borrelia burgdorferi. J Microbiol. 1986;52(5):457-9.
  871. Hook SA, Nelson CA, Mead PS. U.S. public's experience with ticks and tick-borne diseases: Results from national HealthStyles surveys. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6(4):483.
  872. Hornbostel VL, Ostfeld RS, Benjamin MA. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) against Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) engorging on Peromnyscus leucopus. J Vector Ecol. 2005 Jun;30(1):91-101.
  873. Hornbostel VL, Zhioua E, Benjamin MA, Ginsberg HS, Ostfeldt RS. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) and permethrin to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs. Exp Appl Acarol. 2005;35(4):301-16.
  874. Hornok S, Meli ML, Gönczi E, Halász E, Takács N, Farkas R, Hofmann-Lehmann R.. Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: Forests, parks and cemeteries. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Oct;5(6):785-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.05.010
  875. Horobik V, Keesing F, Ostfeld RS. Abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks along forest-field edges. EcoHealth. 2006;3(4):262-8.
  876. Horobik VC, Ostfeld RS, Keesing F. Spatial and microhabitat variation in Lyme disease risk along forest-old field edges in southeastern New York. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2003;103:D-145.
  877. Houck JA, Hojgaard A, Piesman J, Kuchta RD. Low-density microarrays for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (the Lyme disease spirochete) in nymphal Ixodes scapularis. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011 Mar;2(1):27-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.10.002
  878. Hristea A, Ebel A, Malkin JE, Lafaix C, Prazuck T, Breuil J. Lyme disease in Romania. A serological investigation of foresters.: Borreliose de Lyme en Roumanie. Enquete serologique chez les professionnels de la foret. Med Mal Infect. 1998;28:399.
  879. Hristea A, Hristescu S, Ciufecu C, Vasile A. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Romania. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(9):891-6.
  880. Hsia EC, Chung JB, Schwartz JS, Albert DA. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the Lyme disease vaccine. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Jun;46(6):1651-60.
  881. Hsia EC, Hurst SA, Chung JB, Chang D, Albert DA. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the Lyme vaccine. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42(9 Suppl):S386.
  882. Huang HC, Lee CL, Pan TM. A preliminary report on Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the Taiwan area. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1994 Nov;27(4):211-4.
  883. Hubálek Z. North Atlantic weather oscillation and human infectious diseases in the Czech Republic, 1951-2003. Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20(3):263-70.
  884. Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juricová Z. Longitudinal surveillance of the tick Ixodes ricinus for borreliae. Med Vet Entomol. 2003 Mar;17(1):46-51.
  885. Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juricová Z. A simple method of transmission risk assessment in enzootic foci of Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Epidemiol. 1996 Aug;12(4):331-3.
  886. Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juricová Z, Svobodová S. Seasonal distribution of borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1994 Jan;280(3):423-31.
  887. Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juricová Z, Sikutová S, Rudolf I. Effect of forest clearing on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Med Vet Entomol. 2006 Jun;20(2):166-72.
  888. Hubálek Z, Korenberg EI, Juricová Z, Kovalevski YuV, Halouzka J, Shcherbakov SV. Prevalence of borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks from southern Moravia, Czechoslovakia. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1990;37(4):359-62.
  889. Hubálek Z, Stünzner D, Halouzka J, Sixl W, Wendelin I, Juricová Z, Sanogo YO. Prevalence of borreliae in ixodid ticks from a floodplain forest ecosystem. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2003 Feb;115(3-4):121-4.
  890. Hudman DA, Sargentini NJ. Detection of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in ticks in northeast Missouri. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Jul;7(5):915-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.04.010
  891. Hulínská D, Krausová M, Janovská D, Rohácová H, Hancil J, Mailer H. Electron microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction of spirochetes from the blood of patients with Lyme disease. Cent Eur J Public Health. 1993 Dec;1(2):81-5.
  892. Humair PF, Peter O, Wallich R, Gern L. Strain variation of Lyme disease spirochetes isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents collected in two endemic areas in Switzerland. J Med Entomol. 1995 Jul;32(4):433-8.
  893. Humair PF, Postic D, Wallich R, Gern L. An avian reservoir (Turdus merula) of the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1998 May;287(4):521-38.
  894. Humair PF, Turrian N, Aeschilimann A, Gern L. Borrelia burgdorferi in a focus of Lyme borreliosis: epizootiologic contribution of small mammals. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1993;40(1):65-70.
  895. Hunfeld KP, Ernst M, Zachary P, Jaulhac B, Sonneborn HH, Brade V. Development and laboratory evaluation of a new recombinant ELISA for the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Jul 31;114(13-14):580-5.
  896. Hunfeld KP, Stanek G, Straube E, Hagedorn HJ, Schörner C, Mühlschlegel F, Brade V. Quality of Lyme disease serology. Lessons from the German Proficiency Testing Program 1999-2001. A preliminary report. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Jul 31;114(13-14):591-600.
  897. Huppertz HI, Mösbauer S, Busch DH, Karch H. Lymphoproliferative responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in the diagnosis of Lyme arthritis in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 1996 Apr;155(4):297-302.
  898. Huppertz HI, Bentas W, Haubitz I, Girschick HJ, Ganser G, Thon A, Suschke HJ, Schauer-Petrowskaja C, Minden K, Schuchmann L. Diagnosis of Paediatric Lyme Arthritis Using a Clinical Score. 15(4). Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Apr;157(4):304-8.
  899. Hurt L, Dorsey KA. The geographic distribution of incident Lyme disease among active component service members stationed in the continental United States, 2004-2013. MSMR. 2014;21(5):13-5.
  900. Hutchinson ML, Strohecker MD, Simmons TW, Kyle AD, Helwig MW. Prevalence Rates of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Host-Seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Pennsylvania. J Med Entomol. 2015;52(4):693.
  901. Hutton TA, Goldstein RE, Njaa BL, Atwater DZ, Chang YF, Simpson KW. Search for Borrelia burgdorferi in kidneys of dogs with suspected "Lyme nephritis". J Vet Intern Med. 2008 Jul-Aug;22(4):860-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0131.x
  902. Huycke MM, D'Alessio DD, Marx JJ. Prevalence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi by indirect fluorescent antibody assay, ELISA, and western immunoblot in healthy adults in Wisconsin and Arizona. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jun;165(6):1133-7.
  903. Hyde FW, Johnson RC, White TJ, Shelburne CE. Detection of antigens in urine of mice and humans infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Jan;27(1):58-61.
  904. Ikushima M, Kawahashi S, Ohzeki Y, Okuyama Y, Isogai E, Arai T, Matsui K. A new specific serodiagnosis system for Lyme disease: Use of synthetic peptides derived from outer surface protein C of Borrelia burgdorferi. Opportunistic Pathogens. 1997;9(1):21-5.
  905. Ikushima M, Yamada F, Kawahashi S, Okuyama Y, Matsui K. Antibody response to OspC-I synthetic peptide derived from outer surface protein C of Borrelia burgdorferi in sera from Japanese forestry workers. Epidemiol Infect. 1999 Jun;122(3):429-33.
  906. Illoldi-Rangel P, Rivaldi CL, Sissel B, Trout Fryxell R, Gordillo-Pérez G, Rodríguez-Moreno A, Williamson P, Montiel-Parra G, Sánchez-Cordero V, Sarkar S. Species distribution models and ecological suitability analysis for potential tick vectors of lyme disease in Mexico. J Trop Med. 2012;2012:959101. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/959101
  907. Infectious Diseases B, California Department of Public H. Chapter 3: Tick-borne Disease In: Vector-Borne Disease Section Annual Report 2011. 2011:7-11.
  908. Ionita M, Howe DK, Mitrea IL, Stevenson B, Yeargan M. Preliminary data concerning optimization of a PCR-based method for molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens. Lucrări Științifice – seria Medicină Veterinară. 2010;53:87-95.
  909. Ishiguro F, Takada N, Masuzawa T. Molecular evidence of the dispersal of Lyme disease Borrelia from the Asian Continent to Japan via migratory birds. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2005 Jun;58(3):184-6.
  910. Isogai E, Isogai H, Masuzawa T, Yanagihara Y, Sato N, Hayashi S, Maki T, Mori M. Serological survey for Lyme disease in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microbiol Immunol. 1991;35(9):695-703.
  911. Isogai H, Isogai E, Masuzawa T,Yanagihara Y, Matsubara M, Shimanuki M,Seta T, Fukai K, Kurosawa N, Enokidani M, Nakamura T, Tajima M, Takahashi K, Takahashi K, Fujii N. Seroepidemiological survey for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in cows. Microbiol Immunol. 1992;36(10):1029-39.
  912. Ivacic L, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Ghebranious N. A LightCycler TaqMan assay for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in clinical samples. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Feb;57(2):137-43.
  913. Ivanova L, Christova I, Neves V, Aroso M, Meirelles L, Brisson D, Gomes-Solecki M. Comprehensive seroprofiling of sixteen B. burgdorferi OspC: implications for Lyme disease diagnostics design. Clin Immunol. 2009 Sep;132(3):393-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2009.05.017
  914. Herrington JE Jr, Campbell GL, Bailey RE, Cartter ML, Adams M, Frazier EL, Damrow TA, Gensheimer KF. Predisposing factors for individuals' Lyme disease prevention practices: Connecticut, Maine, and Montana. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(12):2035-8.
  915. Jääskeläinen AJ, Viitala SM, Kurkela S, Hepojoki S, Sillanpää H, Kallio-Kokko H, Bergström T, Suni J, Närvänen A, Vapalahti O, Vaheri A. Performance of a multiplexed serological microarray for the detection of antibodies against central nervous system pathogens. J Microbiol Methods. 2014 May;00:7-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2014.02.011
  916. Jackson CA, Lovrich SD, Agger WA, Callister SM. Reassessment of a midwestern Lyme disease focus for Borrelia burgdorferi and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jun;40(6):2070-3.
  917. Jackson CA, Lovrich SD, Callister SM, Agger WA. The prevalence of E. phagocytophila-like organisms in an upper Midwestern Lyme disease focus. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1998;98:144.
  918. Jackson LE, Levine JF, and Hilborn ED. A comparison of analysis units for associating Lyme disease with forest-edge habitat. Community Ecol. 2006;7(2):189-97.
  919. Jackson LE, Hilborn ED, Thomas JC. Towards landscape design guidelines for reducing Lyme disease risk. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:315-22.
  920. Jacobson R, McCall J, Hunter J III, Alva R, Irwin J, Eschner A, Jeannin P, Boeckh A. The ability of fipronil to prevent transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease to dogs. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2004;2:39-45.
  921. Jaenson TG, Eisen L, Comstedt P, Mejlon HA, Lindgren E, Bergström S, Olsen B. Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden. Med Vet Entomol. 2009 Sep;23(3):226-37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2009.00813.x
  922. Jaenson TG, Lindgren E. The range of Ixodes ricinus and the risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis will increase northwards when the vegetation period becomes longer. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011 Mar;2(1):44-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.10.006
  923. Jahfari S, Herremans T, Platonov AE, Kuiper H, Karan LS, Vasilieva O, Koopmans MP, Hovius JW, Sprong H. High seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi antibodies in forestry workers and individuals suspected of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the Netherlands. New Microbes New Infect. 2014 Sep;2(5):144-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/nmi2.59
  924. Jain VK, Hilton E, Maytal J, Dorante G, Ilowite NT, Sood SK. Immunoglobulin M immunoblot for diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in patients with acute facial palsy. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Aug;34(8):2033-5.
  925. James MC, Bowman AS, Forbes KJ, Lewis F, McLeod JE, Gilbert L. Environmental determinants of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in Scotland. Parasitology. 2013 Feb;140(2):237-46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S003118201200145X
  926. James MC, Gilbert L, Bowman AS, Forbes KJ. The heterogeneity, distribution, and environmental associations of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in Scotland. Front Public Health. 2014 Aug;2:129. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00129
  927. James TN, Huffman JE. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophila from three biopsy locations in Peromyscus leucopus. J Pa Acad Sci. 2008;81(Sp. Iss. SI):121-2.
  928. Jan M, Milan D, Ladislav M, Harčarik J. The vertical distribution, density and the development of the tick Ixodes ricinus in mountain areas influenced by climate changes (The Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic). Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(S1):25-37.
  929. Jarefors S, Bennet L, You E, Forsberg P, Ekerfelt C, Berglund J, Ernerudh J. Lyme borreliosis reinfection: might it be explained by a gender difference in immune response? Immunology. 2006 Jun;118(2):224-32.
  930. Stull J, Donovan D, Manning J. New Hampshire Lyme Disease Bulletin: 2006. New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services. 2006.
  931. Stull J, Donovan D, Manning J. New Hampshire Tick-borne Disease Bulletin: 2007 Update. New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services. 2008.
  932. Jaulhac B, Chary-Valckenaere I, Sibilia J, Javier RM, Piémont Y, Kuntz JL, Monteil H, Pourel J. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by DNA amplification in synovial tissue samples from patients with Lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 May;39(5):736-45.
  933. Jaulhac B, Nicolini P, Piemont Y, Monteil H. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Lyme borreliosis. N Engl J Med. 1991 May 16;324(20):1440.
  934. Jauris-Heipke S, Rössle B, Wanner G, Habermann C, Rössler D, Fingerle V, Lehnert G, Lobentanzer R, Pradel I, Hillenbrand B, Schulte-Spechtel U, Wilske B. Osp17, a novel immunodominant outer surface protein of Borrelia afzelii: recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and its use as a diagnostic antigen for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1999 May;187(4):213-9.
  935. Jenkins A, Hvidsten D, Matussek A, Lindgren PE, Stuen S, Kristiansen BE. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway: evaluation of a PCR test targeting the chromosomal flaB gene. Exp Appl Acarol. 2012 Dec;58(4):431-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-012-9585-2
  936. Jenks NP, Trapasso J. Lyme risk for immigrants to the United States: the role of an educational tool. J Travel Med. 2005 May-Jun;12(3):157-60.
  937. Jennett A, Wall R. Low temperatures won't wash for tick elimination. Vet Rec. 2012 Dec;171(22):570. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.e8085
  938. Jensen K. How to prevent, detect and treat: Lyme disease and West Nile Virus infection. Pharm Pract. 2010;26(3):32-3, 35-7,39,65.
  939. Jensen PM, Frandsen F. Temporal risk assessment for Lyme borreliosis in Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000;32(5):539-44.
  940. Jensen PM, Hansen H, Frandsen F. Spatial risk assessment for Lyme borreliosis in Denmark. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000;32(5):545-50.
  941. Ji B, Collins MT. Seroepidemiologic survey of Borrelia burgdorferi exposure of dairy cattle in Wisconsin. Am J Vet Res. 1994 Sep;55(9):1228-31.
  942. Ji B, Thomas CB, Collins MT. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses the 41-kd flagellin as the antigen for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 1994 Sep;55(9):1213-9.
  943. Ji BX, Collins MT. Seroepidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Wisconsin dairy cattle. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1993;93:527.
  944. Jiang Y, Hou XX, Geng Z, Hao Q, Wan KL. Interpretation criteria for standardized Western blot for the predominant species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2010 Oct;23(5):341-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-3988(10)60074-8
  945. Jin C, Roen DR, Lehmann PV, Kellermann GH. An enhanced ELISPOT assay for sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell responses to Borrelia burgdorferi. Cells. 2013;2(3):607.
  946. Joanna Z, Maciej K, Sambor G, Slawomir P, Aneta Iy. The usefulness of ‘in vivo’ antigens in the diagnosis of human. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(S1):361-364.
  947. Jobe DA, Callister SM, Schell RF. Recovery of Borrelia burgdorferi by filtration. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Jul;31(7):1896-8.
  948. Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Nelson JA, Velat TC, Anchor C, Koeune T, Martin SA Jr. Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis ticks, Chicago area. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;12(6):1039-41.
  949. Jobe DA, Nelson JA, Adam MD, Martin SA Jr. Lyme disease in urban areas, Chicago. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Nov;13(11):1799-800. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1311.070801
  950. Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Asp KE, Mathiason MA, Albrecht SE, Schell RF, Callister SM. Significantly improved accuracy of diagnosis of early Lyme disease by peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the borreliacidal antibody epitope of Borrelia burgdorferi OspC. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008 Jun;15(6):981-5. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00079-08
  951. Jochimsen E, Sikkink J, Marx JJ. The prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi seropositivity in an area endemic for Lyme disease. Wis Med J. 1990 Dec;89(12):677-81.
  952. Aucott J. Critical needs and gaps in understanding tick-borne diseases: practicing physician perspective. In Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes Workshop Report. The National Academies Press. 2011; chapter 9.
  953. Johnson AL, Divers TJ, Chang YF. Validation of an in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in horses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008 May;20(3):321-4.
  954. Johnson BJ, Happ CM, Mayer LW, Piesman J. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks by species-specific amplification of the flagellin gene. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Dec;47(6):730-41.
  955. Johnson BJ, Pilgard MA, Russell TM. Assessment of new culture method for detect Borrelia species from serum of Lyme disease patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(5). https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01674-13
  956. Johnson BJ, Robbins KE, Bailey RE, Cao BL, Sviat SL, Craven RB, Mayer LW, Dennis DT. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease: accuracy of a two-step approach using a flagella-based ELISA and immunoblotting. J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug;174(2):346-53.
  957. Johnson JL, Ginsberg HS, Zhioua E, Whitworth UG Jr, Markowski D, Hyland KE, Hu R. Passive tick surveillance, dog seropositivity, and incidence of human Lyme disease. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004 Summer;4(2):137-42.
  958. Johnson M, Feder HM Jr. Chronic Lyme disease: a survey of Connecticut primary care physicians. J Pediatr. 2010 Dec;157(6):1025-9.e1-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.06.031
  959. Johnson MR, Boyd DK, Pletscher DH. Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities. J Wildl Dis. 1994 Apr;30(2):270-3.
  960. Johnson RC, Kodner C, Jarnefeld J, Eck DK, Xu Y. Agents of human anaplasmosis and Lyme disease at Camp Ripley, Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Dec;11(12):1529-34. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0633
  961. Johnson SE, Swaminathan B, Moore P, Broome CV, Parvin M. Borrelia burgdorferi: survival in experimentally infected human blood processed for transfusion. J Infect Dis. 1990 Aug;162(2):557-9.
  962. Jones SG, Conner W, Song B, Gordon D, Jayakaran A. Comparing spatio-temporal clusters of arthropod-borne infections using administrative medical claims and state reported surveillance data. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2012 Sep;3(3):205-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sste.2012.01.001
  963. Jones SG, Coulter S, Conner W. Using administrative medical claims data to supplement state disease registry systems for reporting zoonotic infections. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013 Jan;20(1):193-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/amiajnl-2012-000948
  964. Jones EH, Chanlongbutra A, Wong D, Cunningham F, Feldman KA. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Lyme disease prevention among employees, day visitors, and campers at Greenbelt Park. Park Sci. 2015;32(2):46.
  965. Jordan BE, Hamilton SW, Hayslette SE, Wright SM. Potential role of avians in the distribution of Borrelia species. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2005;105:222.
  966. Jordan BE, Onks KR, Hamilton SW, Hayslette SE, Wright SM. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia lonestari in birds in Tennessee. J Med Entomol. 2009 Jan;46(1):131-8.
  967. Jordan RA, Dolan MC, Piesman J, Schulze TL. Suppression of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs after dual applications of plant-derived acaricides in New Jersey. J Econ Entomol. 2011 Apr;104(2):659-64.
  968. Jordan RA, Schulze TL, Jahn MB. Effects of reduced deer density on the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Lyme disease incidence in a northern New Jersey endemic area. J Med Entomol. 2007 Sep;44(5):752-7.
  969. Joss AW, Davidson MM, Ho-Yen DO, Ludbrook A. Lyme disease--what is the cost for Scotland? Public Health. 2003 Jul;117(4):264-73.
  970. Joss AW, Evans R, Mavin S, Chatterton J, Ho-Yen DO. Development of real time PCR to detect Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in postal samples. J Clin Pathol. 2008 Feb;61(2):221-4.
  971. Jouda F, Perret JL, Gern L. Ixodes ricinus density, and distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection along an altitudinal gradient. J Med Entomol. 2004 Mar;41(2):162-9.
  972. Jourdain E, Bicout D, Balducci F, Deshayes F, Schmitt M, Artois M, Sabatier P. Incidence d’une maladie réémergent: la borréliose de Lyme en Alsace. Environnement, Risques & Santé. 2005;4(2):119-24.
  973. Jovanovic D, Atanasievska S, Protic-Djokic V, Rakic U, Lukac-Radoncic E, Ristanovic E. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in occupationally exposed persons in the Belgrade area, Serbia. Brazilian J Microbiol. 2015;46(3):807.
  974. Jovicić VLj, Grego EM, Lako BL, Ristović BM, Lepsanović ZA, Stajković NT. Improved serodiagnosis of early Lyme borreliosis: immunoblot with local Borrelia afzelii strain. APMIS. 2003 Nov;111(11):1053-9.
  975. Jung PI, Nahas JN, Strickland GT, McCarter R, Israel E. Maryland physicians' survey on Lyme disease. Md Med J. 1994 May;43(5):447-450.
  976. Jurca T, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Lotric-Furlan S, Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Picken RN, Strle F. Comparison of peripheral and central biopsy sites for the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from erythema migrans skin lesions. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Sep;27(3):636-8.
  977. Schmidli J, Gerber H, Hunziker T, Aeschlimann A, Gern L, Kundi M, Stanek G. Comparison of the immunoperoxidase-slide-test with the immunofluorescence-test and ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme Borreliosis II, Zbl Bakt. 1989;Suppl 18:310-6.
  978. Juricová Z, Hubálek Z. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Oct;9(5):479-82. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0125
  979. Jurke A, Bannert N, Brehm K, Fingerle V, Kempf VA, Kömpf D, Lunemann M, Mayer-Scholl A, Niedrig M, Nöckler K, Scholz H, Splettstoesser W, Tappe D, Fischer SF. Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013. Int J Med Microbiol. 2015 Oct;305(7):652-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2015.08.015
  980. Kacherski SE. The diagnosis and treatment of Lyme related Tmj utilizing the bi-digital o-ring test, Homeopathic Dilutions of Reference Controlled Substances and Nutritional Support. Acupuncture Electro. 1997;22(1):76.
  981. Kahl O, Gern L, Gray JS, Guy EC, Jongejan F, Kirstein F, Kurtenbach K, Rijpkema SG, Stanek G. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks: immunofluorescence assay versus polymerase chain reaction. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1998 Mar;287(3):205-10.
  982. Kaiser R. False-negative serology in patients with neuroborreliosis and the value of employing of different borrelial strains in serological assays. J Med Microbiol. 2000 Oct;49(10):911-5.
  983. Kaiser R, Lücking CH. Intrathecal synthesis of specific antibodies in neuroborreliosis. Comparison of different ELISA techniques and calculation methods. J Neurol Sci. 1993 Aug;118(1):64-72.
  984. Kaiser R, Rauer S. Advantage of recombinant borrelial proteins for serodiagnosis of neuroborreliosis. J Med Microbiol. 1999 Jan;48(1):5-10.
  985. Kaiser R, Rauer S. Analysis of the intrathecal immune response in neuroborreliosis to a sonicate antigen and three recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1998 Mar;17(3):159-66.
  986. Kaiser R, Rauer S. Serodiagnosis of neuroborreliosis: comparison of reliability of three confirmatory assays. Infection. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):177-82.
  987. Kalish RA, McHugh G, Granquist J, Shea B, Ruthazer R, Steere AC. Persistence of immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi 10-20 years after active Lyme disease. 3 Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 15;33(6):780-5.
  988. Kamradt T. Lyme disease and current aspects of immunization. Arthritis Res. 2002;4(1):20-9.
  989. Karavaev VS, Ivanov ID, Ryabchenko AV, Beklemishev AB. Isolation of OspC recombinant proteins and FlaB (f-FlaB) fragments from western-Siberian Borrelia garinii NT29 isolates and investigation of their immunochemical properties. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol. 2008;23(1):18-22.
  990. Kardatzke JT, Neidhardt K, Dzuban DP, Sanchez JL, Azad AF. Cluster of tick-borne infections at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas: Rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks. J Med Entomol. 1992 Jul;29(4):669-72.
  991. Karlsson M, Granström M. An IgM-antibody capture enzyme immunoassay for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Serodiagnosis and Immunotherapy Infect Dis. 1989;3(6):413-21.
  992. Karlsson M, Möllegård I, Stiernstedt G, Henriksson AM, Wretlind B. Characterization of antibody response in patients with Borrelia meningitis. Serodiagnosis and Immunotherapy Infect Dis. 1988;2(5):375-86.
  993. Karlsson M, Stiernstedt G, Granström M, Asbrink E, Wretlind B. Comparison of flagellum and sonicate antigens for serological diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990 Mar;9(3):169-77.
  994. Karlsson M. Western immunoblot and flagellum ELISA for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28(9):2148-50.
  995. Karlsson M. Aspects of the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Scand J Infect Dis. Supplementum. 1990;(67):1-48.
  996. Karlsson M, Möllegård I, Stiernstedt G, Wretlind B. Comparison of Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989 Oct;8(10):871-7.
  997. Karreman J, Norel NV, Uiters E, Beaujean D. How to design work related information for low-literate employees? Conference Proceedings of the International Professional Communication Conference. 2015;2015 Jan. https://doi.org/10.1109/IPCC.2014.7020378
  998. Kaslow RA, Samples CL, Simon DG, Lewis JN. Occurrence of erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme disease among children in two noncontiguous Connecticut counties. Arthritis Rheum. 1981 Dec;24(12):1512-6.
  999. Kaufman AC, Greene CE, McGraw RA. Optimization of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in biologic specimens. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1993 Oct;5(4):548-54.
  1000. Kaya AD, Parlak AH, Ozturk CE, Behcet M. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers and farmers in Duzce, north-western Turkey. New Microbiol. 2008 Apr;31(2):203-9.
  1001. Kazmierczak JJ, Amundson TE, Burgess EC. Borreliosis in free-ranging black bears from Wisconsin. J Wildl Dis. 1988 Apr;24(2):366-8.
  1002. Kazmierczak JJ, Burgess EC. Antibodies to Borrelia sp. in wild foxes and coyotes from Wisconsin and Minnesota. J Wildl Dis. 1989 Jan;25(1):108-11.
  1003. Keefe LM, Moro MH, Vinasco J, Hill C, Wu CC, Raizman EA. The use of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and geographic information system (GIS) methods to characterize distribution and locate spatial clusters of Borrelia burgdorferi and its vector Ixodes scapularis in Indiana. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):671-80. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0162
  1004. Keesing F, Allan B, Ostfeld RS. Habitat fragmentation increases Lyme disease risk. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts. 2001;86:127.
  1005. Keller D, Koster FT, Marks DH, Hosbach P, Erdile LF, Mays JP. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant outer surface protein A Lyme vaccine. JAMA. 1994 Jun 8;271(22):1764-8.
  1006. Keller TL, Halperin JJ, Whitman M. PCR detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of Lyme neuroborreliosis patients. Neurology. 1992 Jan;42(1):32-42.
  1007. Kern A, Zhou CW, Jia F, Xu Q, Hu LT. Live-vaccinia virus encapsulation in pH-sensitive polymer increases safety of a reservoir-targeted Lyme disease vaccine by targeting gastrointestinal release. Vaccine. 2016;34(38):4507.
  1008. Khaki M, Ghaznavi-Rad E, Ghazavi, A. L I, Ghasami K, Mosayeb G. Elevated antibody titer against Borrelia burgdorferi in new case of multiple sclerosis patients. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2011;5(30):5354-7.
  1009. Khatchikian CE, Prusinski M, Stone M, Backenson PB, Wang IN, Levy MZ, Brisson D. Geographical and environmental factors driving the increase in the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis. Ecosphere. 2012 Oct 3;3(10). pii:art85.
  1010. Kugeler KJ. Spatial analysis of human Lyme disease risk in an endemic county. Dissertation Abstracts International. Colorado State University. 2015.
  1011. Kiewra D, Stańczak J, Richter M. Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi in Lower Silesia, Poland - Preliminary study. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Oct;5(6):892-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.07.004
  1012. Kilpatrick HJ, LaBonte AM, Stafford KC. The relationship between deer density, tick abundance, and human cases of lyme disease in a residential community. J Med Entomol. 2014 Jul;51(4):777-84.
  1013. Kim TH, Kim YH, Choi JH, Park HJ, Chung DW, Kim DH, Song KH. Seroprevalence of dogs with Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia canis infection in the Daejeon city and Kangwon province. J Vet Clin. 2010;27(6):631-4.
  1014. Kim EJ, Bauer C, Grevelding CG, Quack T. Improved PCR/nested PCR approaches with increased sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pathogens in hard ticks. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Sep;4(5):409-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.04.004
  1015. Kinsey AA, Durden LA, Oliver JH Jr. Tick infestations of birds in coastal Georgia and Alabama. J Parasitol. 2000 Apr;86(2):251-4.
  1016. Kirchgessner MS, Freer H, Whipps CM, Wagner B.Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein antibodies in wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York and Pennsylvania, USA. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 May 15;153(1-2):165-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.02.011
  1017. Kirstein F, Rijpkema S, Molkenboer M, Gray JS. Local variations in the distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997 Mar;63(3):1102-6.
  1018. Kirstein F, Rijpkema S, Molkenboer M, Gray JS. The distribution and prevalence of B. burgdorferi genomospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Ireland. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997 Jan;13(1):67-72.
  1019. Kiser K. In the Lyme light. Minn Med. 2009 Nov;92(11):10-2.
  1020. Kiss T, Cadar D, Krupaci AF, Bordeanu A, Brudaşcă GF, Mihalca AD, Mircean V, Gliga L, Dumitrache MO, Spînu M. Serological reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from distinct areas in Romania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Sep;11(9):1259-62. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0254
  1021. Kitron U, Jones CJ, Bouseman JK. Spatial and temporal dispersion of immature Ixodes dammini on Peromyscus leucopus in northwestern Illinois. J Parasitol. 1991 Dec;77(6):945-9.
  1022. Kitron U, Kazmierczak JJ. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Lyme disease in Wisconsin. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Mar;145(6):558-66.
  1023. Kitron UD, Bouseman JK, Kirkpatrick CE. The status of Lyme disease in Illinois. Proceedings of the Illinois Mosquito and Vector Control Association. 1990;1:51-3.
  1024. Kitron U, Jones CJ, Bouseman JK, Nelson JA, Baumgartner DL. Spatial Analysis of the Distribution of Ixodes-Dammini Acari Ixodidae on White-Tailed Deer in Ogle County Illinois. J Med Entomol. 1992 Mar;29(2):259-66.
  1025. Kjelland V, Stuen S, Skarpaas T, Slettan A. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway. Acta Vet Scand. 2010 Nov;52:59. https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-52-59
  1026. Wassmann K, Borg-Von Zeplin M, Zimmermann O, Stadler M, Eiffert H, Thomssen R. Determination of immunoglobulin M antibody against Borrelia burgdorferi to differentiate between acute and past infections. Lyme Borreliosis II, Zbl Bakt. 1989;Suppl 18:281-9.
  1027. Klein JD, Eppes SC, Hunt P. Environmental and life-style risk factors for Lyme disease in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1996 Jul;35(7):359-63.
  1028. Klempner MS, Schmid CH, Hu L, Steere AC, Johnson G, McCloud B, Noring R, Weinstein A. Intralaboratory reliability of serologic and urine testing for Lyme disease. Am J Med. 2001 Feb;110(3):217-9.
  1029. Knipling EF, Steelman CD. Feasibility of controlling Ixodes scapularis ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), the vector of Lyme disease, by parasitoid augmentation. J Med Entomol. 2000 Sep;37(5):645-52.
  1030. Knoll JM, Ridgeway AC, Boogaerts CM, Burket GA. Appalachian Trail hikers' ability to recognize Lyme disease by visual stimulus photographs. Wilderness Environ Med. 2014;25(1):24.
  1031. Kocan AA, Mukolwe SW, Murphy GL, Barker RW, Kocan KM. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) from Ixodes scapularis and Dermacentor albipictus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Oklahoma. J Med Entomol. 1992 Jul;29(4):630-3.
  1032. Kölmel HW, Neumann P, Schneider T, Barnick L, Lange R. Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurological disorders in Berlin. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1992 Dec;277(4):504-11.
  1033. Kondrusik M, Grygorczuk S, Skotarczak B, Wodecka B, Rymaszewska A, Pancewicz S, Zajkowska J, Swierzbińska R, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T. Molecular and serological diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection among patients with diagnosed Erythema migrans. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007;14(2):209-13.
  1034. Korenberg EI, Gorban LY, Kovalevskii YV, Frizen VI, Karavanov AS. Risk for human tick-borne encephalitis, borrelioses, and double infection in the pre-Ural region of Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 May-Jun;7(3):459-62.
  1035. Korenberg EI, Kovalevskii YV, Gorelova NB. Tick-host-Borrelia population interactions: long-term records in Eastern Europe. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;28(1-4):225-9.
  1036. Korenberg EI, Kovalevskii YV, Levin ML, Shchyogoleva TV. The prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks in the zone of their sympatry. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2001;48(1):63-8.
  1037. Korenberg EI, Vorobyeva NN, Moskvitina HG, Gorban' LYa. Prevention of borreliosis in persons bitten by infected ticks. Infection. 1996 Mar-Apr;24(2):187-9.
  1038. Kornblatt AN, Urband PH, Steere AC. Arthritis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1985 May 1;186(9):960-4.
  1039. Kos W, Wodecka B, Anklewicz M, Skotarczak B. Rapid identification of Borrelia by high resolution melting analysis of the groEL gene. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2013;61(3/4):185.
  1040. Kosik-Bogacka DI, Kuźna-Grygiel W, Górnik K. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in mosquitoes from Szczecin area. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2006;54(1-2):55-9.
  1041. Kowal K. Prevalence of serum specific antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in persons from region of high risk of tick bites. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 1992;60 Suppl 1:67-70.
  1042. Kowa, K, Weinstein A. Western blot band intensity analysis. Application to the diagnosis of Lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Aug;37(8):1206-11.
  1043. Kramer VL, Beesley C. Temporal and spatial distribution of Ixodes pacificus and Dermacentor occidentalis (Acari: Ixodidae) and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Contra Costa County, California. J Med Entomol. 1993 May;30(3):549-54.
  1044. Krause P, Aslanzadeh J, Spielman A, Lenz R, Telford SL, Pollack R, Christianson D, Ryan R. Human coinfection with Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi and human granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in residents of Block Island. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1999;99:189.
  1045. Krause PJ, Foley DT, Burke GS, Christianson D, Closter L, Spielman A; Tick-Borne Disease Study Group. Reinfection and relapse in early Lyme disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Dec;75(6):1090-4.
  1046. Krause PJ, Narasimhan S, Wormser GP, Rollend L, Fikrig E, Lepore T, Barbour A, Fish D. Human Borrelia miyamotoi infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan;368(3):291-3. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1215469
  1047. Krause PJ, Telford SR 3rd, Spielman A, Sikand V, Ryan R, Christianson D, Burke G, Brassard P, Pollack R, Peck J, Persing DH. Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis. Evidence for increased severity and duration of illness. JAMA. 1996 Jun;275(21):1657-60.
  1048. Krause PJ, Narasimhan S, Wormser GP, Barbour AG, Platonov AE, Brancato J, Lepore T, Dardick K, Mamula M, Rollend L, Steeves TK, Diuk-Wasser M, Usmani-Brown S, Williamson P, Sarksyan DS, Fikrig E, Fish D; Tick Borne Diseases Group. Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato seroreactivity and seroprevalence in the northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Jul;20(7):1183-90. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131587
  1049. Krbková L, Bednářová J, Čermáková Z. Improvement of diagnostic approach to Lyme neuroborreliosis in children by using recombinant antigens in detection of intrathecally produced IgM/IgG. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. Summer 2016;65(2):112-7.
  1050. Krol N, Kiewra D, Szymanowski M, Lonc E. The role of domestic dogs and cats in the zoonotic cycles of ticks and pathogens. Preliminary studies in the Wroclaw Agglomeration (SW Poland). Vet Parasitol. 2015;214(1-2):208.
  1051. Krüger WH, Pulz M. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction. J Med Microbiol. 1991 Aug;35(2):98-102.
  1052. Kudish K, Sleavin W, Hathcock L. Lyme disease trends: Delaware, 2000 - 2004. Del Med J. 2007 Feb;79(2):51-8.
  1053. Kugeler KJ, Griffith KS, Gould LH, Kochanek K, Delorey MJ, Biggerstaff BJ, Mead PS. A review of death certificates listing Lyme disease as a cause of death in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb;52(3):364-7. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq157
  1054. Kugeler KJ, Farley GM, Forrester JD, Mead PS. Geographic distribution and expansion of human lyme disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(8):1455.
  1055. Kuiper H, de Jongh BM, Nauta AP, Houweling H, Wiessing LG, van Charante AW, Spanjaard L. Lyme borreliosis in Dutch forestry workers. J Infect. 1991 Nov;23(3):279-86.
  1056. Kuiper H, van Dam AP, Moll van Charante AW, Nauta NP, Dankert J. One year follow-up study to assess the prevalence and incidence of Lyme borreliosis among Dutch forestry workers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;12(6):413-8.
  1057. Kurtenbach K, Kampen H, Dizij A, Arndt S, Seitz HM, Schaible UE, Simon MM. Infestation of rodents with larval Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important factor in the transmission cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in German woodlands. J Med Entomol. 1995 Nov;32(6):807-17.
  1058. Kurtenbach K, Peacey M, Rijpkema SG, Hoodless AN, Nuttall PA, Randolph SE. Differential transmission of the genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by game birds and small rodents in England. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998 Apr;64(4):1169-74.
  1059. Kuznia C, Tripmacher R, Tobisch S, Koester A, Jansen V, Hollidt JM, Lange R. Diagnostic of Lyme borreliosis - Is the detection of isolated type IgM Ospc antibodies specific or is it an laboratory aArtefact? Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(Suppl 45):38.
  1060. Kwasnik I, Peck J, Dias F, Krause PJ, Ryan RW. Laboratory diagnosis of patients suspected of having early Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1995;95:311.
  1061. Kybicová K, Schánilec P, Hulínská D, Uherková L, Kurzová Z, Spejchalová S. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs in the Czech Republic. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):655-61. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0127
  1062. Lacombe E, Rand PW, Smith RP Jr. Disparity of Borrelia burgdorferi infection rates of adult Ixodes dammini on deer and vegetation. J Infect Dis. 1993 May;167(5):1236-8.
  1063. LaFleur RL. New generation vaccine provides protection against canine Lyme disease. NAVC Conference 2010. 2010;766-767
  1064. LaFleur RL, Callister SM, Dant JC, Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Warner TF, Wasmoen TL, Schell RF. One-year duration of immunity induced by vaccination with a canine Lyme disease bacterin. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 May;17(5):870-4. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00524-09
  1065. LaFleur RL, Dant JC, Wasmoen TL, Callister SM, Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Warner TF, Abdelmagid O, Schell RF. Bacterin that induces anti-OspA and anti-OspC borreliacidal antibodies provides a high level of protection against canine Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Feb;16(2):253-9. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00373-08
  1066. Lahey LJ, Panas MW, Mao R, Delanoy M, Flanagan JJ, Binder SR, Rebman AW, Montoya JG, Soloski MJ, Steere AC, Dattwyler RJ, Arnaboldi PM, Aucott JN, Robinson WH. Development of a multiantigen panel for improved detection of borrelia burgdorferi infection in early lyme disease. Journal of clinical microbiology. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Dec;53(12):3834-41. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02111-15
  1067. Lakos A. Comparison of four serological tests for Borrelia burgdorferi in Bell's palsy. Serodiagnosis and Immunotherapy Infect Dis. 1990;4:271-5.
  1068. Lakos A, Ferenczi E, Komoly S, Granström M. Different B-cell populations are responsible for the peripheral and intrathecal antibody production in neuroborreliosis. Int Immunol. 2005 Dec;17(12):1631-7.
  1069. Lakos A, Kőrösi A, Földvári G. Contact with horses is a risk factor for tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA): a case control study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2012 Sep;124(17-8):611-7.
  1070. Lakos A, Reiczigel J, Solymosi N. The positive predictive value of Borrelia burgdorferi serology in the light of symptoms of patients sent to an outpatient service for tick-borne diseases. Inflamm Res. 2010 Nov;59(11):959-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-010-0209-1
  1071. Lane RS. Risk of human exposure to vector ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in a heavily used recreational area in northern California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Aug;55(2):165-73.
  1072. Lane RS. Treatment of clothing with a permethrin spray for personal protection against the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 1989 May;6(4):343-52.
  1073. Lane RS. Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks on Angel Island, California: low risk of human infection. Bull Soc Vector Ecol. 1992;17(1):75-82.
  1074. Lane RS, Brown RN. Wood rats and kangaroo rats: potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete in California. J Med Entomol. 1991 May;28(3):299-302.
  1075. Lane RS, Burgdorfer W. Spirochetes in mammals and ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a focus of Lyme borreliosis in California. J Wildl Dis. 1988 Jan;24(1):1-9.
  1076. Lane RS, Burgdorfer W. Potential role of native and exotic deer and their associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the ecology of Lyme disease in California, USA. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):55-64.
  1077. Lane RS, Casher LE, Peavey CA, Piesman J. Modified bait tube controls disease-carrying ticks and fleas. Calif Agri. 1998;52:43-7.
  1078. Lane RS, Foley JE, Eisen L, Lennette ET, Peot MA. Acarologic risk of exposure to emerging tick-borne bacterial pathogens in a semirural community in northern California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001 Fall;1(3):197-210.
  1079. Lane RS, Kucera TF, Barrett RH, Mun J, Wu C, Smith VS. Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a host of ixodid ticks, lice, and Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in California state parks. J Wildl Dis. 2006 Oct;42(4):759-71.
  1080. Lane RS, Lavoie PE. Lyme borreliosis in California. Acarological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:192-203.
  1081. Lane RS, Lennette ET, Madigan JE. Interlaboratory and intralaboratory comparisons of indirect immunofluorescence assays for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Aug;28(8):1774-9.
  1082. Lane RS, Loye JE. Lyme disease in California: interrelationship of ixodid ticks (Acari), rodents, and Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):719-25.
  1083. Lane RS, Loye JE. Lyme disease in California: interrelationship of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae), the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), and Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1989 Jul;26(4):272-8.
  1084. Lane RS, Manweiler SA, Stubbs HA, Lennette ET, Madigan JE, Lavoie PE. Risk factors for Lyme disease in a small rural community in northern California. Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Dec;136(11):1358-68.
  1085. Lane RS, Moss RB, Hsu YP, Wei T, Mesirow ML, Kuo MM. Anti-arthropod saliva antibodies among residents of a community at high risk for Lyme disease in California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Nov;61(5):850-9.
  1086. Lane RS, Mun J, Stubbs HA. Horizontal and vertical movements of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in a hardwood forest. J Vector Ecol. 2009 Dec;34(2):252-66. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2009.00034.x
  1087. Lane RS, Mun J, Eisen RJ, Eisen L. Western gray squirrel (Rodentia: Sciuridae): a primary reservoir host of Borrelia burgdorferi in Californian oak woodlands? J Med Entomol. 2005 May;42(3):388-96.
  1088. Lane RS, Mun J, Eisen RJ, Eisen L. Erratum: A primary reservoir host of Borrelia burgdorferi in Californian Oak Woodlands? J Med Entomol. 2005;42(4):iv.
  1089. Lane RS, Mun J, Parker JM, White M. Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) as hosts for Borrelia spp. in northern California. J Wildl Dis. 2005 Jan;41(1):115-25.
  1090. Lane RS, Mun J, Peribáñez MA, Fedorova N. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010 Dec;1(4):1591-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.09.004
  1091. Lane RS, Mun J, Peribáñez MA, Stubbs HA. Host-seeking behavior of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in relation to environmental parameters in dense-woodland and woodland-grass habitats. J Vector Ecol. 2007 Dec;32(2):342-57.
  1092. Lane RS, Pascocello JA. Antigenic characteristics of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates from ixodid ticks in California. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Oct;27(10):2344-9.
  1093. Lane RS, Peavey CA, Padgett KA, Hendson M. Life history of Ixodes (Ixodes) jellisoni (Acari: Ixodidae) and its vector competence for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. J Med Entomol. 1999 May;36(3):329-40.
  1094. Lane RS, Regnery DC. Lagomorphs as sentinels for surveillance of borreliosis in the far western United States. J Wildl Dis. 1989 Apr;25(2):189-93.
  1095. Lane RS, Steinlein DB, Mun J. Human behaviors elevating exposure to Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs and their associated bacterial zoonotic agents in a hardwood forest. J Med Entomol. 2004 Mar;41(2):239-48.
  1096. Lane RS, Stubbs HA. Host-seeking behavior of adult Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) as determined by flagging vegetation. J Med Entomol. 1990 May;27(3):282-7.
  1097. Lane RS. Infection of deer mice and pinon mice Peromyscus spp with spirochetes at a focus of Lyme borreliosis in Northern California USA. Bull Soc Vector Ecol. 1990;15(1):25-32.
  1098. Lane RS, Fedorova N, Kleinjan JE, Maxwell M. Eco-epidemiological factors contributing to the low risk of human exposure to ixodid tick-borne borreliae in southern California, USA. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Sep;4(5):377-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.02.005
  1099. Lange R, Schneider T, Topel U, Mater-Bohm H, Beck A, Kolmel HW. Evaluation of IFA, ELISA and Western blot for immunodiagnosis of clinically confirmed Lyme-borreliosis stages. Trop Med Parasitol. 1991;42:463-4.
  1100. Lange R, Seyyedi S. Evidence of a Lyme borreliosis infection from the viewpoint of laboratory medicine. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jun;291 Suppl 33:120-4.
  1101. Langermann S, Palaszynski S, Sadziene A, Stover CK, Koenig S. Systemic and mucosal immunity induced by BCG vector expressing outer-surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi. Nature. 1994 Dec;372(6506):552-5.
  1102. Lankester MW, Potter WR, Lindquist EE, Wu KW. Deer tick (Ixodes dammini) identified in northwestern Ontario. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1991 Nov;17(47):260-263.
  1103. Lantos PM, Brinkerhoff RJ, Wormser GP, Clemen R. Empiric antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans-like skin lesions as a function of geography: a clinical and cost effectiveness modeling study. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Dec;13(12):877-83. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2013.1365
  1104. Lantos PM, Lipsett SC, Nigrovic LE. False positive Lyme disease IgM immunoblots in children. J Pediatr. 2016;174:267.
  1105. Lantos PM, Nigrovic LE, Auwaerter PG, Fowler VG, Ruffin F, Brinkerhoff RJ, Reber J, Williams C, Broyhill J, Pan WK, Gaines DN. Geographic Expansion of Lyme Disease in the Southeastern United States, 2000-2014. Open forum infectious diseases. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Sep;2(4):ofv143. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofv143
  1106. Lapsley WM. Predictors of Lyme arthritis diagnosis in Lyme disease cases. [Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014]. ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst; 2009. pp. 1-39.
  1107. Larsen AE, MacDonald AJ, Plantinga AJ. Lyme disease risk influences human settlement in the wildland-urban interface: evidence from a longitudinal analysis of counties in the northeastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(4):747.
  1108. Lastavica CC, Wilson ML, Berardi VP, Spielman A, Deblinger RD. Rapid emergence of a focal epidemic of Lyme disease in coastal Massachusetts. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jan;320(3):133-7.
  1109. Lawless KA, Brown SW, Cartter M. Applying educational psyclnlogy and instructional technology to health care issues: combating Lyme disease. Int J Instr Media. 1997;24(4):287-97.
  1110. Lawrence CH, Botchlet R, Silberg SL, Flournoy DJ, Guthrie PJ. Prevalence of Lyme disease infection in Oklahoma. J Natl Med Assoc. 1992 Sep;84(9):803-4.
  1111. Lawrence M, Quilliam DN, Bandy U, Fulton JP, Marak TP, Berns A. Rhode Island tick-borne disease surveillance summary 2012-2013. Rhode Island Med J (2013). 2014;97(9):46.
  1112. Layfield D, Guilfoile P. The prevalence of Borrelia burgdorfieri (Spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (Rickettsiaceae: Ehrlichieae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) collected during 1998 and 1999 from Minnesota. J Med Entomol. 2002 Jan;39(1):218-20.
  1113. Lebech AM, Clemmensen O, Hansen K. Comparison of in vitro culture, immunohistochemical staining, and PCR for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in tissue from experimentally infected animals. 33(9). J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Sep;33(9):2328-33.
  1114. Lebech AM, Hansen K. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in urine samples and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Jul;30(7):1646-53.
  1115. Lebech AM, Hansen K, Brandrup F, Clemmensen O, Halkier-Sørensen L. Diagnostic value of PCR for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in clinical specimens from patients with erythema migrans and Lyme neuroborreliosis. Mol Diagn. 2000 Jun;5(2):139-50.
  1116. Lebech AM, Hindersson P, Vuust J, Hansen K. Comparison of in vitro culture and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in tissue from experimentally infected animals. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Apr;29(4):731-37.
  1117. Lebechdouble AM, Hansendouble K, Rutledge BJ, Kolbert CP, Rys PN, Persing DH. Diagnostic detection and direct genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi regular by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Mol Diagn. 1998 Sep;3(3):131-41.
  1118. LeBourdais E. Activists decry physician disinterest in Lyme disease during Vancouver conference. CMAJ. 1995 Sep;153(6):822-4.
  1119. Ledue TB, Collins MF, Craig WY. New laboratory guidelines for serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease: evaluation of the two-test protocol. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Oct;34(10):2343-50.
  1120. Ledue TB, Collins MF, Young J, Schriefer ME. Evaluation of the Liaison (R) Borrelia burgdorferi test, a recombinant Vlse-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2008;108:694.
  1121. Ledue TB, Collins MF, Young J, Schriefer ME. Evaluation of the recombinant VlsE-based liaison chemiluminescence immunoassay for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and diagnosis of Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15(12):1796-804.
  1122. Lee BY, Bacon KM, Bottazzi ME, Hotez PJ. Global economic burden of Chagas disease: a computational simulation model. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;13(4):342-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70002-1
  1123. Lee M, Fernando K, Ng C, Wong Q, Mak S, Lancaster C, Morshed M. Lyme spirochete moving to the North: Borrelia burgdorferi found in Ixodes tick in Hazelton, BC (N 55 Degree). Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34(Suppl 2):S3.
  1124. Lee SH, Vigliotti VS, Vigliotti JS, Jones W, Pappu S. Increased sensitivity and specificity of Borrelia burgdorferi 16S ribosomal DNA detection. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010 Apr;133(4):569-76. https://doi.org/10.1309/AJCPI72YAXRHYHEE
  1125. Lee SH. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report. Int Med Case Rep J. 2016;9:101.
  1126. Lee SH, Vigliotti JS, Vigliotti VS, Jones W, Moorcroft TA, Lantsman K. DNA sequencing diagnosis of off-season spirochetemia with low bacterial density in Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi infections. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15(7):11364.
  1127. Lee SH, Vigliotti JS, Vigliotti VS, Jones W, Shearer DM. Detection of Borreliae in archived sera from patients with clinically suspect Lyme disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15(3):4284.
  1128. Lee SH, Yun SH, Choi E, Park YS, Lee SE, Cho GJ, Kwon OD, Kwak D. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2016 Feb;54(1):97-101. https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2016.54.1.97
  1129. Lee X, Coyle DR, Johnson DKH, Murphy MW, McGeehin MA, Murphy RJ, Raffa KF, Paskewitz SM. Prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs collected in managed red pine forests in Wisconsin. J Med Entomol. 2014;51(3):694-701.
  1130. de Leeuw BH, Maraha B, Hollemans L, Sprong H, Brandenburg AH, Westenend PJ, Kusters JG. Evaluation of Borrelia real time PCR DNA targeting OspA, FlaB and 5S-23S IGS and Borrelia 16S rRNA RT-qPCR. J Microbiol Methods. 2014 Dec;107:41-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2014.09.001
  1131. Lencáková D, Fingerle V, Stefancíková A, Schulte-Spechtel U, Petko B, Schréter I, Wilske B. Evaluation of recombinant line immunoblot for detection of Lyme disease in Slovakia: comparison with two other immunoassays. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008 Jun;8(3):381-90. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0216.A
  1132. Leprince DJ, Lane RS. Evaluation of permethrin-impregnated cotton balls as potential nesting material to control ectoparasites of woodrats in California. J Med Entomol. 1996 May;33(3):355-60.
  1133. Lerner MB, Dailey J, Goldsmith BR, Brisson D, Johnson AT. Detecting Lyme disease using antibody-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube transistors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 Jul;45:163-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2013.01.035
  1134. Leschnik M, Feiler A, Duscher GG, Joachim A. Effect of owner-controlled acaricidal treatment on tick infestation and immune response to tick-borne pathogens in naturally infested dogs from Eastern Austria. Parasit Vectors. 2013 Mar;6:62. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-62
  1135. Letrilliart L, Ragon B, Hanslik T, Flahault A. Lyme disease in France: a primary care-based prospective study. Epidemiol Infect. 2005 Oct;133(5):935-42.
  1136. Leung SS, Scott JR. A fluorescence ELISA for Lyme disease: a comparison with other diagnostic techniques. J Clin Immunoassay. 1989;12:154-7.
  1137. Levi T, Kilpatrick AM, Mangel M, Wilmers CC. Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul;109(27):10942-7. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1204536109
  1138. Levin AE, Condon P, Kovalenko V. Lyme Borreliosis Serodiagnosis by Elisa Based on the C6 Peptide of Vlse. Clin Chem. 2002;48(6 Suppl):A67.
  1139. Levine JF, Apperson CS, Spiegel RA, Nicholson WL, Staes CJ. Indigenous cases of Lyme disease diagnosed in North Carolina. South Med J. 1991 Jan;84(1):27-31.
  1140. Levine JF, Sonenshine DE, Nicholson WL, Turner RT. Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from coastal Virginia. J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):668-74.
  1141. Levine JF, Apperson CS, Nicholson WL. The occurrence of spirochetes in Ixodid ticks in North Carolina USA. J Entomol Sci. 1989;24(4):594-602.
  1142. Levkutova M, Bhide M, Revajova V, Travnicek M, Levkut M. Use of flow cytometry for the detection of borreliacidal antibodies. Folia Vet. 2006;50:214-6.
  1143. Levy S, O'Connor TP, Hanscom JL, Shields P. Utility of an in-office C6 ELISA test kit for determination of infection status of dogs naturally exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi. Vet Ther. 2002 Fall;3(3):308-15.
  1144. Levy SA. Use of a C6 ELISA test to evaluate the efficacy of a whole-cell bacterin for the prevention of naturally transmitted canine Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Vet Ther. 2002 Winter;3(4):420-4.
  1145. Levy SA, Clark KK, Glickman LT. Infection rates in dogs vaccinated and not vaccinated with an OspA Borrelia burgdorferi vaccine in a lyme disease-endemic area of Connecticut. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2005;3:1-5.
  1146. Levy SA, Lissman BA, Ficke CM. Performance of a Borrelia burgdorferi bacterin in borreliosis-endemic areas. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993 Jun;202(11):1834-8.
  1147. Levy SA, O'Connor TP, Hanscom JL, Shields P. Evaluation of a canine C6 ELISA Lyme disease test for the determination of the infection status of cats naturally exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi. Vet Ther. 2003 Summer;4(2):172-7.
  1148. Lewandowska A, Kruba Z, Filip R. Epidemiology of Lyme disease among workers of forest inspectorates in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20:329-31.
  1149. Lewis R. Vaccines:Victims of their own success? The Scientist Magazine. July 19, 2004.
  1150. Ley C, Davila IH, Mayer NM, Murray RA, Rutherford GW, Reingold AL. Lyme disease in northwestern coastal California. West J Med. 1994 Jun;160(6):534-9.
  1151. Ley C, Olshen EM, Reingold AL. Case-control study of risk factors for incident Lyme disease in California. Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Nov;142(9 Suppl):S39-47.
  1152. Leydet BF Jr, Liang FT. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Apr;4(3):191-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2012.12.002
  1153. Leydet BF, Liang FT. Detection of Lyme Borrelia in questing Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and small mammals in Louisiana. J Med Entomol. 2014;51(1):278.
  1154. Li X, McHugh GA, Damle N, Sikand VK, Glickstein L, Steere AC. Burden and viability of Borrelia burgdorferi in skin and joints of patients with erythema migrans or lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Aug;63(8):2238-47. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.30384
  1155. Li X1, Peavey CA, Lane RS. Density and spatial distribution of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in two recreational areas in north coastal California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Mar;62(3):415-22.
  1156. Li J, Kolivras KN, Hong Y, Duan Y, Seukep SE, Prisley SP, Campbell JB, Gaines DN. Spatial and temporal emergence pattern of Lyme disease in Virginia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Dec;91(6):1166-72. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0733
  1157. Li S, Gilbert L, Harrison PA, Rounsevell MD. Modelling the seasonality of Lyme disease risk and the potential impacts of a warming climate within the heterogeneous landscapes of Scotland. J R Soc Interface. 2016 Mar;13(116). pii:20160140. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2016.0140.
  1158. Liang FT, Steere AC, Marques AR, Johnson BJ, Miller JN, Philipp MT. Sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a peptide based on an immunodominant conserved region of Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Dec;37(12):3990-6.
  1159. Liang FT, Jacobson RH, Straubinger RK, Grooters A, Philipp MT. Characterization of a Borrelia burgdorferi Vlse invariable region useful in canine Lyme disease serodiagnosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Nov;38(11):4160-6.
  1160. Liebling MR, Nishio MJ, Rodriguez A, Sigal LH, Jin T, Louie JS. The polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in human body fluids. Arthritis Rheum. 1993 May;36(5):665-75.
  1161. Lienard M, Treppoz H, Delemotte B, Adjemian A, Mercat FX, Choutet P. Infections transmitted by ticks and occupational diseases in agriculture: Infections transmises par les tiques et maladies professionnelles en agriculture. Méd al Infect. 1998;28(SPECIAL MAY):367-72.
  1162. Lightfoot RW Jr, Luft BJ, Rahn DW, Steere AC, Sigal LH, Zoschke DC, Gardner P, Britton MC, Kaufman RL. Empiric parenteral antibiotic treatment of patients with fibromyalgia and fatigue and a positive serologic result for Lyme disease. A cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Sep;119(6):503-9.
  1163. Lim LC, Liu YF, Schell K, Lovrich SD, Callister SM, Schell RF. Detection of borreliacidal antibody by using acridine orange and flow cytometry. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1994 Jan;1(1):44-50.
  1164. Limbach FX, Jaulhac B, Piémont Y, Kuntz JL, Monteil H, Sibilia J. One-step reverse transcriptase PCR method for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi mRNA in mouse Lyme arthritis tissue samples. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Jun;37(6):2037-9.
  1165. Lin T, Schubert, C M, Shih F, Ahmad, P, Lopez M, Horst H. Use of flagellin-enriched antigens in a rapid, simple and specific quantitative enzyme immunoassay for Lyme disease antibodies in human serum samples. J Immunoassay. 1991;12(3):325-46.
  1166. Lindenmayer J, Weber M, Onderdonk A. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 May;194(10):1384.
  1167. Lindenmayer J, Weber M, Bryant J, Marquez E, Onderdonk A. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western immunoblot for the diagnosis of Lyme disease in dogs. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Jan;28(1):92-6.
  1168. Lindenmayer JM, Marshall D, Onderdonk AB. Dogs as sentinels for Lyme disease in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 1991 Nov;81(11):1448-55.
  1169. Lindsay LR, Barker IK, Surgeoner GA, McEwen SA, Elliott LA, Kolar J. Apparent incompetence of Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) as vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi in an Ixodes dammini endemic area of Ontario, Canada. J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):750-3.
  1170. Lindsey H. Guideline-making gets tougher: Action by State Attorney General over Lyme disease guidelines stirs debate. Ann Neurol. 2009;65:A10-5.
  1171. Lingren M, Rowley WA, Thompson C, Gilchrist M. Geographic distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iowa with emphasis on Ixodes scapularis and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005 Fall;5(3):219-26.
  1172. Linhardt A, Lema C, Coulter P, Flayhart D, Aucott J, Auwaerter P, Dumler JS. Evaluation of high volume Borrelia burgdorferi plasma and skin biopsy culture for definitive identification of Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002;102:105.
  1173. Lipowsky C, Altwegg M, Michel BA, Brühlmann P. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by species-specific and broad-range PCR of synovial fluid and synovial tissue of Lyme arthritis patients before and after antibiotic treatment. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2003 Mar-Apr;21(2):271-2.
  1174. Lipsett SC, Branda JA, McAdam AJ, Vernacchio L, Gordon CD, Gordon CR, Nigrovic LE. Evaluation of the C6 Lyme enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of Lyme disease in children and adolescents. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Oct;63(7):922-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw427
  1175. Lipsett SC, Pollock NR, Branda JA, Gordon CD, Gordon CR, Lantos PM, Nigrovic LE. The positive predictive value of Lyme Elisa for the diagnosis of Lyme disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Nov;34(11):1260-2. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000858
  1176. Little SE, Beall MJ, Bowman DD, Chandrashekar R, Stamaris J. Canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in the United States, 2010-2012. Parasit Vectors. 2014 May;7:257. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-257
  1177. Littman MP. Lyme disease: what to do when the snap is positive. The North American Veterinary Conference – 2006. Conference Proceedings. 2016. pp. 641-2.
  1178. Littman MP. Why I don't use Lyme disease vaccines. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian. 1997;19:1269-75.
  1179. Littman MP, Giger U, Nolan TJ. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in a Lyme endemic area. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20(3):761-2.
  1180. Liu ZY, Hao Q, Hou XX, Jiang Y, Geng Z, Wu YM, Wan KL. A study of the technique of western blot for diagnosis of Lyme disease caused by Borrelia afzelii in China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2013 Mar;26(3):190-200. https://doi.org/10.3967/0895-3988.2013.03.006
  1181. Liu W, Liu HX, Zhang L, Hou XX, Wan KL, Hao Q. Evaluation of six recombinant proteins for serological diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2016 May;29(5):323-30. https://doi.org/10.3967/bes2016.042
  1182. Liu W, Liu HX, Zhang L, Hou XX, Wan KL, Hao Q. A novel isothermal assay of Borrelia burgdorferi by recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow detection. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Aug;17(8). pii:E1250. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081250
  1183. Liveris D, Schwartz I, Bittker S, Cooper D, Iyer R, Cox ME, Wormser GP. Improving the yield of blood cultures from patients with early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jun;49(6):2166-8. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00350-11
  1184. Liveris D, Schwartz I, McKenna D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman R, Demarco J, Iyer R, Bittker S, Cooper D, Holmgren D, Wormser GP. Comparison of five diagnostic modalities for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with early Lyme disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Jul;73(3):243-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.03.026
  1185. Liveris D, Wang G, Girao G, Byrne DW, Nowakowski J, McKenna D, Nadelman R, Wormser GP, Schwartz I. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in 2-millimeter skin samples of erythema migrans lesions: correlation of results with clinical and laboratory findings. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Apr;40(4):1249-53.
  1186. Ljøstad U, Mygland Å. CSF B--lymphocyte chemoattractant (CXCL13) in the early diagnosis of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Neurol. 2008 May;255(5):782. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-008-0974-8
  1187. Ljøstad U, Skarpaas T, Mygland A. Clinical usefulness of intrathecal antibody testing in acute Lyme neuroborreliosis. Eur J Neurol. 2007 Aug;14(8):873-6.
  1188. Lobato E, Pearce-Duvet J, Staszewski V, Gómez-Díaz E, González-Solís J, Kitaysky A, McCoy KD, Boulinier T. Seabirds and the circulation of Lyme borreliosis bacteria in the North Pacific. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Dec;11(12):1521-7. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0267
  1189. Loftis AD, Gill JS, Schriefer ME, Levin ML, Eremeeva ME, Gilchrist MJ, Dasch GA. Detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Bartonella in Carios kelleyi (Acari: Argasidae). J Med Entomol. 2005 May;42(3):473-80.
  1190. Lohr B, Müller I, Mai M, Norris DE, Schöffski O, Hunfeld KP. Epidemiology and cost of hospital care for Lyme borreliosis in Germany: Lessons from a health care utilization database analysis. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015 Feb;6(1):56-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.09.004
  1191. Loken KI, Wu CC, Johnson RC, Bey RF. Isolation of the Lyme disease spirochete from mammals in Minnesota USA. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1985;179(3):300-2.
  1192. Lord RD, Humphreys JG, Lord VR, McLean RG, Garland CL. Borrelia burgdorferi infection in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) habitat in western Pennsylvania. J Wildl Dis. 1992 Jul;28(3):364-8.
  1193. Lord RD, Lord VR, Humphreys JG, McLean RG. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi in host mice in Pennsylvania. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Oct;32(10):2501-4.
  1194. Lorimier Y, Moosmann Y, Brossard M, Rutti, B. Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi in synovial fluid from patients with high suspicion of Lyme arthritis by PCR using genospecies specific primers. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1999;129(31-32):1122.
  1195. Lucchini R, Valsangiacomo C. PCR detection and molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia in clinical samples. J Microbiol Methods. 1999;38(3):239.
  1196. Luciano CS, Gaston K, Humphreys JG. Analysis of Pennsylvania bear sera for anti-Borrelia and anti-Ehrlichia antibodies. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002;102:510.
  1197. Luckhart S, Mullen GR, Wright JC. Etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, detected in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected at a focus in Alabama. J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):652-7.
  1198. Luckhart S, Mullen GR, Durden LA, Wright JC. Borrelia sp. in ticks recovered from white-tailed deer in Alabama. J Wildl Dis. 1992 Jul;28(3):449-52.
  1199. Lünemann JD, Zarmas S, Priem S, Franz J, Zschenderlein R, Aberer E, Klein R, Schouls L, Burmester GR, Krause A. Rapid Typing of Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species in Specimens From Patients With Different Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Mar;39(3):1130-3.
  1200. Luft BJ, Gardner P, Lightfoot RW Jr. Joint statement and practice policy position paper of the American College of Rheumatology and the Council of the Infectious Diseases Society of America on the treatment of "possible" Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18:112.
  1201. Luger SW, Krauss E. Serologic tests for Lyme disease. Interlaboratory variability. Arch Intern Med. 1990 Apr;150(4):761-3.
  1202. Lukacik G, White J, Noonan-Toly C, DiDonato C, Backenson PB. Lyme disease surveillance using sampling estimation: Evaluation of an alternative methodology in New York State. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 Feb 29. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12261
  1203. Ma J, Bulger PA, Dante S, Davis DR, Perilli-Palmer B, Coughlin RT. Characterization of canine humoral immune responses to outer surface protein subunit vaccines and to natural infection by Lyme disease spirochetes. J Infect Dis. 1995 Apr;171(4):909-15.
  1204. Ma J, Hine PM, Clough ER, Fish D, Coughlin RT, Beltz GA, Shew MG. Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a recombinant Osp subunit canine Lyme disease vaccine. Vaccine. 1996 Oct;14(14):1366-74.
  1205. Ma JN, Bulger PA, Davis DR, Perilli-Palmer B, Bedore DA, Kensil CR, Young EM, Hung CH, Seals JR, Pavia CS, Coughlin RT. Impact of the saponin adjuvant QS-21 and aluminium hydroxide on the immunogenicity of recombinant OspA and OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi. Vaccine. 1994 Aug;12(10):925-32.
  1206. Ma J, Coughlin RT. A simple, colorimetric microtiter assay for borreliacidal activity of antisera. J Microbiol Methods. 1993;17:145-53.
  1207. Macartney KK, Rose CD, Fawcett PT, Gibney KM, Hunt PG, Doughty RA. Immunoblot in children with Bell's Palsy (Bp) secondary to Lyme disease (Ld). Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38(9 Suppl):S362.
  1208. Macauda MM, Erickson P, Miller J, Mann P, Closter L, Krause PJ. Long-term Lyme disease antibiotic therapy beliefs among New England residents. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Jul;11(7):857-62. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0116
  1209. Macauda MM. Understanding lyme disease: Illness experience, prevention, and the health belief model. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2008;68:4757.
  1210. Macdonald AB. Gestational Lyme borreliosis implications for the fetus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Nov;15(4):657-77.
  1211. MacQueen DD, Lubelczyk C, Elias SP, Cahill BK, Mathers AJ, Lacombe EH, Rand PW, Smith RP Jr. Genotypic diversity of an emergent population of Borrelia burgdorferi at a coastal Maine island recently colonized by Ixodes scapularis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Jun;12(6):456-61. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0811
  1212. Madigan JE. Lyme diseases (Lyme borreliosis) in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1993;9:429-34.
  1213. Madigan JE, Teitler J. Borrelia-Burgdorferi Borreliosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1988;192(7):892-6.
  1214. Maegli A, Loy JD, Cortinas R. Note on Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and "Borrelia lonestari" infection in lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Nebraska, USA. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Feb;7(1):154-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.10.008
  1215. Maes E1, Lecomte P, Ray N. A cost-of-illness study of Lyme disease in the United States. Clin Ther. 1998 Sep-Oct;20(5):993-1008; discussion 992.
  1216. Maestas LP. Trends in Borrelia spp. Prevalence in Ixodes spp. ticks from the Southeastern Coastal United States. Masters Theses; University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 2013. http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2894&context=utk_gradthes
  1217. Mafong EA, Kaplan LA. Insect repellents: What really works? Postgrad Med. 1997;102(2):63-74.
  1218. Maggi RG, Reichelt S, Toliver M, Engber B. Borrelia species in Ixodes affinis and Ixodes scapularis ticks collected from the coastal plain of North Carolina. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010 Dec;1(4):168-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2010.08.003
  1219. Maggi RG, Birkenheuer AJ, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Levy MG, Breitschwerdt EB. Comparison of serological and molecular panels for diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar;7:127. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-127
  1220. Magid D, Schwartz B, Craft J, Schwartz JS. Prevention of Lyme disease after tick bites. A cost-effectiveness analysis. N Engl J Med. 1992 Aug;327(8):534-41.
  1221. Magid DJ, Schwartz JS, Schwartz BS, Craft JE. Prevention of Lyme disease after tick bite a cost-effectiveness analysis. Clin Res. 1990;38(2):282A.
  1222. Magnarelli L, Fikrig E. Detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in naturally infected horses in the USA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole-cell and recombinant antigens. Res Vet Sci. 2005 Oct;79(2):99-103.
  1223. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. Ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Aug;26(8):1482-6.
  1224. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. Serologic evidence of canine and equine ehrlichiosis in northeastern United States. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Nov;31(11):2857-60.
  1225. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. Adsorption and biotin-streptavidin amplification in serologic tests for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Sep;29(9):1761-4.
  1226. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. Infected Ixodes ticks found where Lyme disease occurs. Front Plant Sci. 1984;36:6-7.
  1227. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. Class-specific and polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in equids. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Nov;195(10):1365-8.
  1228. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of class-specific immunoglobulins to Borrelia burgdorferi. Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Apr;127(4):818-25.
  1229. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Barbour AG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Lyme disease: reactivity of subunits of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Infect Dis. 1989 Jan;159(1):43-9.
  1230. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Cartter ML. Geographic distribution of white-tailed deer with ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut. Yale J Biol Med. 1993 Jan-Feb;66(1):19-26.
  1231. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Chappell WA. Geographic distribution of humans, raccoons, and white-footed mice with antibodies to Lyme disease spirochetes in Connecticut. Yale J Biol Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;57(4):619-26.
  1232. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Chappell WA. Antibodies to spirochetes in white-tailed deer and prevalence of infected ticks from foci of Lyme disease in Connecticut. J Wildl Dis. 1984 Jan;20(1):21-6.
  1233. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Johnson RC. Cross-reactivity in serological tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul;156(1):183-8.
  1234. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Johnson RC. Analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-liked immunosorbent assays with different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. J Wildl Dis. 1995 Apr;31(2):159-65.
  1235. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, McAninch JB. Serologic analyses of cottontail rabbits for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 May;28(5):890-3.
  1236. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Schreier AB. Persistence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs of New York and Connecticut. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990 Apr;196(7):1064-8.
  1237. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Stafford KC 3rd. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in urine of Peromyscus leucopus by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Mar;32(3):777-82.
  1238. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Apperson CS, Fish D, Johnson RC, Chappell WA. Spirochetes in ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer from Connecticut, New York State, and North Carolina. J Wildl Dis. 1986 Apr;22(2):178-88.
  1239. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Burgdorfer W, Chappell WA. Parasitism by Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) and antibodies to spirochetes in mammals at Lyme disease foci in Connecticut, USA. J Med Entomol. 1984 Jan;21(1):52-7.
  1240. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Flavell RA, Fikrig E. Reactivity of white-footed mouse and raccoon sera to whole cell and recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Wildl Dis. 1995 Jul;31(3):339-44.
  1241. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Hyland KE, Fish D, Mcaninch JB. Serologic analyses of Peromyscus leucopus, a rodent reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi, in northeastern United States. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Jun;26(6):1138-41.
  1242. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Kaufmann AF, Lieberman LL, Whitney GD. Borreliosis in dogs from southern Connecticut. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1985 May;186(9):955-9.
  1243. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Schreier AB, Ficke CM. Clinical and serologic studies of canine borreliosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1987 Nov;191(9):1089-94.
  1244. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Shaw E, Post JE, Palka FC. Borreliosis in equids in northeastern United States. Am J Vet Res. 1988 Mar;49(3):359-62.
  1245. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Stafford KC 3rd, Dumler JS. Antibodies to multiple tick-borne pathogens of babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and Lyme borreliosis in white-footed mice. J Wildl Dis. 1997 Jul;33(3):466-73.
  1246. Magnarelli LA, Andreadis TG, Stafford KC 3rd, Holland CJ. Rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Dec;29(12):2798-804.
  1247. Magnarelli LA, Bushmich SL, IJdo JW, Fikrig E. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats. Am J Vet Res. 2005 Nov;66(11):1895-9.
  1248. Magnarelli LA, Bushmich SL, Sherman BA, Fikrig E. A comparison of serologic tests for the detection of serum antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in cattle. Can Vet J. 2004 Aug;45(8):667-73.
  1249. Magnarelli LA, Denicola A, Stafford KC 3rd, Anderson JF.Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment: white-tailed deer with infected ticks and antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Mar;33(3):541-4.
  1250. Magnarelli LA, Fikrig E, Berland R, Anderson JF, Flavell RA. Comparison of whole-cell antibodies and an antigenic flagellar epitope of Borrelia burgdorferi in serologic tests for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Dec;30(12):3158-62.
  1251. Magnarelli LA, Fikrig E, Padula SJ, Anderson JF, Flavell RA. Use of recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi in serologic tests for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Feb;34(2):237-40.
  1252. Magnarelli LA, Ijdo JW, Anderson JF, Padula SJ, Flavell RA, Fikrig E. Human exposure to a granulocytic Ehrlichia and other tick-borne agents in Connecticut. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Oct;36(10):2823-7.
  1253. Magnarelli LA, IJdo JW, Ramakrishnan U, Henderson DW, Stafford KC 3rd, Fikrig E. Use of recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect antibodies in white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis. 2004 Apr;40(2):249-58.
  1254. Magnarelli LA, Ijdo JW, Stafford KC 3rd, Fikrig E. Infections of granulocytic ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer in Connecticut. J Wildl Dis. 1999 Apr;35(2):266-74.
  1255. Magnarelli LA, Ijdo JW, Van Andel AE, Wu C, Padula SJ, Fikrig E. Serologic confirmation of Ehrlichia equi and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in horses from the northeastern United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000 Oct;217(7):1045-50.
  1256. Magnarelli LA, Norris SJ, Fikrig E. Serum antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi in cottontail rabbits. J Wildl Dis. 2012 Jan;48(1):12-20.
  1257. Magnarelli LA, Oliver JH Jr, Hutcheson HJ, Anderson JF. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in deer and raccoons. J Wildl Dis. 1991 Oct;27(4):562-8.
  1258. Magnarelli LA, Stafford KC III, Bladen VC. Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) feeding on birds in Lyme, Connecticut, USA. Can. J. Zool. 1992;70(12):2322 -5.
  1259. Magnarelli LA, Stafford KC 3rd, Ijdo JW, Fikrig E. Antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in white-footed mice. 42(4) J Wildl Dis. 2006 Oct;42(4):732-8.
  1260. Magnarelli LA, Swihart RK. Spotted fever group rickettsiae or Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes cookei (Ixodidae) in Connecticut. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jul;29(7):1520-2.
  1261. Magnarelli LA, Williams SC, Fikrig E. Seasonal prevalence of serum antibodies to whole cell and recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in white-tailed deer in Connecticut. J Wildl Dis. 2010 Jul;46(3):781-90.
  1262. Magnarelli LA, Williams SC, Norris SJ, Fikrig E. Serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti in recaptured white-footed mice. J Wildl Dis. 2013 Apr;49(2):294-302. https://doi.org/10.7589/2012-06-172
  1263. Magnarelli LA. Lyme disease an increasing public health problem. Clin Microbiol Newsl. 1989;11(11):81-4.
  1264. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF. Elisa for the detection of class-specific immunoglobulins to Borrelia burgdorferi. Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Apr;127(4):818-25.
  1265. Magnarelli LA, Flavell RA, Padula SJ, Anderson JF, Fikrig E. Serologic Diagnosis of Canine and Equine Borreliosis: Use of Recombinant Antigens in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Jan;35(1):169-73.
  1266. Magri JM, Johnson MT, Herring TA, Greenblatt JF. Lyme disease knowledge, beliefs, and practices of New Hampshire primary care physicians. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2002 Jul-Aug;15(4):277-84.
  1267. Maher NE, Akerblom JL, Karlson JE, Maher CP, Cantor FL, Solvia S, Shadick NA. A Lyme disease education program changes knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in elementray school children living in an endemic area. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:S77.
  1268. Mahnke GL, Stallknecht DE, Greene CE, Nettles VF, Marks MA. Serologic survey for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer in Georgia. J Wildl Dis. 1993 Apr;29(2):230-6.
  1269. Maiwald M, Stockinger C, Hassler D, von Knebel Doeberitz M, Sonntag HG. Evaluation of the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in urine samples by polymerase chain reaction. Infection. 1995 May-Jun;23(3):173-9.
  1270. Mak S, Morshed M, Henry B. Ecological niche modeling of Lyme disease in British Columbia, Canada. J Med Entomol. 2010 Jan;47(1):99-105.
  1271. Malloy DC, Nauman RK, Paxton H. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi using the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28(6):1089-93.
  1272. Malloy DC, Paxton H, Nauman RK. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks from Northeastern Maryland USA determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1991;91:80.
  1273. Maloney EM, Lindenmayer JL. Seroprevalence and clinical signs of Lyme disease in Cape Cod horses. Equine Pract. 1992;14:15-9.
  1274. Malouin R, Winch P, Leontsini E, Schwartz BS. A randomized trial of a behavior change intervention to prevent tick bites in an area of endemic Lyme disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(3 Suppl):426.
  1275. Malouin R, Winch P, Leontsini E, Glass G, Simon D, Hayes EB, Schwartz BS. Longitudinal evaluation of an educational intervention for preventing tick bites in an area with endemic Lyme disease in Baltimore County, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jun 1;157(11):1039-51.
  1276. Manion TB, Bushmich SL, Khan MI, Dinger J, Werner H, Mittel L, Laurendeau M, Reilly M. Suspected clinical Lyme disease in horses: Serological and antigen testing differences between clinically ill and clinically normal horses from an endemic region. J Equine Vet Sci. 2001;21(5):229-34.
  1277. Manion TB, Khan MI, Dinger J, Bushmich SL. Viable Borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of two clinically normal horses. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1998 Apr;10(2):196-9.
  1278. Mannelli A, Boggiatto G, Grego E, Cinco M, Murgia R, Stefanelli S, De Meneghi D, Rosati S. Acarological risk of exposure to agents of tick-borne zoonoses in the first recognized Italian focus of Lyme borreliosis. Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Dec;131(3):1139-47.
  1279. Mansy F, Hoyois B, De Vos MJ, Van Elsen A, Bollen A, Godfroid E. Colorimetric solid-phase capture hybridization assay for detection of amplified Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. Biotechniques. 1996 Jul;21(1):122-5.
  1280. Manweiler SA, Lane RS, Block WM, Morrison ML. Survey of birds and lizards for ixodid ticks (Acari) and spirochetal infection in northern California. J Med Entomol. 1990 Nov;27(6):1011-5.
  1281. Marangoni A, Sambri V, Accardo S, Cavrini F, Mondardini V, Moroni A, Storni E, Cevenini R. A decrease in the immunoglobulin G antibody response against the VlsE protein of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato correlates with the resolution of clinical signs in antibiotic-treated patients with early Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006 Apr;13(4):525-9.
  1282. Marangoni A, Sparacino M, Mondardini V, Cavrini F, Storni E, Donati M, Cevenini R, Sambri V. Comparative evaluation of two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay methods and three Western Blot methods for the diagnosis of culture-confirmed early Lyme borreliosis in Italy. New Microbiol. 2005 Jan;28(1):37-43.
  1283. Marangoni A, Sparacino M, Cavrini F, Storni E, Mondardini V, Sambri V, Cevenini R. Comparative Evaluation of Three Different Elisa Methods for the Diagnosis of Early Culture-Confirmed Lyme Disease in Italy. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Apr;54(Pt 4):361-7.
  1284. Marcelis L, de Marneffe P, Chaidron E, Bigaignon G, Kageruka P, Goubau P. Horse reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi? Lancet. 1987 Apr;1(8539):977.
  1285. Marconi RT, Garon CF. Development of polymerase chain reaction primer sets for diagnosis of Lyme disease and for species-specific identification of Lyme disease isolates by 16S rRNA signature nucleotide analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Nov;30(11):2830-4.
  1286. Marcus LC, Patterson MM, Gilfillan RE, Urband PH. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in New England horses: serologic survey. Am J Vet Res. 1985 Dec;46(12):2570-1.
  1287. Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Levine HR, Levy SA. Tick parasitism and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990 Jul;197(1):63-6.
  1288. Diuk-Wasser MA, Liu Y, Steeves TK, Folsom-O'Keefe C, Dardick KR, Lepore T, Bent SJ, Usmani-Brown S, Telford SR 3rd, Fish D, Krause PJ. Monitoring human Babesiosis emergence through vector surveillance New England, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;20(2):225-31. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1302/130644.
  1289. Mariet AS, Retel O, Avocat H, Serre A, Schapman L, Schmitt M, Charron M, Monnet E. Estimated incidence of erythema migrans in five regions of France and ecological correlations with environmental characteristics. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Sep;13(9):666-73. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2012.1199
  1290. Vázquez M, Muehlenbein C, Cartter M, Hayes EB, Ertel S, Shapiro ED. Effectiveness of personal protective measures to prevent Lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Feb;14(2):210-6. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1402.070725.
  1291. Markowski D, Ginsberg HS, Hyland KE, Hu R. Reservoir competence of the meadow vole (Rodentia: Cricetidae) for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1998 Sep;35(5):804-8.
  1292. Marlovits S, Khanakah G, Striessnig G, Vécsei V, Stanek G. Emergence of lyme arthritis after autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jan;50(1):259-64.
  1293. Marques AR, Hornung RL, Dally L, Philipp MT. Detection of immune complexes is not independent of detection of antibodies in Lyme disease patients and does not confirm active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Sep;12(9):1036-40.
  1294. Marques AR, Stock F, Gill V. Evaluation of a new culture medium for Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Nov;38(11):4239-41.
  1295. Marquez E, Bryant J, and Pappas M. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Immunoassay. 1989;12(3):158-60.
  1296. Marwick C. Guarded endorsement for Lyme disease vaccine. JAMA. 1998 Jun;279(24):1937-8.
  1297. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2006. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2008:1-2.
  1298. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2005. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2008:1-2.
  1299. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2007. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2008:1-2.
  1300. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2008. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2009:1-2.
  1301. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2009. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2010:1-2.
  1302. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2010. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2011:1-2.
  1303. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2011. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2012:1-2.
  1304. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Lyme Disease Surveillance in Massachusetts, 2012. MDPH Office of Integrated Surveillance and Informatics Services. 2013:1-2.
  1305. Massung RF, Courtney JW, Zeidner NS. Multiplex Taqman PCR assay for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophila and Borrelia burgdorferi. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2003;103:C-154.
  1306. Materna J, Daniel M, Danielová V. Altitudinal distribution limit of the tick Ixodes ricinus shifted considerably towards higher altitudes in Central Europe: Results of three years monitoring in the Krkonose Mts. (Czech Republic). Cent Eur J Public Health. 2005 Mar;13(1):24-8.
  1307. Mather TN, Duffy DC, Campbell SR. An unexpected result from burning vegetation to reduce Lyme disease transmission risks. J Med Entomol. 1993 May;30(3):642-5.
  1308. Mather TN, Fish D, Coughlin RT. Competence of dogs as reservoirs for Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1994 Jul;205(2):186-8.
  1309. Mather TN, Nicholson MC, Donnelly EF, Matyas BT. Entomologic index for human risk of Lyme disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Dec 1;144(11):1066-9.
  1310. Mather TN, Telford SR 3rd, MacLachlan AB, Spielman A. Incompetence of catbirds as reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). J Parasitol. 1989 Feb;75(1):66-9.
  1311. Mather TN, Wilson ML, Moore SI, Ribeiro JM, Spielman A. Comparing the relative potential of rodents as reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Jul;130(1):143-50.
  1312. Mather TN, Ribeiro JMC, Moore SI, Spielman A. Reducing transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes in a suburban setting. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988:402-3.
  1313. Mathers A, Smith RP, Cahill B, Lubelczyk C, Elias SP, Lacombe E, Morris SR, Vary CP, Parent CE, Rand PW. Strain diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks dispersed in North America by migratory birds. J Vector Ecol. 2011 Jun;36(1):24-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00137.x
  1314. Mathiesen M J. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC): investigations of the anti OspC antibody response in Lyme borreliosis and the development of a recombinant OspC ELISA and a peptide ELISA suitable for routine serology. Thesis. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  1315. Mathiesen MJ, Christiansen M, Hansen K, Holm A, Asbrink E, Theisen M. Peptide-based OspC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Dec;36(12):3474-9.
  1316. Mathiesen MJ, Hansen K, Axelsen N, Halkier-Sørensen L, Theisen M. Analysis of the human antibody response to outer surface protein C (OspC) of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1996 Nov;185(3):121-9.
  1317. Matteson EL, Beckett VL, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd, Duffy J. Epidemiology of Lyme disease in Olmsted County, MN, 1975-1990. J Rheumatol. 1992 Nov;19(11):1743-5.
  1318. Matthys C, Petrens E, Padalko E, Lagrou K, Van Renterghem L. Evaluation of five commercial screening assays and two commercial immunoblots for the serological diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;29(Suppl 2):S126.
  1319. Maupin GO, Gage KL, Piesman J, Montenieri J, Sviat SL, VanderZanden L, Happ CM, Dolan M, Johnson BJ. Discovery of an enzootic cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi in Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis from northern Colorado, an area where Lyme disease is nonendemic. J Infect Dis. 1994 Sep;170(3):636-43.
  1320. Maupin GO, Fish D, Zultowsky J, Campos EG, Piesman J. Landscape ecology of Lyme disease in a residential area of Westchester County, New York. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;133:1105-13.
  1321. Mavin S, Evans R, Appleyard K, Joss AW, Ho-Yen DO. Potentially misleading Western blot results in Lyme disease diagnosis. Br J Biomed Sci. 2006;63(3):142-4.
  1322. Mavin S, Evans R, Milner RM, Chatterton JM, Ho-Yen DO. Local Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii strains in a single mixed antigen improves western blot sensitivity. J Clin Pathol. 2009 Jun;62(6):552-4. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2008.063461
  1323. Mavin S, Hopkins PC, MacLennan A, Joss AW, Ho-Yen DO. Urban and rural risks of Lyme disease in the Scottish Highlands. Scott Med J. 2009 May;54(2):24-6.
  1324. Mavin S, McDonagh S, Evans R, Milner RM, Chatterton JM, Ho-Yen DO. Interpretation criteria in Western blot diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Br J Biomed Sci. 2011;68(1):5-10.
  1325. Mavin S, Watson EJ, Evans R. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Scottish patients: A novel approach. Br J Biomed Sci. 2014;71(2):51.
  1326. Mawby TV, Lovett AA. The public health risks of Lyme disease in Breckland, U.K.: an investigation of environmental and social factors. Soc Sci Med. 1998 Mar;46(6):719-27.
  1327. Mays SE, Hendricks BM, Paulsen DJ, Houston AE, Fryxell RTT. Prevalence of five tick-borne bacterial genera in adult Ixodes scapularis removed from white-tailed deer in western Tennessee. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:473.
  1328. McBride J. Exposure to Lyme Disease-Transmitting Ticks Depends on Activity. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Sept 2001.
  1329. McCabe GJ, Bunnell JE. Precipitation and the occurrence of Lyme disease in the northeastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004 Summer;4(2):143-8.
  1330. McCaulley ME. The costs of Lyme disease. Arch Int Med. 1997;157:817-8.
  1331. McGinnis J, Bohnker BK, Malakooti M, Mann M, Sack DM. Lyme disease reporting for Navy and Marine Corps (1997-2000). Mil Med. 2003 Dec;168(12):1011-4.
  1332. McGraw L. Deer collar could help harness Lyme ticks. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Sept 1999.
  1333. McGuire BS, Chandler FW, Felz MW, Huey LO, Field RS. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in human blood and urine using the polymerase chain reaction. Pathobiol. 1992;60(3):163-7.
  1334. McKenna D, Faustini Y, Nowakowski J, Wormser GP. Factors influencing the utilization of Lyme disease-prevention behaviors in a high-risk population. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2004 Jan;16(1):24-30.
  1335. McKiernan FE, Melski JW. Prevention of Lyme disease after tick bites. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jan;328(2):137-138; author reply 138-9.
  1336. McLean RG, Ubico SR, Hughes CA, Engstrom SM, Johnson RC. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the Saint Croix River Valley. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Aug;31(8):2038-43.
  1337. McLean RG, Gill JS, Lord RD, Humphreys JANG. Evaluation of wildlife species for the surveillance of Lyme disease. Proceedings of a Joint Conference American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association, and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians. 1995;516.
  1338. McNabb SJ, Jajosky RA, Hall-Baker PA, Adams DA, Sharp P, Worshams C, Anderson WJ, Javier AJ, Jones GJ, Nitschke DA, Rey A, Wodajo MS; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Summary of notifiable diseases - United States, 2006. MMWR. 2008 Mar;55(53):1-92.
  1339. McSweegan E. The Lyme vaccine: a cautionary tale. Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Jan;135(1):9-10.
  1340. McSweegan E. Lyme vaccine demonized by advocacy groups. Nature. 2006 Mar 16;440(7082):278.
  1341. Mead P. Lyme disease testing. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6(3):122-123.
  1342. Mead P, Goel R, Kugeler K. Canine serology as adjunct to human Lyme disease surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;7(9):710-712. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.110210
  1343. Mechanic D, Meyer S. Concepts of trust among patients with serious illness. Soc Sci Med. 2000 Sep;51(5):657-68.
  1344. Medlin JS, Cohen JI, Beck DL. Vector potential and population dynamics for Amblyomma inornatum. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2015;6(4):463.
  1345. Meek JI, Roberts CL, Smith EV Jr, Cartter ML. Underreporting of Lyme disease by Connecticut physicians, 1992. J Public Health Manag Pract. 1996 Fall;2(4):61-5.
  1346. Mehlhorn H, Schmahl G, Mencke N, Bach T. The effects of an imidacloprid and permethrin combination against developmental stages of Ixodes ricinus ticks. Parasitol Res. 2003 Jul;90 Suppl 3:S119-21.
  1347. Meirelles Richer L, Aroso M, Contente-Cuomo T, Ivanova L, Gomes-Solecki M. Reservoir targeted vaccine for lyme borreliosis induces a yearlong, neutralizing antibody response to OspA in white-footed mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Nov;18(11):1809-16. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.05226-11
  1348. Mejlon HA, Jaenson TG. Seasonal prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus in different vegetation types in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(4):449-56.
  1349. Mejlon HA, Jaenson TG, Mather TN. Evaluation of host-targeted applications of permethrin for control of Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). Med Vet Entomol. 1995 Apr;9(2):207-10.
  1350. Mejlon HA, Jaenson TGT. Questing behaviour of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 1997;21(12):747-54.
  1351. Melby K, Steinbakk M, Jensenius M, Figenschau KJ. Detection of serum antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi with some commercially available serological tests. NIPH Ann. 1990 Dec;13(2):37-44.
  1352. Melchers W, Meis J, Rosa P, Claas E, Nohlmans L, Koopman R, Horrevorts A, Galama J. Amplification of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in skin biopsies from patients with Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Nov;29(11):2401-6.
  1353. Melski JW. Lyme borreliosis. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2000;19(1):10-8.
  1354. Meltzer MI, Dennis DT, Orloski KA. The cost effectiveness of vaccinating against Lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 May-Jun;5(3):321-8.
  1355. Menefee B, Markovits A, Barber K. Analysis of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Academic Reference Centers (Arcs) Panel for Lyme disease by Western blot technique. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1996;96:298.
  1356. Menn B, Lorentz S, Naucke TJ. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany. Parasit Vectors. 2010 Apr8;3:34. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-3-34
  1357. Mercier G, Burckel A, Lucotte G. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in urine specimens of patients with erythema migrans lesions. Mol Cell Probes. 1997 Apr;11(2):89-94.
  1358. Merino FJ, Serrano JL, Saz JV, Nebreda T, Gegundez M, Beltran M. Epidemiological characteristics of dogs with Lyme borreliosis in the province of Soria (Spain). Eur J Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;16(2):97-100.
  1359. Merljak Skocir L, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Maraspin-Carman V, Lotric-Furlan S, Logar M, Strle F. Comparison of different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains for detection of immune response in patients with erythema migrans. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008 Jul;298(5-6):493-504.
  1360. Messier KP, Jackson LE, White JL, Hilborn ED. Landscape risk factors for Lyme disease in the eastern broadleaf forest province of the Hudson River valley and the effect of explanatory data classification resolution. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2015 Jan;12:9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sste.2014.10.002
  1361. Metcalf KB, Lilley CS, Revenaugh MS, Glaser AL, Metcalf ES. The prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi found in horses residing in the Northwestern United States. J Equine Vet Sci. 2008;28(10):587-9.
  1362. Meyer W, Janssen A, Scheper T, Schlumberger W, Stoecker W. Lyme borreliosis: prevalence of antibodies against non-proteinic (lipid) antigens. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298(Suppl 45):39.
  1363. Meyers HB, Moore DF, Gellert G, Euler GL, Prendergast TJ, Badri M, Webb JP, Fogarty CL. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from ticks in southern California. West J Med. 1992 Oct;157(4):455-6.
  1364. Michalik J, Hofman T, Buczek A, Skoracki M, Sikora B. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected from vegetation and small rodents in recreational areas of the city of Poznan. J Med Entomol. 2003 Sep;40(5):690-7.
  1365. Michel H, Wilske B, Hettche G, Göttner G, Heimerl C, Reischl U, Schulte-Spechtel U, Fingerle V. An ospA-polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method for sensitive detection and reliable differentiation of all European Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species and OspA types. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2004 Nov;193(4):219-26.
  1366. Michel H, Fingerle V, Haberhausen G, Reischl U, Wilske B. Rapid and reliable differentiation of relevant. Int J Med Microbiol. 2003;293(Suppl 36):340.
  1367. Mikkilä H, Karma A, Viljanen M, Seppälä I. The laboratory diagnosis of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999 Mar;237(3):225-30.
  1368. Milanese R, Marin M, Antonini-Canterin A, Crovatto M, Modolo ML, Scian I, Cilia AM, Santini GF. Borreliosis risk after tick bite in north-eastern Italy. Microbiologica. 1991 Jul;14(3):257-9.
  1369. Millen K, Kugeler KJ, Hinckley AF, Lawaczeck EW, Mead PS. Elevated Lyme disease seroprevalence among dogs in a nonendemic county: harbinger or artifact? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 May;13(5):340-1. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2012.1025
  1370. Miller CA, Shelby LB. Hunters' general disease risk sensitivity and behaviors associated with chronic wasting disease. Hum Dimens Wildl. 2009;14(2):133-41.
  1371. Miller DS, Covell DF, McLean RG, Adrian WJ, Niezgoda M, Gustafson JM, Rongstad OJ, Schultz RD, Kirk LJ, Quan TJ. Serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western United States. J Wildl Dis. 2000 Oct;36(4):798-805.
  1372. Miller GL, Craven RB, Bailey RE, Tsai TF. The epidemiology of Lyme disease in the United States 1987-1988. Lab Med. 1990;21:285-9.
  1373. Miller NJ, Thomas WA, Mather TN. Evaluating a deer-targeted acaricide applicator for area-wide suppression of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), in Rhode Island. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Aug;9(4):401-6. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0164.
  1374. Milutinović M, Radulović Ž, Tomanović S. Assessment of the risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas with significant human presence. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2008;60(1):121-9.
  1375. Minns GO, Schwertfeger TL. Reported cases of Lyme disease in Kansas. Kans Med. 1992 Sep;93(9):250-3, 261.
  1376. Mircean V, Dumitrache MO, Györke A, Pantchev N, Jodies R, Mihalca AD, Cozma V. Seroprevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Ehrlichia canis) in dogs from Romania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Jul;12(7):595-604. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0915
  1377. Miró G, Montoya A, Roura X, Gálvez R, Sainz A. Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain: a multicentre study. Parasit Vectors. 2013 Apr 22;6:117. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-117
  1378. Miserez V, Gern L, Aeschlimann A. Lyme borreliosis: serological investigation in Ticino. Bull Soc Neuchatel Sci Nat. 1992;115:53-60.
  1379. Misonne MC, Hoet PP. Species-specific plasmid sequences for PCR identification of the three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato involved in Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Jan;36(1):269-72.
  1380. Misonne MC, Van Impe G, Hoet PP. Genetic heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Belgium. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Nov;36(11):3352-4.
  1381. Mitchell CS, Cloeren M, Israel E, Lazar C, Schwartz BS. Lyme disease in Maryland: 1987-1990. Md Med J. 1992 May;41(5):391-6.
  1382. Mitchell PD, Reed KD, Hofkes JM. Immunoserologic evidence of coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and human granulocytic Ehrlichia species in residents of Wisconsin and Minnesota. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Mar;34(3):724-7.
  1383. Mitchell PD, Reed KD, Aspeslet TL, Vandermause MF, Melski JW. Comparison of four immunoserologic assays for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with culture-positive erythema migrans. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Aug;32(8):1958-62.
  1384. Mitchell PD, Reed KD, Vandermause MF, Melski JW. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from skin biopsy specimens of patients with erythema migrans. Am J Clin Pathol. 1993 Jan;99(1):104-7.
  1385. Mitchell EA, Williamson PC, Billingsley PM, Seals JP, Ferguson EE, Allen MS. Frequency and distribution of Rickettsiae, Borreliae, and Ehrlichiae detected in human-parasitizing ticks, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(2):312.
  1386. Mixson TR, Campbell SR, Gill JS, Ginsberg HS, Reichard MV, Schulze TL, Dasch GA. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from nine states. J Med Entomol. 2006 Nov;43(6):1261-8.
  1387. Miyamoto K, Sato Y, Okada K, Fukunaga M, Sato F. Competence of a migratory bird, red-bellied thrush (Turdus chrysolaus), as an avian reservoir for the Lyme disease spirochetes in Japan. Acta Trop. 1997 Apr;65(1):43-51.
  1388. Mizak B, Król J. Development and immunogenic properties of experimental vaccine against Lyme disease in dogs. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2002;46(2):223-31.
  1389. Mizak B, Król J, Mizak Z. Development of PCR and nested-PCR for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2002;44:11-20.
  1390. Mogilyansky E, Loa CC, Adelson ME, Mordechai E, Tilton RC. Comparison of Western immunoblotting and the C6 Lyme antibody test for laboratory detection of Lyme disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 Sep;11(5):924-9.
  1391. Molins CR, Ashton LV, Wormser GP, Hess AM, Delorey MJ, Mahapatra S, Schriefer ME, Belisle JT. Development of a metabolic biosignature for detection of early Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun;60(12):1767-75. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ185
  1392. Molins CR, Delorey MJ, Sexton C, Schriefer ME. Lyme Borreliosis Serology: Performance with several commonly used laboratory diagnostic tests and a large resource panel of well-characterized patient samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Nov;54(11):2726-34.
  1393. Moll van Charante AW, Groen J, Osterhaus AD. Risk of infections transmitted by arthropods and rodents in forestry workers. Eur J Epidemiol. 1994 Jun;10(3):349-51.
  1394. Moll van Charante AW, Groen J, Mulder PG, Rijpkema SG, Osterhaus AD. Occupational risks of zoonotic infections in Dutch forestry workers and muskrat catchers. Eur J Epidemiol. 1998 Feb;14(2):109-16.
  1395. Molloy PJ, Persing DH, Berardi VP. False-positive results of PCR testing for Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Aug;33(3):412-3.
  1396. Mommert S, Gutzmer R, Kapp A, Werfel T. Sensitive detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA and differentiation of Borrelia species by LightCycler PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Jul;39(7):2663-7.
  1397. Monsen SE, Bronson LR, Tucker JR, Smith CR. Experimental and field evaluations of two acaracides for control of I. pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern California. J Med Entomol. 1999 Nov;36(6):660-5.
  1398. Monsen SE, Hazeltine WE, and Henderson TL. Lyme Borreliosis Surveillance in Butte County California USA. Bull Soc Vector Ecol. 1990;15(1):63-72.
  1399. Moody EK, Barker RW, White JL, Crutcher JM. Ticks and tick-borne diseases in Oklahoma. J Okla State Med Assoc. 1998;91(8):438-45.
  1400. Moody TD. Prevalence and transmission potential of Borrelia burgdorferi in three species of wildcaught Plestiodon spp. skinks of the southeastern United States. Theses. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 2013. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_gradthes/2440.
  1401. Moore VA 4th, Varela AS, Yabsley MJ, Davidson WR, Little SE. Detection of Borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the southeastern United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jan;41(1):424-7.
  1402. Moore SM, Eisen RJ, Monaghan A, Mead P. Meteorological influences on the seasonality of Lyme disease in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90(3):486.
  1403. Morán Cadenas F, Rais O, Jouda F, Douet V, Humair PF, Moret J, Gern L. Phenology of Ixodes ricinus and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato along a north- and south-facing altitudinal gradient on Chaumont Mountain, Switzerland. J Med Entomol. 2007 Jul;44(4):683-93.
  1404. Morán-Cadenas F, Schneider H, Lommano E, Burri C, Moret J, Gern L. A comparison of two DNA extraction approaches in the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from live Ixodes ricinus ticks by PCR and reverse line blotting. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007 Winter;7(4):555-61.
  1405. Moreno CX, Moy F, Daniels TJ, Godfrey HP, Cabello FC. Molecular analysis of microbial communities identified in different developmental stages of Ixodes scapularis ticks from Westchester and Dutchess Counties, New York. Environ Microbiol. 2006 May;8(5):761-72.
  1406. Morlando S, Schmidt SJ, Logiudice K. Reduction in Lyme disease risk as an economic benefit of habitat restoration. Restor Ecol. 2012;20(4):498-504.
  1407. Moroff S, Woodruff C, Woodring T, Sokolchik I, Lappin MR. Multiple antigen target approach using the Accuplex4 BioCD system to detect Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in experimentally infected and vaccinated dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015;27(5):581. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638715600196
  1408. Morse T, Meyer JD, St Louis T, Storey E. Occupational disease in Connecticut: Conn Med. 2005 Jun-Jul;69(6):329-34.
  1409. Morshed MG, Konishi H, Nishimura T, Nakazawa T. Evaluation of agents for use in medium for selective isolation of Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Jul;12(7):512-8.
  1410. Morshed MG, Scott JD, Banerjee SN, Banerjee M, Fitzgerald T, Fernando K, Mann R, Isaac-Renton J. First isolation of Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, removed from a bird in Nova Scotia, Canada. Can Commun Dis Rep. 1999 Sep;25(18):153-5.
  1411. Morshed MG, Scott JD, Fernando K, Beati L, Mazerolle DF, Geddes G, Durden LA. Migratory songbirds disperse ticks across Canada, and first isolation of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the avian tick, Ixodes auritulus. J Parasitol. 2005 Aug;91(4):780-90.
  1412. Morshed MG, Scott JD, Fernando K, Geddes G, McNabb A, Mak S, Durden LA. Distribution and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates from Ixodes scapularis and presence in mammalian hosts in Ontario, Canada. J Med Entomol. 2006 Jul;43(4):762-73.
  1413. Morshed MG, Scott JD, Fernando K, Mann RB, Durden LA. Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi endemic at epicenter in Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario. J Med Entomol. 2003 Jan;40(1):91-4.
  1414. Morshed MG, Lee MK, Man S, Fernando K, Wong Q, Hojgaard A, Tang P, Mak S, Henry B Patrick DM. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ticks and small rodents in British Columbia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Nov;15(11):701-5. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1854
  1415. Mosallanejad B, Avizeh R, Jalali MHR, Pourmahdi M. A serological survey on Borrelia burgdorferi infection among companion dogs in Ahvaz district, southwestern Iran. Comp Clin Pathol. 2015;24(6):1559.
  1416. Moter SE, Hofmann H, Wallich R, Simon MM, Kramer MD. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in lesional skin of patients with erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans by ospA-specific PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Dec;32(12):2980-8.
  1417. Motiejunas L, Bunikis J, Barbour AG, Sadziene A. Lyme borreliosis in Lithuania. Scand J Infect Dis. 1994;26(2):149-55.
  1418. Mount GA, Haile DG, Daniels E. Simulation of management strategies for the blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) and the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1997 Nov;34(6):672-83.
  1419. Mount GA, Haile DG, Daniels E. Simulation of blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) population dynamics and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1997;34(4):461-84.
  1420. Mouritsen CL, Wittwer CT, Litwin CM, Yang L, Weis JJ, Martins TB, Jaskowski TD, Hill HR. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Lyme disease: correlation with clinical manifestations and serologic responses. Am J Clin Pathol. 1996 May;105(5):647-54.
  1421. Movilla R, García C, Siebert S, Roura X. Countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia canis in Mexico. Parasit Vectors. 2016 Jul;9(1):421. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1686-z
  1422. Mueller M, Bunk S, Diterich I, Weichel M, Rauter C, Hassler D, Hermann C, Crameri R, Hartung T. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi ribosomal protein L25 by the phage surface display method and evaluation of the protein's value for serodiagnosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Oct;44(10):3778-80.
  1423. Muir P, Fox R, Wu Q, Baker TA, Zitzer NC, Hudson AP, Manley PA, Schaefer SL, Hao Z. Seasonal variation in detection of bacterial DNA in arthritic stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Vet Microbiol. 2010 Feb;141(1-2):127-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.08.015
  1424. Mukolwe SW, Kocan AA, Wyckoff JH 3rd. Serological survey for Lyme disease in domestic dogs and white-tailed deer from Oklahoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Jun;653:172-7.
  1425. Mukolwe SW, Kocan AA, Barker RW, Murphy GL. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from Peromyscus leucopus in Oklahoma. J Wildl Dis. 1992 Apr;28(2):281-3.
  1426. Mullen GR, Piesman J. Serologically substantiated case of Lyme disease and potential tick vectors in Alabama. Ala J Med Sci. 1987 Jul;24(3):306-7.
  1427. Müller I, Freitag MH, Poggensee G, Scharnetzky E, Straube E, Schoerner Ch, Hlobil H, Hagedorn HJ, Stanek G, Schubert-Unkmeir A, Norris DE, Gensichen J, Hunfeld KP. Evaluating frequency, diagnostic quality, and cost of Lyme borreliosis testing in Germany: a retrospective model analysis. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:595427. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/595427
  1428. Münchhoff P, Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V, Schierz G. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in Bavarian forest workers. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987 Feb;263(3):412-9.
  1429. Murdock JH, Yabsley MJ, Little SE, Chandrashekar R, O'Connor TP, Caudell JN, Huffman JE, Langenberg JA, Hollamby S. Distribution of antibodies reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in the eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Dec;9(6):729-36. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0144
  1430. Murray T, Feder HM Jr. Management of tick bites and early Lyme disease: a survey of Connecticut physicians. Pediatrics. 2001 Dec;108(6):1367-70.
  1431. Mysterud A, Easterday WR, Qviller L, Viljugrein H, Ytrehus B. Spatial and seasonal variation in the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in Norway. Parasit Vectors. 2013 Jun;6:187. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-187
  1432. Mysterud A, Easterday WR, Stigum VM, Aas AB, Meisingset EL, Viljugrein H. Contrasting emergence of Lyme disease across ecosystems. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11882. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11882
  1433. Nübling M, Rieger MA, Wangerin W, Batsford S, Tiller F-W, Hofmann F. Occupational risk of infections with Borrelia burgdorferi in agricultural and forestry workers? Zent. Bl. Bakteriol. 1999;289(5-7):720-24.
  1434. Nachamkin I, Riddle DL, Feldman M, Edelstein PH. Utilization of tests for Lyme disease antibody at a university hospital. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996 May;3(3):287-9.
  1435. Nadal D, Hunziker UA, Bucher HU, Hitzig WH, Duc G. Infants born to mothers with antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi at delivery. Eur J Pediatr. 1989 Feb;148(5):426-7.
  1436. Nadal D, Wunderli W, Briner H, Hansen K. Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and blood donors from the same region in Switzerland. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989 Nov;8(11):992-5.
  1437. Nadelman RB, Herman E, Wormser GP. Screening for Lyme disease in hospitalized psychiatric patients: prospective serosurvey in an endemic area. Mt Sinai J Med. 1997 Nov;64(6):409-12.
  1438. Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Fish D, Falco RC, Freeman K, McKenna D, Welch P, Marcus R, Agüero-Rosenfeld ME, Dennis DT, Wormser GP; Tick Bite Study Group. Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul;345(2):79-84.
  1439. Nadolny RM, Wright CL, Hynes WL, Sonenshine DE, Gaff HD. Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Virginia and implications for the spread of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. J Vector Ecol. 2011 Dec;36(2):464-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00191.x
  1440. Nadzamová D, Petko B, Stefancíková A, Cisláková L, Stĕpánová G, Seba M. Potential foci of Lyme borreliosis in towns. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2000 Aug;8(3):176-178.
  1441. Nagel T, Gajovic-Eichelmann N, Tobisch S, Schulte-Spechtel U, Bier FF. Serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis infection using surface plasmon resonance. Clin Chim Acta. 2008 Aug;394(1-2):110-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2008.04.009
  1442. Nahass RG, Herman DJ, Hirsh EJ. Lyme disease: public education key to appropriate care. Arch Intern Med. 1997 Mar 24;157(6):697-700.
  1443. Nakama H, Muramatsu K, Uchikama K, Yamagishi T. Possibility of Lyme disease as an occupational disease-- seroepidemiological study of regional residents and forestry workers. Asia Pac J Public Health. 1994;7(4):214-7.
  1444. Naleway AL, Belongia EA, Kazmierczak JJ, Greenlee RT, Davis JP. Lyme disease incidence in Wisconsin: a comparison of state-reported rates and rates from a population-based cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Jun;155(12):1120-7.
  1445. Nardelli DT, Munson EL, Callister SM, Schell RF. Human Lyme disease vaccines: past and future concerns. Future Microbiol. 2009 May;4(4):457-69. https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb.09.17
  1446. Neidhart M, Goldenberger D, Cassinotti P, Altwegg M, Gay S, Michel BA, Bruehlmann P. Parvovirus B19-associated arthritis and Lyme disease: comparison between serology, synovial fluid and synovial membrane biopsy. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(9 Suppl):S91.
  1447. Neill MA, Papa EF, Telford S, Spielman A, Yankee R. Risk for transfusion-associated transmission of Babesiosis and Lyme borreliosis in an endemic area. Program and Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 1992;32:223.
  1448. Nelder MP, Russell C, Lindsay LR, Dhar B, Patel SN, Johnson S, Moore S, Kristjanson E, Li Y, Ralevski F. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada. PLoS One. 2014 Aug;9(8):e105358. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105358
  1449. Nelson JA, Bankowski MJ, Newton BJ, Benson CA, Kaplan R, Landau W, Trenholme GM, Peeples ME. Detection of antibodies in late Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1990 May;161(5):1034-5.
  1450. Nelson JA, Bouseman JK, Kitron U, Callister SM, Harrison B, Bankowski MJ, Peeples ME, Newton BJ, Anderson JF. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Illinois Ixodes dammini. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Aug;29(8):1732-4.
  1451. Nelson CA, Hayes CM, Markowitz MA, Flynn JJ, Graham AC, Delorey MJ, Mead PS, Dolan MC. The heat is on: Killing blacklegged ticks in residential washers and dryers to prevent tickborne diseases. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Jul;7(5):958-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.04.016
  1452. Nelson CA, Saha S, Kugeler KJ, Delorey MJ, Shankar MB, Hinckley AF, Mead PS. Incidence of clinician-diagnosed lyme disease, United States, 2005–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Sep;21(9):1625-31. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2109.150417
  1453. Nelson CA, Starr JA, Kugeler KJ, Mead PS. Lyme disease in Hispanics, United States, 2000-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Mar;22(3):522-5. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2203.151273
  1454. Nepereny J, Vrzal V, Chumela J. Determination of postvaccinal antibodies against OspA B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto using ELISA method. J Agri Sci Tech A. 2012;2:465-72.
  1455. Neubert U, Krampitz HE, Engl H. Microbiological findings in erythema (chronicum) migrans and related disorders. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):237-52.
  1456. Neuman RG, Gomes-Solecki MJC, Glass JD, Berger BW, Dattwyler RJ. A rapid 1st tier recombinant assay for the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2000;100:273.
  1457. Newman EA, Eisen L, Eisen RJ, Fedorova N, Hasty JM, Vaughn C, Lane RS. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in Northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation. PLoS One. 2015 Feb;10(2):e0118146. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118146
  1458. Nichol G, Dennis DT, Steere AC, Lightfoot R, Wells G, Shea B, Tugwell P. Test-treatment strategies for patients suspected of having Lyme disease: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Jan;128(1):37-48.
  1459. Nicholls TH, Callister SM. Lyme disease spirochetes in ticks collected from birds in midwestern United States. J Med Entomol. 1996 May;33(3):379-84.
  1460. Nicholson MC, Mather TN. Methods for evaluating Lyme disease risks using geographic information systems and geospatial analysis. J Med Entomol. 1996 Sep;33(5):711-20.
  1461. Nicholson MC, Mather TN, Donnelly EF. Lyme disease in Rhode Island: three years of surveillance. Med Health R I. 1996 Aug;79(8):311-3.
  1462. Nicholson WL, Greene RT. Lyme disease: current concepts. Vet Reports, Solvay. 1989;2:1-5.
  1463. Nicolini P, Imbs P, Jaulhac B, Piemont Y, Warter JM, Monteil H. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting for the serodiagnosis of neurological infections of Borrelia burgdorferi.: Comparaison de l'immunofluorescence indirecte et du Western blot pour le serodiagnostic des infections neurologiques a Borrelia burgdorferi. Med Mal Infect. 1992;22:722-6.
  1464. Nielsen SL, Young KK, Barbour AG. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. Mol Cell Probes. 1990;4(1):73-9.
  1465. Nielssen A, Carr A, Heseltine J. Update on canine Lyme disease. Vet Med. 2002;97(8):604-10.
  1466. Nieto NC, Dabritz H, Foley P, Drazenovich N, Calder L, Adjemian J, Conrad PA, Foley JE. Ectoparasite diversity and exposure to vector-borne disease agents in wild rodents in central coastal California. J Med Entomol. 2007 Mar;44(2):328-35.
  1467. Nieto NC, Leonhard S, Foley JE, Lane RS. Coinfection of western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) and other sciurid rodents with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California. J Wildl Dis. 2010 Jan;46(1):291-6.
  1468. Nieto NC, Teglas MB, Stewart KM, Wasley T, Wolff PL. Detection of relapsing fever spirochetes (Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia coriaceae) in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Nevada, United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Feb;12(2):99-105. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0716
  1469. Nieto NC, Teglas MB. Relapsing fever group borrelia in southern California rodents. J Med Entomol. 2014 Sep;51(5):1029-34.
  1470. Nilsson I, Von Rosen Inger A. Serum antibodies against Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and the 41-kiloDalton flagellin in patients from a Lyme borreliosis endemic area: analysis by EIA and immunoblot. APMIS. 1996 Dec;104(12):907-14.
  1471. Niścigorska J, Skotarczak B, Wodecka B. Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers - assessed with an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA), PCR and correlated with the clinical state of the patients. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003;10(1):15-9.
  1472. Niu Q, Guan G, Yang J, Fu Y, Xu Z, Li Y, Ma M, Liu Z, Liu J, Liu A, Ren Q, Jorgensen W, Luo J, Yin H. Detection and differentiation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in China. BMC Vet Res. 2011 Apr;7:17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-7-17. Retraction in: BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:56.
  1473. Nocton JJ, Bloom BJ, Rutledge BJ, Persing DH, Logigian EL, Schmid CH, Steere AC. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid in Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Infect Dis. 1996 Sep;174(3):623-7.
  1474. Nocton JJ, Dressler F, Rutledge BJ, Rys PN, Persing DH, Steere AC. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jan;330(4):229-34.
  1475. Noda AA, Rodríguez I, Mondeja B, Fernándeze C. Design, optimization and evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction for detection of Borrelia spp. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2013 Sep-Oct;22(5):639-53.
  1476. Nohlmans MK, Blaauw AA, van den Bogaard AE, van Boven CP. Evaluation of nine serological tests for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994 May;13(5):394-400.
  1477. Nolan K, Mauer MP. An evaluation of a Lyme disease prevention program in a working population. Am J Health Promot. 2006 Jul-Aug;20(6):379-82.
  1478. Wutte N, Archelos J, Crowe BA, Zenz W, Daghofer E, Fazekas F, Aberer E. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is influenced by the test used: Comparison of two ELISAs, immunoblot and CXCL13 testing. J Neurol Sci. 2014 Dec;347(1-2):96-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2014.09.027
  1479. Norman GL, Antig JM, Bigaignon G, Hogrefe WR. Serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii Western blots (immunoblots). J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Jul;34(7):1732-8.
  1480. Norman GL, Liu P. Performance of Inova Quanta Life IgG and IgM Elisa kits for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1998;98:515.
  1481. Norman GL, Lefebvre RB, Caughey DJ, Hogrefe WR. Serodiagnostics of Lyme disease infection by whole lysate and recombinant-based Western blot. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1992;92:493.
  1482. Nova Scotia Department of Health and Wellness. Lyme Disease: A report on Lyme Disease Epidemiology and Surveillance in Nova Scotia, April 2012.
  1483. Novak MG, Rowley WA, Platt KB, Bartholomew DM, Senne MD. Ixodes dammini Acari Ixodidae and Borrelia burgdorferi in Iowa USA. J Iowa Acad Sci. 1991;98(2):99-101.
  1484. Nowakowski J, Schwartz I, Liveris D, Wang G, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Girao G, McKenna D, Nadelman RB, Cavaliere LF, Wormser GP; Lyme Disease Study Group. Laboratory diagnostic techniques for patients with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans: a comparison of different techniques. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Dec;33(12):2023-7.
  1485. Nowakowski J, McKenna D, Nadelman RB, Bittker S, Cooper D, Pavia C, Holmgren D, Visintainer P, Wormser GP. Blood cultures for patients with extracutaneous manifestations of Lyme disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Dec;49(11):1733-5. https://doi.org/10.1086/648076
  1486. Nübling M, Rieger MA, Batsford S, Wagner M, Wertenschlag E, Hofmann F. Seroprevalence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in two adjacent regions of eastern France and southwestern Germany. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jun;291 Suppl 33:218.
  1487. Nuebling M, Rieger MA, Spilker G, Hofmann F. Seroepidemiology of TBE und borreliosis and related factors: a representative study in Southwestern Germany. Infection. 2000;28(Suppl 1):49-50.
  1488. Nuti M, Amaddeo D, Crovatto M, Ghionni A, Polato D, Lillini E, Pitzus E, Santini GF. Infections in an Alpine environment: antibodies to hantaviruses, leptospira, rickettsiae, and Borrelia burgdorferi in defined Italian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Jan;48(1):20-5.
  1489. Nuti M, Arreghini S, Peragallo M. Hantaan and Borrelia positivity in Alpine Mountain Troops. Abstracts of the 40th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991;45:153.
  1490. Obrenović S, Ristanović E, Čekanac R, Radulović Z, Ilić V. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in Belgrade area, Serbia. Acta Veterinaria. 2015;65(1):99.
  1491. Occi JL, Guidon PT Jr. Infection rates of Ixodes ticks with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in a New Jersey Park. J Spirochetal Tick-borne Dis. 1998;5(SPRING/SUMMER):11-5.
  1492. O'Connell AF Jr., Sayre MW, Bosler EM. Presence and effects of Lyme disease in a bBarrier Island deer population. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988;407-9.
  1493. O'Connor TP, Esty KJ, Hanscom JL, Shields P, Philipp MT. Dogs vaccinated with common Lyme disease vaccines do not respond to IR6, the conserved immunodominant region of the VlsE surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 May;11(3):458-62.
  1494. O'Connor CR, Goldsmith D, Barton D, Young G, Aronowitz R, Sigal L. A new focus of Lyme disease (Ld) in Southern New Jersey I: attitudes and knowledge of a population at risk. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35(9 Suppl):S221.
  1495. Ogden NH, Barker IK, Beauchamp G, Brazeau S, Charron DF, Maarouf A, Morshed MG, O'Callaghan CJ, Thompson RA, Waltner-Toews D, Waltner-Toews M, Lindsay LR. Investigation of ground level and remote-sensed data for habitat classification and prediction of survival of Ixodes scapularis in habitats of southeastern Canada. J Med Entomol. 2006;43(2):403-14.
  1496. Ogden NH, Bigras-Poulin M, Hanincová K, Maarouf A, O'Callaghan CJ, Kurtenbach K. Projected effects of climate change on tick phenology and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the North American tick Ixodes scapularis. J Theor Biol. 2008 Oct;254(3):621-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.06.020
  1497. Ogden NH, Bouchard C, Kurtenbach K, Margos G, Lindsay LR, Trudel L, Nguon S, Milord F. Active and passive surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi elucidate the process of Lyme disease risk emergence in Canada. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):909-914. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901766
  1498. Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Leighton PA. Predicting the rate of invasion of the agent of Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi. J Appl Ecol. 2013;50(2):510-8.
  1499. Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Hanincová K, Barker IK, Bigras-Poulin M, Charron DF, Heagy A, Francis CM, O'Callaghan CJ, Schwartz I, Thompson RA. Role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canada. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Mar;74(6):1780-90. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01982-07
  1500. Ogden NH, Margos G, Aanensen DM, Drebot MA, Feil EJ, Hanincová K, Schwartz I, Tyler S, Lindsay LR. Investigation of genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected during surveillance in Canada. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 May;77(10):3244-54. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02636-10
  1501. Ogden NH, St-Onge L, Barker IK, Brazeau S, Bigras-Poulin M, Charron DF, Francis CM, Heagy A, Lindsay LR, Maarouf A, Michel P, Milord F, O'Callaghan CJ, Trudel L, Thompson RA. Risk maps for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Canada now and with climate change. Int J Health Geogr. 2008 May;7:24. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-7-24
  1502. Ogden NH, Trudel L, Artsob H, Barker IK, Beauchamp G, Charron DF, Drebot MA, Galloway TD, O'Handley R, Thompson RA, Lindsay LR. Ixodes scapularis ticks collected by passive surveillance in Canada: analysis of geographic distribution and infection with Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 2006 May;43(3):600-9.
  1503. Ogden NH, Koffi JK, Lindsay LR. Assessment of a screening test to identify Lyme disease risk. (Special Issue: Lyme disease prevention and control: the way forward.). Can Commun Dis Rep. 2014;40(5):83.
  1504. Ogden NH, Koffi JK, Lindsay LR, Fleming S, Mombourquette DC, Sanford C, Badcock J, Gad RR, Jain Sheehan N, Moore S, Russell C, Hobbs L, Baydack R, Graham Derham S, Lachance L, Simmonds K, Scott AN. Surveillance for Lyme disease in Canada, 2009 to 2012. (Vector-borne diseases in Canada.). Can Commun Dis Rep. 2015;41(6):132.
  1505. Ogden NH, Koffi JK, Pelcat Y, Lindsay LR. Environmental risk from Lyme disease in central and eastern Canada: a summary of recent surveillance information. (Special Issue: Lyme disease prevention and control: the way forward.). Can Commun Dis Rep. 2014;40(5):74.
  1506. Oksi J, Uksila J, Marjamäki M, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK. Antibodies against whole sonicated Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, 41- kilodalton flagellin, and P39 protein in patients with PCR- or culture- proven late Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Sep;33(9):2260-4.
  1507. Oksi J, Viljanen MK. Tick bites, clinical symptoms of Lyme borreliosis, and Borrelia antibody responses in Finnish army recruits training in an endemic region during summer. Mil Med. 1995 Sep;160(9):453-6.
  1508. Oliver J, Means RG, Kogut S, Prusinski M, Howard JJ, Layne LJ, Chu FK, Reddy A, Lee L, White DJ. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals in New York state. J Med Entomol. 2006 Sep;43(5):924-35.
  1509. Oliver JH Jr. Lyme borreliosis in the southern United States: a review. J Parasitol. 1996 Dec;82(6):926-35.
  1510. Oliver JH Jr, Chandler FW Jr, James AM, Sanders FH Jr, Hutcheson HJ, Huey LO, McGuire BS, Lane RS. Natural occurrence and characterization of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from Georgia and Florida. J Parasitol. 1995 Feb;81(1):30-6.
  1511. Oliver JH Jr, Chandler FW Jr, Luttrell MP, James AM, Stallknecht DE, McGuire BS, Hutcheson HJ, Cummins GA, Lane RS. Isolation and transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete from the southeastern United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993 Aug;90(15):7371-5.
  1512. Oliver JH Jr, Clark KL, Chandler FW Jr, Tao L, James AM, Banks CW, Huey LO, Banks AR, Williams DC, Durden LA. Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents and ticks in the Charleston area of South Carolina. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jan;38(1):120-4.
  1513. Oliver JH Jr, Kollars TM Jr, Chandler FW Jr, James AM, Masters EJ, Lane RS, Huey LO. First isolation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Missouri. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Jan;36(1):1-5.
  1514. Oliver JH Jr, Lin T, Gao L, Clark KL, Banks CW, Durden LA, James AM, Chandler FW Jr. An enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in the southeastern United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 30;100(20):11642-5.
  1515. Oliver JH Jr, Magnarelli LA, Hutcheson HJ, Anderson JF. Ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at Cape Hatteras, NC and Assateague Island, MD and VA. J Med Entomol. 1999 Sep;36(5):578-87.
  1516. Oliver J, Howard JJ. Occurrence of Ixodes Scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) on a Selected Segment of the Appalachian Trail. J Med Entomol. 1998 Jan;35(1):54-8.
  1517. Olsen B, Duffy DC, Jaenson TG, Gylfe A, Bonnedahl J, Bergström S. Transhemispheric exchange of Lyme disease spirochetes by seabirds. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Dec;33(12):3270-4.
  1518. Olson CA, Cupp EW, Luckhart S, Ribeiro JM, Levy C. Occurrence of Ixodes pacificus (Parasitiformes: Ixodidae) in Arizona. J Med Entomol. 1992 Nov;29(6):1060-2.
  1519. Olson PE. Nervous about ticks--assessing Lyme disease risk in San Diego County. West J Med. 1992 Jan;156(1):87.
  1520. Olson PE, Kallen AJ, Bjorneby JM, Creek JG. Canines as sentinels for Lyme disease in San Diego County, California. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2000 Mar;12(2):126-9.
  1521. Olson PE, Richards AL, Dasch GA, Kennedy CA. Failure to identify Borrelia burgdorferi in southern California ticks by DNA amplification. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jul;168(1):257-8.
  1522. Olsson I, von Stedingk LV, Hanson HS, von Stedingk M, Asbrink E, Hovmark A. Comparison of four different serological methods for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in erythema migrans. 71(2). Acta Derm Venereol. 1991;71(2):127-33.
  1523. Onrust SV, Goa KL. Adjuvanted Lyme disease vaccine: a review of its use in the management of Lyme disease. Drugs. 2000 Feb;59(2):281-99.
  1524. Ontario Ministry of Health, Long-Term Care. Summary of confirmed human cases of Lyme disease in Ontario January 1, 2006 - April 7, 2007. 2007. http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/common/ministry/publications/reports/lyme_06/lyme_06.pdf
  1525. Orloski KA, Campbell GL, Genese CA, Beckley JW, Schriefer ME, Spitalny KC, Dennis DT. Emergence of Lyme disease in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, 1993: a case-control study of risk factors and evaluation of reporting patterns. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Feb;147(4):391-7.
  1526. Orloski KA, Hayes EB, Campbell GL, Dennis DT. Surveillance for Lyme disease—United States, 1992-1998. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 2000 Apr;49(3):1-11.
  1527. O'Rourke M, Traweger A, Lusa L, Stupica D, Maraspin V, Barrett PN, Strle F, Livey I. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR. PLoS One. 2013 May;8(5):e63968. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063968
  1528. Oschmann P, Wellensiek HJ, Zhong W, Dorndorf W, Pflughaupt KW. Relationship between the Borrelia burgdorferi specific immune response and different stages and syndromes in neuroborreliosis. Infection. 1997 Sep-Oct;25(5):292-7.
  1529. Osterholm MT, Forfang JC, White KE, Kuritsky JN. Lyme disease in Minnesota: epidemiologic and serologic findings. Yale J Biol Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;57(4):677-83.
  1530. Ostfeld RS, Canham CD, Oggenfuss K, Winchcombe RJ, Keesing F. Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk. PLoS Biol. 2006 Jun;4(6):e145.
  1531. Ostfeld RS, Schauber EM, Canham CD, Keesing F, Jones CG, Wolff JO. Effects of acorn production and mouse abundance on abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001 Spring;1(1):55-63.
  1532. Ostfeld RS, Canham CD, Oggenfuss K, Winchcombe RJ, Keesing F. Acorn and White-Footed Mouse Abundance as Predictors of Lyme-Disease Risk and Incidence. PLoS Biol. 2006 Jun;4(6):e145.
  1533. Oteo JA, Casas JM, Martínez de Artola V. Re: "Lyme disease in outdoor workers: risk factors, preventive measures, and tick removal methods". Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Apr;133(7):754-5.
  1534. Oteo JA, Martínez de Artola V, Casas JM, Estrada Peña A. Lyme disease in Rioja.: Enfermedad de Lyme en La Rioja. Med Clin (Barc). 1991 Apr;96(15):599.
  1535. Oteo JA, Martínez de Artola V, Gómez-Cadiñanos R, Casas JM, Blanco JR, Rosel L. [Evaluation of methods of tick removal in human ixodidiasis]. Rev Clin Esp. 1996 Sep;196(9):584-7.
  1536. Oteo Revuelta JA, Elías Calvo C, Martínez de Artola V, Pérez Surribas D. [Infection by Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus. A diagnostic problem]. Med Clin (Barc). 1993 Jul;101(6):207-9.
  1537. Ott-Conn CN, Clifford D, Branston T, Klinger R, Foley J. Pathogen infection and exposure, and ectoparasites of the federally endangered amargosa vole (Microtus Californicus scirpensis), California, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2014;50(4):767.
  1538. Oty G, Ettestad P. Lyme disease serological testing in a low-prevalence population. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1995;95:310.
  1539. Ouellette J, Apperson CS, Howard P, Evans TL, Levine JF. Tick-raccoon associations and the potential for Lyme disease spirochete transmission in the coastal plain of North Carolina. J Wildl Dis. 1997 Jan;33(1):28-39.
  1540. Pachner AR, Delaney E. The polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Ann Neurol. 1993 Oct;34(4):544-50.
  1541. Pachner AR, Ricalton N, Delaney E. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with culture and serology for diagnosis of murine experimental Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Feb;31(2):208-14.
  1542. Pachner AR, Ricalton NS. Western blotting in evaluating Lyme seropositivity and the utility of a gel densitometric approach. Neurology. 1992 Nov;42(11):2185-92.
  1543. Padgett KA, Bonilla DL. Novel exposure sites for nymphal Ixodes pacificus within picnic areas. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011 Dec;2(4):191-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2011.07.002.
  1544. Padula SJ, Dias F, Sampieri A, Craven RB, Ryan RW. Use of recombinant OspC from Borrelia burgdorferi for serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Jul;32(7):1733-8.
  1545. Pahl A, Kühlbrandt U, Brune K, Röllinghoff M, Gessner A. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Jun;37(6):1958-63.
  1546. Weintraub P. The human face of tick-borne disease infections. Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes Workshop Report. 2011. National Academies Press. Chapter 3.
  1547. Panelius J, Lahdenne P, Heikkilä T, Peltomaa M, Oksi J, Seppälä I. Recombinant Ospc from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii in the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. J Med Microbiol. 2002 Sep;51(9):731-9.
  1548. Parrott C, Johnson K, Strauss S, Greco M, Israel E, Schwartz BS. Lyme disease in outdoor workers on Assateague Island: high tick-exposure but low disease risk. Md Med J. 1993 Feb;42(2):165-8.
  1549. Paskewitz SM, Vandermause M, Belongia EA, Kazmierczak JJ. Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae): abundance and rate of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in four state parks in Wisconsin. J Med Entomol. 2001 Jan;38(1):33-8.
  1550. Patz JA, Daszak P, Tabor GM, Aguirre AA, Pearl M, Epstein J, Wolfe ND, Kilpatrick AM, Foufopoulos J, Molyneux D, Bradley DJ; Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence. Unhealthy landscapes: Policy recommendations on land use change and infectious disease emergence. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Jul;112(10):1092-8.
  1551. Solano P, McDuffie MJ. Evaluation of educational interventions for three lesser-known illnesses. 2008. Health Service Policy Research Group, University of Delaware. http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/21419
  1552. Mead P. Education, behavior change, and other non-pharmaceutical measures against lyme and other tick-borne diseases. Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes Workshop Report. 2011. The National Academies Press. Chapter 8.
  1553. Paul RE, Cote M, Le Naour E, Bonnet SI. Environmental factors influencing tick densities over seven years in a French suburban forest. Parasit Vectors. 2016 May;9(1):309. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1591-5
  1554. Paulauskas A, Ambrasiene D, Radzijevskaja J, Rosef O, Turcinaviciene J. Diversity in prevalence and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents in Lithuania and Norway. Int J Med Microbiology. 2008;298(Suppl 1):180-7.
  1555. Pavia CS, Wormser GP, Bittker S, Cooper D. An indirect hemagglutination antibody test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme disease. J Microbiol Methods. 2000 Apr;40(2):163-73.
  1556. Pavlickova P, Jensen NM, Paul H, Schaeferling M, Giammasi C, Kruschina M, Du WD, Theisen M, Ibba M, Ortigao F, Kambhampati D. Antibody detection in human serum using a versatile protein chip platform constructed by applying nanoscale self-assembled architectures on gold. J Proteome Res. 2002 May-Jun;1(3):227-31.
  1557. Pawinska A, Vogtt E, Dzierzanowska-Fangrat K. Serological diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children with various neurological disorders - comparison of two Elisa tests. Ped Res. 2010;68(Suppl 1):439.
  1558. Paxton H, Haggerty B, Nolan T. Evaluation of a new rapid dot-blot Elisa for the serological detection of antibodies to Rmsf, E. canis and Lyme in canines. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1998;98:513-4.
  1559. Peavy CA, Lane RS, Kleinjan JE. Role of small mammals in the ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi in a peri-urban park in north coastal California. Exp Appl Acarol. 1997 Aug;21(8):569-84.
  1560. Pejcoch M, Kralikova Z, Strnad P, Stanek G. Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers of South Moravia. Zentralbl Bakteriol Supplement. 1990;18:317-20.
  1561. Pelletier AR, Finger RF, Sosin DM. The epidemiology of Lyme disease in Kentucky, 1985-1990. J Ky Med Assoc. 1991 Jun;89(6):266-9.
  1562. Peña CA, Strickland GT. Incidence rates of Lyme disease in Maryland: 1993 through 1996. Md Med J. 1999 Mar-Apr;48(2):68-73.
  1563. Pennell DR, Wand PJ, Schell RF. Evaluation of a quantitative fluorescence immunoassay (FIAX) for detection of serum antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Nov;25(11):2218-20.
  1564. Pepin KM, Eisen RJ, Mead PS, Piesman J, Fish D, Hoen AG, Barbour AG, Hamer S, Diuk-Wasser MA. Geographic variation in the relationship between human Lyme disease incidence and density of infected host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs in the Eastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Jun;86(6):1062-71. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0630
  1565. Persing DH, Telford SR 3rd, Rys PN, Dodge DE, White TJ, Malawista SE, Spielman A. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in museum specimens of Ixodes dammini ticks. Science. 1990 Sep;249(4975):1420-3.
  1566. Persing DH, Telford SR 3rd, Spielman A, Barthold SW. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Ixodes dammini ticks with the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Mar;28(3):566-72.
  1567. Fehrenbach P. Massachusetts Lyme study favorable. Pest Control. 1992;Mar:47.
  1568. Fehrenbach P. Lyme disease: General info and avoidance tips. Pest Control. 1992;Mar:48.
  1569. Peter O, Praz G, Blanc D, Gern L, Girod B, Francioli P. Early serologic diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (Lb) by Vidas Lyme Screen, Borrelia IgG (Virion) and immunoblot. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1995;95:37.
  1570. Petersen E, Tolstrup M, Capuano F, Ellermann-Eriksen S. Population-based study of diagnostic assays for Borrelia infection: comparison of purified flagella antigen assay (Ideia, Dako Cytomation) and recombinant antigen assay (Liaison, DiaSorin). BMC Clin Pathol. 2008 Apr;8:4. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6890-8-4
  1571. Petersen LR, Sweeney AH, Checko PJ, Magnarelli LA, Mshar PA, Gunn RA, Hadler JL. Epidemiological and clinical features of 1,149 persons with Lyme disease identified by laboratory-based surveillance in Connecticut. Yale J Biol Med. 1989;62(3):253-62.
  1572. Philipp MT, Lobet Y, Bohm RP Jr, Conway MD, Dennis VA, Desmons P, Gu Yan, Hauser P, Lowrie RC Jr, Roberts ED. Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine formulations in the rhesus monkey. J Spirochetal Tick-Borne Dis. 1996;3:67-79.
  1573. Philippa JD, Leighton FA, Daoust PY, Nielsen O, Pagliarulo M, Schwantje H, Shury T, Van Herwijnen R, Martina BE, Kuiken T, Van de Bildt MW, Osterhaus AD. Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada. Vet Rec. 2004 Jul;155(5):135-40.
  1574. Phillips CB, Liang MH, Sangha O, Wright EA, Fossel AH, Lew RA, Fossel KK, Shadick NA. Lyme disease and preventive behaviors in residents of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Am J Prev Med. 2001 Apr;20(3):219-24.
  1575. Phillips SE, Mattman LH, Hulínská D, Moayad H. A proposal for the reliable culture of Borrelia burgdorferi from patients with chronic Lyme disease, even from those previously aggressively treated. Infection. 1998 Nov-Dec;26(6):364-7.
  1576. Pícha D, Moravcová L, Holeckova D, Sedivy K, Ždárský E, Maresová V. Proof of specific DNA using nested-PCR in patiens with different clinical form of Lyme borreliosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;29(Suppl 2):S408.
  1577. Pícha D, Moravcová L, Holeckova D, Ždárský E, Valesova M, Maresová V, Hercogova J, Vanousova D. Examination of specific DNA by PCR in patients with different forms of Lyme borreliosis. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47(10):1004-10.
  1578. Pícha D, Moravcová L, Ždárský E, Beneš J. Clinical comparison of immunoblot and antibody index for detection of intrathecal synthesis of specific antibodies in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19(10):805-6.
  1579. Pícha D, Moravcová L, Zdárský E, Maresová V, Hulínský V. PCR in lyme neuroborreliosis: a prospective study. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005 Nov;112(5):287-92.
  1580. Pichon B, Mousson L, Figureau C, Rodhain F, Perez-Eid C. Density of deer in relation to the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in Ixodes ricinus nymphs in Rambouillet forest, France. Exp Appl Acarol. 1999 Mar;23(3):267-75.
  1581. Pichot J, Gilot B, Soulier V, Rey-Coquais A, Degeilh B, Doche B.. [Ecoepidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in the Rhone-Alps region. Distribution, ecological context, relationship to the distribution of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758)]. Parasite. 1994 Dec;1(4):335-42.
  1582. Picken MM, Picken RN, Han D, Cheng Y, Strle F. Single-tube nested polymerase chain reaction assay based on Flagellin gene sequences for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996 Jun;15(6):489-98.
  1583. Picken MM, Picken RN, Han D, Cheng Y, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Cimperman J, Maraspin V, Lotric-Furlan S, Strle F. A two year prospective study to compare culture and polymerase chain reaction amplification for the detection and diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Mol Pathol. 1997 Aug;50(4):186-93.
  1584. Picken RN, Picken MM. Molecular characterization of Borrelia spp. isolates from greater metropolitan Chicago reveals the presence of Borrelia bissettii. Preliminary report. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000 Oct;2(4):505-7.
  1585. Piesman J. Response of nymphal Ixodes scapularis, the primary tick vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in North America, to barriers derived from wood products or related home and garden items. J Vector Ecol. 2006 Dec;31(2):412-7.
  1586. Piesman J, Korch GW Jr, Telford SR III, Falco RC, Daniels TJ, Mount GA, Sonenshine DE, Stafford KC III. Forum: Perspectives on the environmental management of ticks and Lyme disease. In Ecology and Environmental Management of Lyme Disease. HS Ginsberg Ed. 1993; pp. 157-82.
  1587. Piesman J, Mather TN, Dammin GJ, Telford SR 3rd, Lastavica CC, Spielman A. Seasonal variation of transmission risk of Lyme disease and human babesiosis. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Dec;126(6):1187-9.
  1588. Piesman J, Mather TN, Donahue JG, Levine J, Campbell JD, Karakashian SJ, Spielman A. Comparative prevalence of Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi in four populations of Ixodes dammini in eastern Massachusetts. Acta Trop. 1986 Sep;43(3):263-70.
  1589. Piesman J, Mather TN, Telford SR 3rd, Spielman A. Concurrent Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti infection in nymphal Ixodes dammini. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Sep;24(3):446-7.
  1590. Piesman J. Ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North America. In Lyme Borreliosis: Biology, Epidemiology and Control (eds J. Gray, O. Kahl, R.S. Lane and G. Stanek). 2002. pp. 223-49.
  1591. Pilgard M, Bacon R, Gilmore R, Wolf L, Engber B, Piesman J, Quintana M, Johnson B. Borrelia Lonestari Glpq gene detected in Amblyomma americanum ticks from Southeastern Missouri and North Carolina. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004;104:659.
  1592. Pinger RR, Holycross J, Ryder J, Mummert M. Collections of adult Ixodes dammini in Indiana, 1987-1990, and the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):745-9.
  1593. Pinger RR, Timmons L, Karris K. Spread of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Indiana: collections of adults in 1991-1994 and description of a Borrelia burgdorferi-infected population. J Med Entomol. 1996;33:852-5.
  1594. Piras MA, Porqueddu EM, Porcu P, Aceti A. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease. JAMA. 1998 Sep;280(12):1050; author reply 1051.
  1595. Pistone D, Pajoro M, Fabbi M, Vicari N, Marone P, Genchi C, Novati S, Sassera D, Epis S, Bandi C. Lyme borreliosis, Po River Valley, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Aug;16(8):1289-91. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100152.
  1596. Pleyer U, Priem S, Bergmann L, Burmester G, Hartmann C, Krause A. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in urine of patients with ocular Lyme borreliosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 May;85(5):552-5.
  1597. Plotkin SA. Correcting a public health fiasco: The need for a new vaccine against Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb;52 Suppl 3:s271-5. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq119
  1598. Plotkin SA. Vaccines, vaccination, and vaccinology. J Infect Dis. 2003;187(9):1349-59.
  1599. Plotkin SA, Wormser GP. Special Issue: The need for a new Lyme disease vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:s247-5.
  1600. Poche RM. Control of Lyme disease spirochete. United States Patent Number 5,932,437, Aug 3, 1999.
  1601. Poland GA. Vaccines against Lyme disease: What happened and what lessons can we learn? Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb;52 Suppl 3:s253-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq116
  1602. Poland GA. Prevention of Lyme disease: a review of the evidence. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001 Jul;76(7):713-24.
  1603. Poljak I, Troselj-Vukić B, Miletić B, Morović M, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Vucemilović A, Materljan E. Low sero-prevalence of Lyme borreliosis in the forested mountainous area of Gorski Kotar, Croatia. Croat Med J. 2000 Dec;41(4):433-6.
  1604. Pollack RJ, Telford SR 3rd, Spielman A. Standardization of medium for culturing Lyme disease spirochetes. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 May;31(5):1251-5.
  1605. Pomelova VG, Korenberg EI, Kuznetsova TI, Bychenkova TA, Bekman NI, Osin NS. C6 peptide-based multiplex phosphorescence analysis (PHOSPHAN) for serologic confirmation of lyme borreliosis. PLoS One. 2015 Jul;10(7):e0130048. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130048
  1606. Portnoï D, Sertour N, Ferquel E, Garnier M, Baranton G, Postic D. A single-run, real-time PCR for detection and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species, based on the hbb gene sequence. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Jun;259(1):35-40.
  1607. Porwancher R. A reanalysis of IgM Western blot criteria for the diagnosis of early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;179(4):1021-4.
  1608. Porwancher RB, Hagerty CG, Fan J, Landsberg L, Johnson BJ, Kopnitsky M, Steere AC, Kulas K, Wong SJ. Multiplex immunoassay for Lyme disease using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies: improving test performance through bioinformatics. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 May;18(5):851-9. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00409-10
  1609. Pound JM, Lohmeyer KH, Davey RB, Miller JA, George JE. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J Econ Entomol. 2012;105(6):2207-12.
  1610. Powell MJ, Steere AC, Dorward D, Anderson PH, Vanvollenhoven RF. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi specific antibodies in the Pacific Northwest: immune complex Western blot reveals unexpected Ospa reactivity in patients from a nonendemic region. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(9 Suppl):S142.
  1611. Powers NR, Mehr ZA, Calamaio CA, Torring E, Longfield R, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in feral cats (Felis domesticus) and their ectoparasites in Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Bull Soc Vector Ecol. 1994;19(2):125-9.
  1612. Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, Reinhardt S. Culture of Borrelia burgdorferi on six solid media. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1991 Dec;10(12):1076-9.
  1613. Priem S, Rittig MG, Kamradt T, Burmester GR, Krause A. An optimized PCR leads to rapid and highly sensitive detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Mar;35(3):685-90.
  1614. Pritt BS, Mead PS, Johnson DKH, Neitzel DF, Respicio-Kingry LB, Davis JP, Schiffman E, Sloan LM, Schriefer ME, Replogle AJ, Paskewitz SM, Ray JA, Bjork J, Steward CR, Deedon A, Lee X, Kingry LC, Miller TK, Feist MA, Theel ES, Patel R, Irish CL, Petersen JM. Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: A descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 May;16(5):556-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00464-8
  1615. Prose NS, Abson KG, Berg D. Lyme disease in children: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Semin Dermatol. 1992 Mar;11(1):31-6.
  1616. Prusinski MA, Chen H, Drobnack JM, Kogut SJ, Means RG, Howard JJ, Oliver J, Lukacik G, Backenson PB, White DJ. Habitat structure associated with Borrelia burgdorferi prevalence in small mammals in New York State. Environ Entomol. 2006;35(2):308-19. https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-35.2.308
  1617. Prusinski MA, Kokas JE, Hukey KT, Kogut SJ, Lee J, Backenson PB. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from recreational lands in the Hudson Valley Region, New York State. J Med Entomol. 2014;51(1):226.
  1618. Pultorak EL, Breitschwerdt EB. Survey of veterinarians' perceptions of borreliosis in North Carolina. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2014;244(5):592.
  1619. Puri BK, Segal DR, Monro JA. Diagnostic use of the lymphocyte transformation test-memory lymphocyte immunostimulation assay in confirming active lyme borreliosis in clinically and serologically ambiguous cases. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2014;7(12):5890.
  1620. Qiu BO, Brunner M, Zhang G, Sigal L, Stein S. Selection of continuous epitope sequences and their incorporation into poly(ethylene glycol)-peptide conjugates for use in serodiagnostic immunoassays: application to Lyme disease. Biopolymers. 2000;55(4):319-33.
  1621. Qiu WG, Bosler EM, Campbell JR, Ugine GD, Wang IN, Luft BJ, Dykhuizen DE. A population genetic study of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto from eastern Long Island, New York, suggested frequency-dependent selection, gene flow and host adaptation. Hereditas. 1997;127(3):203-16.
  1622. Qiu WG, Dykhuizen DE, Acosta MS, Luft BJ. Geographic uniformity of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and its shared history with tick vector (Ixodes scapularis) in the Northeastern United States. Genetics. 2002 Mar;160(3):833-49.
  1623. Quine CP, Barnett J, Dobson AD, Marcu A, Marzano M, Moseley D, O'Brien L, Randolph SE, Taylor JL, Uzzell D. Frameworks for risk communication and disease management: the case of Lyme disease and countryside users. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Jul;366(1573):2010-22. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0397
  1624. Qurollo BA, Chandrashekar R, Hegarty BC, Beall MJ, Stillman B, Liu J, Thatcher B, Cerrito B, Walsh M, Breitschwerdt EB. Trends in tick-borne disease exposure in dogs from the USA and Canada determined by species-specific peptide assay. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(3):724.
  1625. Qurollo BA, Chandrashekar R, Hegarty BC, Beall MJ, Stillman BA, Liu J, Thatcher B, Pultorak E, Cerrito B, Walsh M, Breitschwerdt EB. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides. Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2014 Oct 20;4. https://doi.org/10.3402/iee.v4.24699
  1626. Radulovic Z, Milutinovic M, Tomanovic S, Mulenga A. Detection of Borrelia-specific 16s RNA sequence in total RNA extracted from Ixodes ricinus ticks. Arq Bras Med Vet Zoo. 2010;62(4):862-7.
  1627. Radzijevskaja J, Paulauskas A, Rosef O. Molecular detection and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in small rodents. Vet Med Zoo. 2011;55(77):40-6.
  1628. Rahn DW. Lyme disease vaccine safe for all? Postgrad Med. 1999 Jun;105(7):21.
  1629. Rahn DW, Felz MW. Lyme disease update. Current approach to early, disseminated, and late disease. Postgrad Med. 1998 May;103(5):51-4, 57-9, 63-4 passim.
  1630. Raizman EA, Holland JD, Shukle JT. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential sentinel for human Lyme disease in Indiana. Zoonoses Public Health. 2013 May;60(3):227-33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01518.x
  1631. Raizman EA, Holland JD, Keefe LM, Moro MH. Forest and surface water as predictors of Borrelia burgdorferi and its vector Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Indiana. J Med Entomol. 2010 May;47(3):458-65.
  1632. Ramsey AH, Belongia EA, Chyou PH, Davis JP. Appropriateness of Lyme disease serologic testing. Ann Fam Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;2(4):341-4.
  1633. Ramsey AH, Chyou P, Davis JP, Belongia EA. Utilization and appropriateness of Lyme disease serologic testing in Wisconsin. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2001;41:478.
  1634. Rand P, Lacombe E, Cahill B, Elias S, Chandrashekar R. Canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in an emergent area: use of a multi-target Elisa at two geographic scales. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24(3):765.
  1635. Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Elias SP, Cahill BK, Lubelczyk CB, Smith RP Jr. Multitarget test for emerging Lyme disease and anaplasmosis in a serosurvey of dogs, Maine, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 May;17(5):899-902. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1705.100408
  1636. Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Smith RP Jr, Ficker J. Participation of birds (Aves) in the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Maine. J Med Entomol. 1998 May;35(3):270-6.
  1637. Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Smith RP Jr, Gensheimer K, Dennis DT. Low seroprevalence of human Lyme disease near a focus of high entomologic risk. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996 Aug;55(2):160-4.
  1638. Rand PW, Lubelczyk C, Holman MS, Lacombe EH, Smith RP Jr. Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) after the complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for Lyme Disease. J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):779-84.
  1639. Rand PW, Smith RP Jr, Lacombe EH. Canine seroprevalence and the distribution of Ixodes dammini in an area of emerging Lyme disease. Am J Public Health. 1991 Oct;81(10):1331-4.
  1640. Ranka R, Bormane A, Salmina K, Baumanis V. Identification of three clinically relevant Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer amplicons. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Apr;42(4):1444-9.
  1641. Rapuntean G, Boldizsar E, Brudasca E, Fartan S, Popescu R. Consideration on immunogenic capacity of Biocan B (vaccine against borreliosis). Buletinul USAMV-CN. 2003;60:304-6.
  1642. Rasiah C, Rauer S, Gassmann GS, Vogt A. Use of a hybrid protein consisting of the variable region of the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin and part of the 83-kDa protein as antigen for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Apr;32(4):1011-7.
  1643. Rath PM, Ibershoff B, Mohnhaupt A, Albig J, Eljaschewitsch B, Jürgens D, Horbach I, Fehrenbach FJ. Seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in forestry workers from Brandenburg, Germany. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996 May;15(5):372-7.
  1644. Ratzlaff RE, Troyer J, Demerlee E, Demerlee S, Sonenshine DE. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from feral house mice captured in Virginia. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1992;92:470.
  1645. Rauer S, Conrad A. Competitive inhibition ELISA for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antigens--failure to detect antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neuroborreliosis. J Med Microbiol. 2001 Jun;50(6):577-8.
  1646. Rauer S, Kayser M, Neubert U, Rasiah C, Vogt A. Establishment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified recombinant 83-kilodalton antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii for serodiagnosis of lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Oct;33(10):2596-600.
  1647. Rauer S, Spohn N, Rasiah C, Neubert U, Vogt A. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant OspC and the internal 14-kDa flagellin fragment for serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Apr;36(4):857-61.
  1648. Rauter C, Mueller M, Diterich I, Zeller S, Hassler D, Meergans T, Hartung T. Critical evaluation of urine-based PCR assay for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Aug;12(8):910-7.
  1649. Rawlings JA, Teltow GJ. Prevalence of Borrelia (Spirochaetaceae) spirochetes in Texas ticks. J Med Entomol. 1994 Mar;31(2):297-301.
  1650. Rawlings JA, Lane RS. The prevalence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi among patients with undiagnosed central nervous system disease in California USA. Ann NT Acad Sci. 1988:489-91.
  1651. Reece RL. Listening outside the box: the case of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. Conn Med. 1999 Sep;63(9):547-9.
  1652. Rees DH, Axford JS. Evidence for Lyme disease in urban park workers: a potential new health hazard for city inhabitants. Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Feb;33(2):123-8.
  1653. Reeves WK, Loftis AD, Sanders F, Spinks M, Wills W, Dasch GA. Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia discovered from Carios capensis collected from South Carolina, USA. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2005;105:221-2.
  1654. Reeves WK, Streicker DG, Loftis AD, Dasch GA. Serologic survey of Eptesicus fuscus from Georgia, U.S.A. for Rickettsia and Borrelia and laboratory transmission of a Rickettsia by bat ticks. J Vector Ecol. 2006 Dec;31(2):386-9.
  1655. Reimer B, Erbas B, Lobbichler K, Truckenbrodt R, Gartner-Kothe U, Kapeller N, Hansen M, Fingerle V, Wilske B, von Sonnenburg F. Seroprevalence of Borrelia infection in occupational tick-exposed people in Bavaria (Germany). Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jun;291 Suppl 33:215.
  1656. Reiner KL, Huycke MM, McNabb SJ. The descriptive epidemiology of Lyme disease in Oklahoma. J Okla State Med Assoc. 1991 Oct;84(10):503-9.
  1657. Richer LM, Brisson D, Melo R, Ostfeld RS, Zeidner N, Gomes-Solecki M. Reservoir targeted vaccine against borrelia burgdorferi: A new strategy to prevent lyme disease transmission. J Infect Dis. 2014;209(12):1972.
  1658. Richter D, Matuschka FR. Differential risk for Lyme disease along hiking trail, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;17(9):1704-6. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1709.101523
  1659. Richter D, Matuschka FR. Elimination of Lyme disease spirochetes from ticks feeding on domestic ruminants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov;76(22):7650-2. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01649-10
  1660. Richter D, Matuschka FR. Modulatory effect of cattle on risk for Lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Dec;12(12):1919-23.
  1661. Rieger MA, Nübling M, Hess S, Batsford S, Hofmann F. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus in the Bergische Land region of Northrhine Westfalia. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jun;291 Suppl 33:216-7.
  1662. Rieger MA, Nuebling M, Wangerin W, Hofmann F, Kampa D, Batsford S, Neumann-Haefelin D. Exposure to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in agricultural workers in southwestern Germany. J Agri Saf Health. 1999;5(1):49-58.
  1663. Riesbeck K, Hammas B. Comparison of an automated Borrelia indirect chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) with a VlsE/C6 ELISA and Immunoblot. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Jul;26(7):517-9.
  1664. Rijpkema S, Kuiper H, Molkenboer M, van Dam A, Schellekens J. Improved detection of immunoglobulin M in sera of erythema migrans patients by western blotting with a local Borrelia burgdorferi skin isolate. In: Lyme Borreliosis, Ed. JS Axford and DHE Rees, Plenum Press, New York, 1994. pp. 307-14.
  1665. Rijpkema SG, Tazelaar DJ, Molkenboer MJ, Noordhoek GT, Plantinga G, Schouls LM, Schellekens JF. Detection of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and group VS116 by PCR in skin biopsies of patients with erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Clin Microbiol Infect. 1997 Feb;3(1):109-16.
  1666. Risley LS, Gerum S, Villamar M. Lyme disease in northern New Jersey: prevalence of spirochete infection in small mammals. Bull NJ Acad Sci. 1995;40(1):1-3.
  1667. Risley LS, Hahn S. Lyme disease in northern New Jersey: distribution of black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and prevalence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Bull NJ Acad Sci. 1994;39(1):17-21.
  1668. Ritter MM. Lyme disease in Indiana: isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi-like organisms from Dermacentor variabilis. Thesis. Ball State University, USA. 1989; p. 81.
  1669. Robbins A. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Report: Lyme disease surveillance report - Maine, 2008. Maine Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Maine Public Health Data Reports - Infectious Disease 2009:1-2. http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/publications/2008-lyme-disease-surveillance-report.pdf
  1670. Robbins, A. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Report: Lyme disease surveillance report - Maine, 2009 - Update. Maine Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Maine Public Health Data Reports - Infectious Disease. 2010:1-2. https://www1.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/vector-borne/lyme/documents/2009lyme-surveillance-report.pdf
  1671. Robertson J, Guy E, Andrews N, Wilske B, Anda P, Granström M, Hauser U, Moosmann Y, Sambri V, Schellekens J, Stanek G, Gray J. A European multicenter study of immunoblotting in serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jun;38(6):2097-2102.
  1672. Robertson JN, Gray JS, Stewart P. Tick bite and Lyme borreliosis risk at a recreational site in England. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16(7):647-52.
  1673. Robertson J, Guy ED, Andrews N, Wilske B, Anda P, Granstrom M, Hauser U, Moosmann Y, Sambri V, Schellekens JAN, Stanek G, Gray J. A European multi-centre comparison of immunoblot in the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1999;289(5-7):678-80.
  1674. Robinson, Sara. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Report: Lyme Disease Surveillance Report - Maine, 2010. Maine Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Maine Public Health Data Reports - Infectious Disease. 2011:1-2. http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/publications/2010-lyme-surveillance-report.pdf
  1675. Robinson S. Lyme disease in Maine: a comparison of NEDSS surveillance data and Maine Health Data Organization Hospital Discharge data. Online J Public Health Inform. 2014;5(3):231.
  1676. Robinson SJ, Neitzel DF, Moen RA, Craft ME, Hamilton KE, Johnson LB, Mulla DJ, Munderloh UG, Redig PT, Smith KE, Turner CL, Umber JK, Pelican KM. Disease risk in a dynamic environment: the spread of tick-borne pathogens in Minnesota, USA. Ecohealth. 2015 Mar;12(1):152-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-014-0979-y
  1677. Rodgers SE, Miller NJ, Mather TN. Seasonal variation in nymphal blacklegged tick abundance in southern New England forests. J Med Entomol. 2007 Sep;44(5):898-900.
  1678. Rodgers SJ, Morton RJ, Baldwin CA. A serological survey of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in Oklahoma. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1989 Apr;1(2):154-9.
  1679. Rodriguez I, Burri C, Noda AA, Douet V, Gern L. Multiplex PCR for molecular screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(4):642.
  1680. Rodriquez Vivas RI, Cen Aguilar F, Dominguez Alpizar JL, Cob Galera LA, Solis Calderon JJ. Detection of spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia in haemolymph of engorged females of Boophilus microplus in the state of Yucatan, Mexico.: Deteccion de espiroquetas del genero Borrelia en hemolinfas de teleoginas de Boophilus microplus en el estado de Yucatan, Mexico. Vet Mexico. 1996;27:187-8.
  1681. Rogic A, Tessier N, Legendre P, Lapointe FJ, Millien V. Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Quebec. Ecol Evol. 2013;3:2075-88.
  1682. Roh S, McComas KA, Rickard LN, Decker DJ. How motivated reasoning and temporal frames may polarize opinions about wildlife disease risk. Sci Commun. 2015;37(3):340.
  1683. Rojko T, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Strle F, Lotric-Furlan S. Prevalence and incidence of Lyme borreliosis among Slovene forestry workers during the period of tick activity. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005 Mar;117(5-6):219-25.
  1684. Rosa PA, Schwan TG. A specific and sensitive assay for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi using the polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis. 1989 Dec;160(6):1018-29.
  1685. Rosé CD, Fawcett PT, Gibney KM. Arthritis following recombinant outer surface protein A vaccination for Lyme disease. J Rheumatol. 2001 Nov;28(11):2555-7.
  1686. Rosé CD, Fawcett PT, Gibney KM, Doughty RA. The overdiagnosis of Lyme disease in children residing in an endemic area. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1994 Nov;33(11):663-8.
  1687. Rosé CD, Fawcett PT, Singsen BH, Dubbs SB, Doughty RA. Use of western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to assist in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Pediatrics. 1991 Sep;88(3):465-70.
  1688. Rosen ME. Investigating the maintenance of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi, and its vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Tennessee. Thesis. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 2009. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_gradthes/554
  1689. Rosen ME, Hamer SA, Gerhardt RR, Jones CJ, Muller LI, Scott MC, Hickling GJ. Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee. J Med Entomol. 2012 Nov;49(6):1473-80.
  1690. Rosenbaum JT, Rahn DW. Prevalence of Lyme disease among patients with uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991 Oct;112(4):462-3.
  1691. Ross AH, Benach JL. The significance of controls in Lyme arthritis of children. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987 Feb;263(3):400-6.
  1692. Rossi C, Stromdahl EY, Rohrbeck P, Olsen C, DeFraites RF. Characterizing the relationship between tick bites and Lyme disease in active component U.S. Armed Forces in the eastern United States. MSMR. 2015;22(3):2.
  1693. Rossmann E, Richards G, Fingerle V, Sing A, Bechtel M. Evaluation of a new Lyme borreliosis immunoblot including Ebv and syphilis antigens as differential diagnosis tools. Int J Med Microbiol. 2009;299(Suppl 46):32-3.
  1694. Rourke MO, Traweger A, Lusa L, Stupica D, Maraspin V, Barrett PN, Strle F, Livey I. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR. PLoS One. 2013 May;8(5):e63968. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063968
  1695. Roux F, Boyer E, Jaulhac B, Dernis E, Closs-Prophette F, Puéchal X. Lyme meningoradiculitis: prospective evaluation of biological diagnosis methods. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Oct;26(10):685-93.
  1696. Roy-Dufresne E, Logan T, Simon JA, Chmura GL, Millien V. Poleward expansion of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) under climate change: implications for the spread of Lyme disease. PLoS One. 2013 Nov;8(11):e80724. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080724
  1697. Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Nemec J, Volkaert J, Mallátová N, Grubhoffer L. Improved method of detection and molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in clinical samples by polymerase chain reaction without DNA purification. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2005;50(1):31-9.
  1698. Ruiz-Fons F, Fernández-de-Mera IG, Acevedo P, Gortázar C, de la Fuente J. Factors driving the abundance of ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of zoonotic I. ricinus-borne pathogens in natural foci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Apr;78(8):2669-76. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.06564-11
  1699. Russart NM, Schroeder JAYA, Vaughan JA. Survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:195.
  1700. Russart NM, Dougherty MW, Vaughan JA. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota. J Med Entomol. 2014;51(5):1087.
  1701. Rutkowski S, Busch DH, Huppertz HI. Lymphocyte proliferation assay in response to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme arthritis: Analysis of lymphocyte subsets. Rheumatol Int. 1997;17(4):151-8.
  1702. Rutz HJ, Wee S, Feldman KA. Characterizing Lyme disease surveillance in an endemic state. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 Jul 29. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12275
  1703. Ruyts SC, Ampoorter E, Coipan EC, Baeten L, Heylen D, Sprong H, Matthysen E, Verheyen K. Diversifying forest communities may change Lyme disease risk: extra dimension to the dilution effect in Europe. Parasitology. 2016 Sep;143(10):1310-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182016000688
  1704. Ruzić-Sabljić E, Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Lotric-Furlan S, Strle F. Evaluation of immunofluorescence test (IFT) and immuno (western) blot (WB) test in patients with erythema migrans. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Jul;114(13-14):586-90.
  1705. Ruzic-Sabljic E, Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Strle F, Lotric-Furlan S, Stupica D, Cerar T. Comparison of isolation rate of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two different culture media, MKP and BSK-H. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Jul;20(7):636-41. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-0691.12457
  1706. Ryan ME, Still MM, Fleetwood MK, Bross J, Wood GC, Frey CM. Prevalence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in an outpatient setting in central and northeastern Pennsylvania. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 1999;8(7):341-5.
  1707. Ryan RW, Dias FIL. Laboratory diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2004;34(3):358.
  1708. Rydzewski J, Mateus-Pinilla N, Warner RE, Hamer S, Weng HY. Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi among diverse habitats within a natural area in east-central Illinois. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Oct;11(10):1351-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0160.
  1709. Ryffel K, Péter O, Binet L, Dayer E. Interpretation of immunoblots for Lyme borreliosis using a semiquantitative approach. Clin Microbiol Infect. 1998 Apr;4(4):205-12.
  1710. Sabourin G. [Lyme disease. The carrier tick has settled in Quebec]. Perspect Infirm. 2009 Sep-Oct;6(5):18-9.
  1711. Sachsenmeier KF, Schell K, Morrissey LW, Pennell DR, West RM, Callister SM, Schell RF. Detection of borreliacidal antibodies in hamsters by using flow cytometry. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Jun;30(6):1457-61.
  1712. Ben Said M, Belkahia H, Alberti A, Abdi K, Zhioua M, Daaloul-Jedidi M, Messadi L. First molecular evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in goats, sheep, cattle and camels in Tunisia. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2016;23(3):442.
  1713. Saidac DS, Marras SA, Parveen N. Detection and quantification of Lyme spirochetes using sensitive and specific molecular beacon probes. BMC Microbiol. 2009 Feb;9:43. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-9-43
  1714. Salinas-Melendez JA, Avalos-Ramirez R, Riojas-Valdez VM, Martinez-Munoz A. Serological survey of canine borreliosis. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 1999;41(1):1-3.
  1715. Salinas-Melendez JA, Galvan de la Garza S, Riojas-Valdes VM, Wong Gonzalez A, Avalos-Ramirez R. Antibody detection against Borrelia burgdorferi in horses located in the suburban areas of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2001;43(4):161-4.
  1716. Salinas-Melendez JA, Zarate-Ramos JJ, Avalos-Ramirez R, Hernandez-Escareno JJ, Guzman-Acosta G, Riojas-Valdes VM, Segura-Correa JC. Prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in dogs from Monterrey, Mexico. J Anim Vet Adv. 2011;10(20):2720-3.
  1717. Salkeld DJ, Leonhard S, Girard YA, Hahn N, Mun J, Padgett KA, Lane RS. Identifying the reservoir hosts of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in California: the role of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Oct;79(4):535-40.
  1718. Salkeld DJ, Mun J, Lane RS. Community ecology and disease risk: lizards, squirrels, and the Lyme disease spirochete in California, USA. Ecology. 2010 Jan;91(1):293-8.
  1719. Salkeld DJ, Cinkovich S, Nieto NC. Tick-borne pathogens in northwestern California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;20(3):493-4. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130668.
  1720. Salkeld DJ, Nieto NC, Carbajales-Dale P, Carbajales-Dale M, Cinkovich SS, Lambin EF. Disease risk & landscape attributes of tick-borne Borrelia pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. PLoS One. 2015 Aug;10(8):e0134812. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134812
  1721. Salzman MB, Zawahir P, Sood SK. Prevention of Lyme disease. Children’s Hospital Quarterly. 1991;3(3):149-51.
  1722. Donta ST. Panel: challenges for clinicians in diagnosis and management of chronic illness manifestations: knowledge gaps. In: Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes Workshop Report. The National Academies Press. 2011. Chapter 7.
  1723. Sanchez JL, Yevich SJ, Defraites RF, Fishbein DB, Greene NR, Dawson JE, Uhaa IJ, Johnson BJ. Epidemiologic evaluation of tick-borne infections among military personnel conducting field training in Arkansas. Am J Trop med Hyg. 1991;45(3 Suppl):264-5.
  1724. Sand MN, Cook J, Ellis B, Tilton RC. A new test for Lyme disease; C6 peptide Elisa. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2001;101:717.
  1725. Sandhu GK, Singh D. Level of awareness regarding some zoonotic diseases, among dog owners of Ithaca, New York. J Family Med Prim Care. 2014;3(4):418.
  1726. Santelises JS. Temporal and spatial distribution of the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, in Texas and its association with climate variation. Thesis. Texas A & M University. 2013:1-17.
  1727. Santino I, Berlutti F, Pantanella F, Sessa R, del Piano M. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA by PCR in serum of patients with clinical symptoms of Lyme borreliosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008 Jun;283(1):30-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01134.x
  1728. Sapi E, Pabbati N, Datar A, Davies EM, Rattelle A, Kuo BA. Improved culture conditions for the growth and detection of Borrelia from human serum. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10(4):362-76. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.5698
  1729. Saravanan S, Sekar M. Comparison of IFA and ELISA in the diagnosis of borreliosis in dogs. J Vet Public Health. 2008;6:41-2.
  1730. Sarwari AR, Strickland T, Pena C, Burkot TR. Tick exposure and Lyme disease at a summer camp in Maryland. W V Med J. 2005 May-Jun;101(3):126-30.
  1731. Saunders M. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Report: Lyme Disease Surveillance Report - Maine, 2011. Maine Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Maine Public Health Data Reports - Infectious Disease. 2012:1-2. http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/publications/2011-Lyme-Surveillance-Report.pdf
  1732. Saunders M. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Report: Lyme Disease Surveillance Report - Maine, 2012. Maine Center for Disease Control & Prevention, Maine Public Health Data Reports - Infectious Disease. 2013:1-2. https://www1.maine.gov/dhhs/mecdc/infectious-disease/epi/publications/2012-Lyme-Surveillance-Report.pdf
  1733. Sayahtaheri-Altaie S, Meier FA, Dalton HP. Identification of species-specific, non-cross-reactive proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Jan;16(1):43-51.
  1734. Sayler KA, Loftis AD, Beatty SK, Boyce CL, Garrison E, Clemons B, Cunningham M, Alleman AR, Barbet AF. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in host-seeking Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Florida. J Med Entomol. 2016 Jul;53(4):949-56.
  1735. Sayre RW, Decker DJ, Good GL. Deer damage to landscape plants in New York state perceptions of nursery producers landscape firms and homeowners. J Environ Hortic. 1992;10(1):46-51.
  1736. Schall JOSJ, Prendeville HR, Hanley KA. Prevalence of the tick, Ixodes pacificus, on western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis: trends by gender, size, season, site, and mite infestation. J Herpetol. 2000;34(1):160-3.
  1737. Schauber EM, Gertz SJ, Maple WT, Ostfeld RS. Coinfection of blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Dutchess County, New York, with the agents of Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. J Med Entomol. 1998 Sep;35(5):901-3.
  1738. Schauber EM, Ostfeld RS, Evans AS Jr. What is the best predictor of annual Lyme disease incidence: Weather, mice, or acorns? Ecol Appl. 2005;15(2):575-86.
  1739. Schenk J, Doebis C, Küsters U, Baehr VV. Evaluation of a new multiparametric microspot array for serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis. Clin Lab. 2015;61(11):1715.
  1740. Schiffman EK, McLaughlin C, Ray JA, Kemperman MM, Hinckley AF, Friedlander HG, Neitzel DF. Underreporting of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases in residents of a high-incidence county, Minnesota, 2009. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 Jul 8. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12291
  1741. Schmid GP, Horsley R, Steere AC, Hanrahan JP, Davis JP, Bowen GS, Osterholm MT, Weisfeld JS, Hightower AW, Broome CV. Surveillance of Lyme disease in the United States, 1982. J Infect Dis. 1985 Jun;151(6):1144-9.
  1742. Schmidli J, Hunziker T, Gerber H. Immunoperoxidase slide test for detecting antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Infect Dis. 1988 Jan;157(1):218-9.
  1743. Schmidt B, Muellegger RR, Stockenhuber C, Soyer HP, Hoedl S, Luger A, Kerl H. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific DNA in urine specimens from patients with erythema migrans before and after antibiotic therapy. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Jun;34(6):1359-63.
  1744. Schmitz JL, Jethwa H, Folds JD. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in an area of low disease prevalence. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1995;95:311.
  1745. Schmitz JL, Powell CS, Folds JD. Comparison of seven commercial kits for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993;12(6):419-24.
  1746. Schmitz KM, Foley JE, Kasten RW, Chomel BB, Larsen RS. Prevalence of vector-borne bacterial pathogens in riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) and their ticks. J Wildl Dis. 2014;50(2):369.
  1747. Schneider SC, Parker CM, Miller JR, Fredericks LP, Allan BF. Assessing the contribution of songbirds to the movement of ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi in the Midwestern United States during fall migration. EcoHealth. 2015;12(1):164.
  1748. Schoen RT, Deshefy-Longhi T, Van-Hoecke C, Buscarino C, Fikrig E. An open-label, nonrandomized, single-center, prospective extension, clinical trial of booster dose schedules to assess the safety profile and immunogenicity of recombinant outer-surface protein A (OspA) Lyme disease vaccine. Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25(1):210-24.
  1749. Schoen RT, Meurice F, Brunet CM, Cretella S, Krause DS, Craft JE, Fikrig E. Safety and immunogenicity of an outer surface protein A vaccine in subjects with previous Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1995 Nov;172(5):1324-9.
  1750. Schreck CE, Snoddy EL, Spielman A. Pressurized sprays of permethrin or deet on military clothing for personal protection against Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 1986 Jul 28;23(4):396-9.
  1751. Schulte-Spechtel U, Lehnert G, Liegl G, Fingerle V, Heimerl C, Johnson BJ, Wilske B. Significant improvement of the recombinant Borrelia-specific immunoglobulin G immunoblot test by addition of VlsE and a DbpA homologue derived from Borrelia garinii for diagnosis of early neuroborreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Mar;41(3):1299-303.
  1752. Schulte-Spechtel U, Lehnert G, Liegl G, Fingerle V, Heimerl C, Johnson B, Wilske B. Significant improvement of the recombinant Borrelia IgG immunoblot for serodiagnosis of early neuroborreliosis. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004 Apr;293 Suppl 37:158-60.
  1753. Schulze TL, Bosler EM, Shisler JK, Ware IC, Lakat MF, Parkin WE. Prevalence of canine Lyme disease from an endemic area as determined by serosurvey. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987 Feb;263(3):427-34.
  1754. Schulze TL, Bowen GS, Lakat MF, Parkin WE. Lyme disease: a possible occupational disease of mosquito control personnel. Proceedings, Sixty-Ninth Annual Meeting, New Jersey Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Atlantic City, New Jersey, March 17-19, 1982. pp. 34-8.
  1755. Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Hung RW. Comparison of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) populations and their habitats in established and emerging Lyme disease areas in New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 1998 Jan;35(1):64-70.
  1756. Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Healy SP, Roegner VE. Detection of Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Monmouth County, New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 2013 Mar;50(2):379-83.
  1757. Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Healy SP, Roegner VE, Meddis M, Jahn MB, Guthrie DL Sr. Relative abundance and prevalence of selected Borrelia infections in Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) from publicly owned lands in Monmouth County, New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 2006 Nov;43(6):1269-75.
  1758. Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Hung RW, Puelle RS, Markowski D, Chomsky MS. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) adults in New Jersey, 2000-2001. J Med Entomol. 2003 Jul;40(4):555-8.
  1759. Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Schulze CJ, Mixson T, Papero M. Relative encounter frequencies and prevalence of selected Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from central New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 2005 May;42(3):450-6.
  1760. Schulze TL, Jordan RA, White JC, Roegner VE, Healy SP. Geographical distribution and prevalence of selected Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia infections in Amblyomma ameri (Acari: Ixodidae) in New Jersey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2011 Sep;27(3):236-44.
  1761. Schulze TL, Lakat MF, Parkin WE, Shisler JK, Charette DJ, Bosler EM. Comparison of rates of infection by the Lyme disease spirochete in selected populations of Ixodes dammini and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):72-8.
  1762. Schulze TL, McDevitt WM, Parkin WE, Shisler JK. Effectiveness of two insecticides in controlling Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) following an outbreak of Lyme disease in New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 1987 Jul;24(4):420-4.
  1763. Schulze TL, Shisler JK, Bosler EM, Lakat MF, Parkin WE. Evolution of a focus of Lyme disease. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):65-71.
  1764. Schulze TL, Lakat MF, Bowen GS, Parkin WE, Shisler JK. Ixodes dammini Acari Ixodidae and other Ixodid ticks collected from white-tailed deer Odocoileus-Virginianus in New-Jersey USA. Geographical distribution and its relation to selected environmental and physical factors. J Med Entomol. 1984;21(6):741-9.
  1765. Schuman SH, Caldwell ST. Lyme and other tick-borne diseases acquired in South Carolina in 1988: a survey of 1,331 physicians. J S C Med assoc. 1989;85(7):311-4.
  1766. Schurer JM, Ndao M, Quewezance H, Elmore SA, Jenkins EJ. People, pets, and parasites: one health surveillance in southeastern Saskatchewan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90(6):1184.
  1767. Schutzer SE, Brown T Jr, Holland BK. Reduction of Lyme disease exposure by recognition and avoidance of high-risk areas. Lancet. 1997 Jun;349(9066):1668.
  1768. Schutzer SE, Luan J, Coyle PK. Detection of Lyme disease after OspA vaccine. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep;337(11):794-5. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199709113371118
  1769. Schvartz G, Lohmann K, Burgess H, Epp T, Chilton NB, Pearl D. Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and Lyme disease exposure in horses in Canada. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(3):660-1.
  1770. Schvartz G, Epp T, Burgess HJ, Chilton NB, Lohmann KL. Comparison between available serologic tests for detecting antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in Canada. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2015;27(4):40.
  1771. Schvartz G, Epp T, Burgess HJ, Chilton NB, Pearl DL, Lohmann KL. Seroprevalence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis in Canada as determined by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Can Vet J. 2015 Jun;56(6):575-80.
  1772. Schwaiger M, Péter O, Cassinotti P. Routine diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) infections using a real-time PCR assay. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001 Sep;7(9):461-9.
  1773. Schwan TG, Schrumpf ME, Karstens RH, Clover JR, Wong J, Daugherty M, Struthers M, Rosa PA. Distribution and molecular analysis of Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi, isolated from ticks throughout California. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Dec;31(12):3096-108.
  1774. Schwartz BS, Ford DP, Childs JE, Rothman N, Thomas RJ. Anti-tick saliva antibody: a biologic marker of tick exposure that is a risk factor for Lyme disease seropositivity. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Jul;134(1):86-95.
  1775. Schwartz BS, Goldstein MD. Lyme disease in outdoor workers: risk factors, preventive measures, and tick removal methods. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 May;131(5):877-85.
  1776. Schwartz BS, Goldstein MD, Childs JE. Longitudinal study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in New Jersey outdoor workers, 1988-1991. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Mar;139(5):504-12.
  1777. Schwartz BS, Goldstein MD, Childs JE. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary gland proteins in New Jersey outdoor workers. Am J Public Health. 1993 Dec;83(12):1746-8.
  1778. Schwartz BS, Hofmeister E, Glass GE, Arthur RR, Childs JE, Cranfield MR. Lyme borreliosis in an inner-city park in Baltimore Am J Public Health. 1991 Jun;81(6):803-4.
  1779. Schwartz BS, Ribeiro JM, Goldstein MD. Anti-tick antibodies: an epidemiologic tool in Lyme disease research. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Jul;132(1):58-66.
  1780. Schwartz I, Bittker S, Bowen SL, Cooper D, Pavia C, Wormser GP. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of culture supernatants for rapid detection of Borrelia burgdorferi. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Nov;12(11):879-82.
  1781. Schwartz I, Wormser GP, Schwartz JJ, Cooper D, Weissensee P, Gazumyan A, Zimmermann E, Goldberg NS, Bittker S, Campbell GL, Pavia CS. Diagnosis of early Lyme disease by polymerase chain reaction amplification and culture of skin biopsies from erythema migrans lesions. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Dec;30(12):3082-8.
  1782. Schwartz BS, Goldstein MD, Ribeiro JMC, Schulze TL, Shahied SI. Antibody testing in Lyme disease a comparison of results in four laboratories. JAMA. 1989 Dec;262(24):3431-4.
  1783. Schwartz J, Daniels T, Gazumyan A, Weissensee P, Fish D, Schwartz I. Determination of Borrelia burgdorferi infection rates in Ixodes dammini ticks by three methods. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1991;91:80.
  1784. Schwarzová K, Kost'anová Z, Holecková K, Spitalská E, Boldis V. Direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in patients with early disseminated Lyme borreliosis. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2009 Dec;17(4):179-82.
  1785. Schwendinger MG, O'Rourke M, Traweger A, Savidis-Dacho H, Pilz A, Portsmouth D, Livey I, Barrett PN, Crowe BA. Evaluation of OspA vaccination-induced serological correlates of protection against Lyme borreliosis in a mouse model. PLoS One. 2013 Nov;8(11):e79022. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079022
  1786. Scorza AV, Lappin MR. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Vet Sci. 2017 Sep;4(3). pii:E43. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4030043
  1787. Scott JD, Anderson JF, Durden LA. Widespread dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks collected from songbirds across Canada. J Parasitol. 2012 Feb;98(1):49-59. https://doi.org/10.1645/GE-2874.1
  1788. Scott JD, Fernando K, Banerjee SN, Durden LA, Byrne SK, Banerjee M, Mann RB, Morshed MG. Birds disperse ixodid (Acari: Ixodidae) and Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks in Canada. J Med Entomol. 2001 Jul;38(4):493-500.
  1789. Scott JD, Fernando K, Durden LA, Morshed MG. Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, endemic in epicenter at Turkey Point, Ontario. J Med Entomol. 2004 Mar;41(2):226-30.
  1790. Scott JD, Lee MK, Fernando K, Durden LA, Jorgensen DR, Mak S, Morshed MG. Detection of Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, including three novel genotypes in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from songbirds (Passeriformes) across Canada. J Vector Ecol. 2010 Jun;35(1):124-39.
  1791. Scott JD, Lee MK, Fernando K, Jorgensen DR, Durden LA, Morshed MG. Rapid introduction of Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) established at Turkey Point Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. J Vector Ecol. 2008 Jun;33(1):64-9.
  1792. Scott, Jennifer, "The Effect of Variation in Early Summer Rainfall Patterns on Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes scapularia) Nymph Survival, and the Implications for the Transmission of Lyme Disease in Connecticut" (2008). UCHC Graduate School Masters Theses 2003 - 2010. 156. https://opencommons.uconn.edu/uchcgs_masters/156
  1793. Scott JD, Anderson JF, Durden LA. First detection of Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected from a raptor in Canada. J Wildl Rehabil. 2014;34(2):11.
  1794. Scott JD, Anderson JF, Durden LA, Smith ML, Manord JM, Clark KL. Ticks parasitizing gallinaceous birds in Canada and first record of borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) from California quail. Syst Appl Acarol. 2016;21(1):1.
  1795. Scott JD, Anderson JF, Durden LA, Smith ML, Manord JM, Clark KL. Prevalence of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis at Hamilton-Wentworth, Ontario. Int J Med Sci. 2016 Apr;13(5):316-24. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.14552
  1796. Scott JD, Durden LA. New records of the Lyme disease bacterium in ticks collected from songbirds in central and eastern Canada. Int J Acarol. 2015;41(4):241.
  1797. Scott JD, Durden LA, Anderson JF. Infection prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected from songbirds in far-western Canada. Open J Anim Sci. 2015;5(3):232.
  1798. Seifert VA, Wilson S, Toivonen S, Clarke B, Prunuske A. Community partnership designed to promote Lyme disease prevention and engagement in citizen science. J Microbiol Biol Educ. 2016;17(1):63.
  1799. Sekla L, Stackiw W, Poffenroth L, Roberts A. Lyme disease in Manitoba? Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1990 Jul;16(30):147-52.
  1800. Seppälä IJ, Kroneld R, Schauman K, Forsen KO, Lassenius R. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: non-specific serological reactions with Borrelia burgdorferi sonicate antigen caused by IgG2 antibodies. J Med Microbiol. 1994 Apr;40(4):293-302.
  1801. Seriburi V, Ndukwe N, Chang Z, Cox ME, Wormser GP. High frequency of false positive IgM immunoblots for Borrelia burgdorferi in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Dec;18(12):1236-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03749.x
  1802. Serra AC, Warden PS, Fricker CR, Giese AR. Distribution of ticks and prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in the upper Connecticut river valley of Vermont. Northeast Nat (Steuben). 2013 Apr;20(1):197-204.
  1803. Seukep SE, Kolivras KN, Hong Y, Li J, Prisley SP, Campbell JB, Gaines DN, Dymond RL. An examination of the demographic and environmental variables correlated with Lyme disease emergence in Virginia. EcoHealth. 2015;12(4):634.
  1804. Shadick NA, Daltroy LH, Phillips CB, Liang US, Liang MH. Determinants of tick-avoidance behaviors in an endemic area for Lyme disease. Am J Prev Med. 1997 Jul-Aug;13(4):265-70.
  1805. Shadick NA, Liang MH, Phillips CB, Fossel K, Kuntz KM. The cost-effectiveness of vaccination against Lyme disease. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Feb;161(4):554-61.
  1806. Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Daltroy LH, Liang US, Liang SH, Zarourian G, Wright EA, Fossel AH, Liang MH. Risk behaviors among visitors to an endemic area for Lyme disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1993;36(9 Suppl):S99.
  1807. Shadick NA, Zibit MJ, Nardone E, Demaria A, Iannaccone CK, Cui J. A school-based intervention to increase Lyme disease preventive measures among elementary school-aged children. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016;16(8):507.
  1808. Shah JS. Borrelia burgdorferi PCR should be part of work-up for patients suspected of Lyme disease. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2004;104:134.
  1809. Shapiro ED. Lyme disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;609:185-95. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73960-1_14. Review.
  1810. Shariat BM, Freimund JA, Wright SM, Murphree, SC, Thomas JT. Borrelia infection rates in winter ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) removed from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cheatham County, Tennessee. J Tenn Acad Sci. 2007;82(3-4):57-61.
  1811. Sharon MD, Rowley WA, Novak MG, Platt KB. Rates of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in southwestern Wisconsin. J Med Entomol. 1992 Mar;29(2):314-7.
  1812. Sheets JT, Rossi CA, Kearney BJ, Moore GE. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi exposure in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000 May;216(9):1418-22.
  1813. Sherrill BL, Snider AG, Kennedy-Stoskopf S, Deperno CS. Survey of zoonotic pathogens in white-tailed deer on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2012;11(3):529-33. https://doi.org/10.1656/058.011.0315
  1814. Shih CM, Spielman A. Prevention of infection by the agent of Lyme disease by topical treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;47(4 Suppl):212-3.
  1815. Shih C-M, Chen Y-C, Chao L-L, Hsu H-M. Standardization of serodiagnosis for Lyme disease infection in the Taiwan area. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73(6 Suppl S):215.
  1816. Sickbert-Bennett EE, Weber DJ, Poole C, MacDonald PD, Maillard JM. Utility of international classification of diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification codes for communicable disease surveillance. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Dec;172(11):1299-305. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq285
  1817. Sigal LH. Vaccination for Lyme disease: cost-effectiveness versus cost and value. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Jun;46(6):1439-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.10283
  1818. Sigal LH. The Lyme disease controversy. Social and financial costs of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. Arch Intern Med. 1996 Jul;156(14):1493-500.
  1819. Sigal LH. Issues in the management of lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease). Dis Manag Clin Out. 1997;1(3):104-13.
  1820. Sigal LH. Anxiety and persistence of Lyme disease. Am J Med. 1995 Apr;98(4A):74S-8S
  1821. Sigal LH, Adler-Klein D, Bryant G, Doherty T, Haselby R, Hilton E, Klempner MS, Kunkel M, Malawista SE, Evans J, Molloy P, Sabetta J, Seidner A, Simon HI, Mays I, Zahradnik IM, Marks D. Multicenter efficacy trial of a prophylactic recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) Outer Surface Protein A (OspA) vaccine for Lyme Disease (LD). Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(2):353-541.
  1822. Sigal LH, Adler-Klein D, Bryant G, Doherty T, Haselby R, Hilton E, Klempner MS, Kunkel M, Malawista SE, Evans J, Molloy P, Sabetta J, Seidner A, Simon HJ, Mays J, Zahradnik JM, Marks D. Multicenter efficacy trial of a recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) Outer Surface Protein a (Ospa) vaccine for prevention of Lyme disease (Ld). Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40(9 Suppl):S173.
  1823. Sigal LH, Zahradnik JM, Lavin P, Patella SJ, Bryant G, Haselby R, Hilton E, Kunkel M, Adler-Klein D, Doherty T, Evans J, Molloy PJ, Seidner AL, Sabetta JR, Simon HJ, Klempner MS, Mays J, Marks D, Malawista SE. A vaccine consisting of recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein A to prevent Lyme disease. Recombinant Outer-Surface Protein A Lyme disease vaccine study Consortium. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul;339(4):216-22.
  1824. Signorino G, Arnaboldi PM, Petzke MM, Dattwyler RJ. Identification of OppA2 linear epitopes as serodiagnostic markers for Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(5):704.
  1825. Sikand VK, Halsey N, Krause PJ, Sood SK, Geller R, Van Hoecke C, Buscarino C, Parenti D; Pediatric Lyme Vaccine Study Group. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A vaccine against lyme disease in healthy children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2001 Jul;108(1):123-8.
  1826. Sikand VK, Rothel JS, Martin RM. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis by a whole-blood gamma interferon assay for cell-mediated immune responses. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999 May;6(3):445.
  1827. Sillanpaa H, Skogman BH, Sarvas H, Seppala IJ, Lahdenne P. Antibodies to decorin-binding protein B (DbpB) in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;28:160.
  1828. da Silva JB, da Fonseca AH, dos Anjos Bomjardim H, Barbosa JD. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological detection of antibodies against Borrelia in calves in Brazil. Rev Salud Anim. 2016;38(1):9-13.
  1829. Simon MMS. Vaccination strategies for prevention and treatment of Lyme borreliosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001;17(Suppl 1):S58.
  1830. Simon JA, Marrotte RR, Desrosiers N, Fiset J, Gaitan J, Gonzalez A, Koffi JK, Lapointe FJ, Leighton PA, Lindsay LR, Logan T, Milord F, Ogden NH, Rogic A, Roy-Dufresne E, Suter D, Tessier N, Millien V. Climate change and habitat fragmentation drive the occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, at the northeastern limit of its distribution. Evol Appl. 2014 Aug;7(7):750-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12165
  1831. Singh S, Parker D, Mark-Carew M, White R, Fisher M. Lyme disease in West Virginia: an assessment of distribution and clinicians' knowledge of disease and surveillance. WV Med J. 2016;112(4):48-54.
  1832. Siniard RC, McGarey DJ Jr. Comparison of six serological tests to detect antibodies in human sera to Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme borreliosis. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2002;102:492.
  1833. Siński E, Pawełczyk A, Bajer A, Behnke J. Abundance of wild rodents, ticks and environmental risk of Lyme borreliosis: a longitudinal study in an area of Mazury Lakes district of Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(2):295-300.
  1834. Sinsky RJ, Piesman J. Ear punch biopsy method for detection and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Aug;27(8):1723-7.
  1835. Situm M, Poje G, Grahovac B, Marinović B, Levanat S. Diagnosis of lyme borreliosis by polymerase chain reaction. Clin Dermatol. 2002 Mar-Apr;20(2):147-55.
  1836. Sivak SL, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Accuracy of IgM immunoblotting to confirm the clinical diagnosis of early Lyme disease. Arch Intern Med. 1996 Oct;156(18):2105-9.
  1837. Six RH, Young DR, Myers MR, Mahabir SP. Comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica™) and afoxolaner (NexGard®) against induced infestations of Ixodes scapularis on dogs SimparicaTM: Comparative Efficacy of sarolaner, a novel oral ectoparasiticide for dogs. Parasit Vectors. 2016 Feb;9:79. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1307-x.
  1838. Skinner-Taylor CM, Flores MS, Salinas JA, Arevalo-Niño K, Galán-Wong LJ, Maldonado G, Garza-Elizondo MA. Antibody profile to Borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from Nuevo León, Mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis. Reumatologia. 2016;54(3):97-102. https://doi.org/10.5114/reum.2016.61208
  1839. Skogman BH, Croner S, Forsberg P, Ernerudh J, Lahdenne P, Sillanpää H, Seppälä I. Improved laboratory diagnostics of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children by detection of antibodies to new antigens in cerebrospinal fluid. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Jul;27(7):605-12. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31816a1e29
  1840. Skotarczak B, Wodecka B, Rymaszewska A, Sawczuk M, Maciejewska A, Adamska M, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T, Swierzbińska R. Prevelance of DNA and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs suspected of borreliosis. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(2):199-205.
  1841. Slade DJ, Nolan TJ, Littman MP. Clinicopathologic findings in dogs with protein-losing nephropathy and anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. J vet Intern Med. 2008;22(3):783-4.
  1842. Slade JD, Lenz PR. Lyme disease in New Jersey: a cluster of 4 cases and 13 sporadic cases. J Med Soc N J. 1982 Jun;79(6):496-500.
  1843. Slajchert T, Kitron UD, Jones CJ, Mannelli A. Role of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) in the epizootiology of Lyme borreliosis in northwestern Illinois, USA. J Wildl Dis. 1997 Jan;33(1):40-6.
  1844. Slowik TJ, Lane RS. Birds and their ticks in northwestern California: minimal contribution to Borrelia burgdorferi enzootiology. J Parasitol. 2001 Aug;87(4):755-61.
  1845. Small CM, Ajithdoss DK, Hoffmann AR, Mwangi W, Esteve-Gassent MD. Immunization with a Borrelia burgdorferi BB0172-derived peptide protects mice against Lyme disease. PLoS One. 2014 Feb;9(2):e88245. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088245.
  1846. Smikle MF, Morgan OS, Barton EN, Bailey V, Blattner WA. Serological tests for Lyme disease in patients with tropical spastic paraparesis and healthy Jamaicans. Trop Geogr Med. 1994;46(5):329-30.
  1847. Smismans A, Goossens VJ, Nulens E, Bruggeman CA. Comparison of five different immunoassays for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi IgM and IgG antibodies. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Jul;12(7):648-55.
  1848. Smit PW, Kurkela S, Kuusi M, Vapalahti O. Evaluation of two commercially available rapid diagnostic tests for Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;34(1):109.
  1849. Smith G, Wileyto EP, Hopkins RB, Cherry BR, Maher JP. Risk factors for Lyme disease in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Public Health Rep. 2001;116 Suppl 1:146-56.
  1850. Smith JL, Crumpton BC, Hummer J. The Bascom Palmer Eye Institute Lyme/syphilis survey. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1990 Dec;10(4):255-60.
  1851. Smith JL, Parsons TM, Paris-Hamelin AJ, Porschen RK. The prevalence of Lyme disease in a nonendemic area. A comparative serologic study in a south Florida eye clinic population. Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1989 Sep;9(3):148-55.
  1852. Smith JP. Lyme disease. J Fla Mosq Control Assoc. 1992;63:35-8.
  1853. Smith MP, Ponnusamy L, Jiang J, Ayyash LA, Richards AL, Apperson CS. Bacterial pathogens in ixodid ticks from a Piedmont County in North Carolina: prevalence of rickettsial organisms. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010 Dec;10(10):939-52. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2009.0178
  1854. Smith PF, Benach JL, White DJ, Stroup DF, Morse DL. Occupational risk of Lyme disease in endemic areas of New York State. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:289-301.
  1855. Smith RP Jr, Lacombe EH, Rand PW, Dearborn R. Diversity of tick species biting humans in an emerging area for Lyme disease. Am J Public Health. 1992 Jan;82(1):66-9.
  1856. Smith RP Jr, Muzaffar SB, Lavers J, Lacombe EH, Cahill BK, Lubelczyk CB, Kinsler A, Mathers AJ, Rand PW. Borrelia garinii in seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae), Atlantic Coast, North America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Dec;12(12):1909-12.
  1857. Smith RP Jr, Rand PW, Lacombe EH. Potential for Lyme disease in Maine: deer survey of distribution of Ixodes dammini, the tick vector. Am J Public Health. 1990 Mar;80(3):333-5.
  1858. Smith RP Jr, Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Morris SR, Holmes DW, Caporale DA. Role of bird migration in the long-distance dispersal of Ixodes dammini, the vector of Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1996 Jul;174(1):221-4.
  1859. Smith RP Jr, Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Telford SR 3rd, Rich SM, Piesman J, Spielman A. Norway rats as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes on Monhegan Island, Maine. J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep;168(3):687-91.
  1860. Smith-Fiola DC, Hallman WK. Tick bite victims and their environment: the risk of Lyme disease. N J Med. 1995 Sep;92(9):601-3.
  1861. Smith MP, Ponnusamy L, Richards A, Apperson CS. Identification of bacterial pathogens and hosts of blood meals in questing Ixodid ticks in the North Carolina Piedmont. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(6 Suppl S):230.
  1862. Smith RP Jr, Elias SP, Borelli TJ, Missaghi B, York BJ, Kessler RA, Lubelczyk CB, Lacombe EH, Hayes CM, Coulter MS, Rand PW. Human babesiosis, Maine, USA, 1995–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;20(10):1727-30. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.130938
  1863. Smitka CM, Martin D, Denhollander N. PCR detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks submitted by tick-bite sufferers. Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2000;40:501.
  1864. Sočan M, Blaško-Markič M, Erčulj V, Lajovic J. Socio-economic characteristics in notified erythema migrans patients. Zdr Varst. 2015 Sep;54(4):267-73. https://doi.org/10.1515/sjph-2015-0035
  1865. Solano PL, Mcduffie MJ, Fagan HB, Gifford K. Evaluation of educational interventions for three lesser-known illnesses. Del Med J. 2013 Jun;85(6):179-185.
  1866. Solano-Gallego L, Bradley J, Hegarty B, Sigmon B, Breitschwerdt E. Bartonella henselae IgG antibodies are prevalent in dogs from southeastern USA. Vet Res. 2004 Sep-Oct;35(5):585-95.
  1867. Solberg VB, Miller JA, Hadfield T, Burge R, Schech JM, Pound JM. Control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with topical self-application of permethrin by white-tailed deer inhabiting NASA, Beltsville, Maryland. J Vector Ecol. 2003 Jun;28(1):117-34.
  1868. Solberg VB, Olson J, Boobar LR, Burge JR, Lawyer PG. Prevalence of Ehrlichia Chaffeensis, Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia, Borrelia Spp. Infections in Ticks and Rodents at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. J Vector Ecol. 1996;21(1):81-4.
  1869. Solís-Henández A, Rodríguez-Vivas RI, Esteve-Gassent MD, Villegas-Pérez SL. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synanthropic rodents in two rural communities of Yucatán, México. Biomedica. 2016;36:109-17. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v36i3.3139
  1870. Sonenshine DE, Johns R, Hynes WL. Antimicrobial mechanisms controlling Borrelia burgdorferi infection in ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(3 Suppl):355.
  1871. Sonenshine DE, Ratzlaff RE, Troyer J, Demmerle S, Demmerle ER, Austin WE, Tan S, Annis BA, Jenkins S. Borrelia burgdorferi in eastern Virginia: comparison between a coastal and inland locality. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;53(2):123-33.
  1872. Sood SK, Rubin LG, Blader ME, Ilowite NT. Positive serology for Lyme borreliosis in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area: analysis by immunoblot. J Rheumatol. 1993 Apr;20(4):739-41.
  1873. Sood SK, Stephen Dumler J. Human Ehrlichia equi/phagocytophila (EEP) infection on long Island (LI). Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(2):353-541.
  1874. Sood SK, Zemel LS, Ilowite NT. Interpretation of immunoblot in pediatric Lyme arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1995;22(4):758-61.
  1875. Sorensen K, Neely DP, Grappell PM, Read W. Lyme disease antibodies in Thoroughbred broodmares. Correlation to early pregnancy failure. J Equine Vet Sci. 1990;10:166-8.
  1876. Sorouri R, Ranjbar R, Jonaidi Jafari N, Karami A. Rapid detection of Borrelia burgdorferi strains by nested polymerase chain reaction. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009 Mar;12(5):463-6.
  1877. Speck S, Failing K, Reiner B, Wittenbrink MM. Evaluation of different media and a BGM cell culture assay for isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ticks and dogs. Vet Microbiol. 2002 Nov;89(4):291-302.
  1878. Speck S, Reiner B, Streich WJ, Reusch C, Wittenbrink MM. Canine borreliosis: a laboratory diagnostic trial. Vet Microbiol. 2007 Feb;120(1-2):132-41.
  1879. Spencer JA, Butler JM, Stafford KC, Pough MB, Levy SA, Bledsoe DL, Blagburn BL. Evaluation of permethrin and imidacloprid for prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi transmission from blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) to Borrelia burgdorferi-free dogs. Parasitol Res. 2003 Jul;90 Suppl 3:S106-7.
  1880. Sperling J, Middelveen M, Klein D, Sperling F. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada. Open Neurol J. 2012;6:94-103. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874205X01206010094
  1881. Spielman A, Krause PJ, Telford SR III. Institutional responses to the emergence of Lyme disease and its companion infections in North America: a public health perspective. In: Emerging Illnesses and Society: Negotiating the Public Health Agenda. Packard RM, Brown PJ, Berkelman RL, Frumkin H, Eds. 2004:291-312.
  1882. Sprong H, Docters van Leeuwen A, Fonville M, Harms M, van Vliet AJ, van Pelt W, Ferreira JA, van den Wijngaard CC. Sensitivity of a point of care tick-test for the development of Lyme borreliosis. Parasit Vectors. 2013 Dec;6:338. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-338
  1883. Stafford KC 3rd. Reduced abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) with exclusion of deer by electric fencing. J Med Entomol. 1993 Nov;30(6):986-96.
  1884. Stafford KC 3rd. Third-year evaluation of host-targeted permethrin for the control of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Connecticut. J Med Entomol. 1992 Jul;29(4):717-20.
  1885. Stafford KC 3rd. Effectiveness of host-targeted permethrin in the control of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):611-7.
  1886. Stafford KC 3rd. Effectiveness of carbaryl applications for the control of Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in an endemic residential area. J Med Entomol. 1991 Jan;28(1):32-6.
  1887. Stafford KC 3rd. Pesticide use by licensed applicators for the control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Connecticut. J Med Entomol. 1997 Sep;34(5):552-8.
  1888. Stafford KC 3rd, Allan SA. Field applications of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for the control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2010 Nov;47(6):1107-15.
  1889. Stafford KC 3rd, Bladen VC, Magnarelli LA. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting wild birds (Aves) and white-footed mice in Lyme, CT. J Med Entomol. 1995 Jul;32(4):453-66.
  1890. Stafford KC 3rd, Cartter ML, Magnarelli LA, Ertel SH, Mshar PA. Temporal correlations between tick abundance and prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi and increasing incidence of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 May;36(5):1240-4.
  1891. Stafford KC 3rd, Denicola AJ, Magnarelli LA. Presence of Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in two Connecticut populations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):183-8.
  1892. Stafford KC 3rd, Denicola AJ, Pound JM, Miller JA, George JE. Topical treatment of white-tailed deer with an acaricide for the control of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Connecticut Lyme borreliosis hyperendemic Community. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Aug;9(4):371-9. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0161
  1893. Stafford KC 3rd, Magnarelli LA. Spatial and temporal patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Connecticut. J Med Entomol. 1993 Jul;30(4):762-71.
  1894. Stafford KC 3rd, Massung RF, Magnarelli LA, Ijdo JW, Anderson JF. Infection with agents of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, and babesiosis in wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Sep;37(9):2887-92.
  1895. Stafford KC 3rd, Ward JS, Magnarelli LA. Impact of controlled burns on the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 1998 Jul;35(4):510-3.
  1896. Stafford KC, Kitron U. Environmental management for Lyme borreliosis control. In: Lyme Borreliosis: Biology, Epidemiology and Control (eds J. Gray, O. Kahl, R.S. Lane and G. Stanek). 2002:301-34.
  1897. Stanek G, Breier F, Menzinger G, Schaar B, Hafner M, Partsch H. Erythema migrans and serodiagnosis by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot with three borrelia species. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1999;111(22-23):951-6.
  1898. Stanek G, Jurkowitsch B, Köchl C, Burger I, Khanakha G. Reactivity of European and American isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi with different monoclonal antibodies by means of a microimmunoblot technique. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1990 Apr;272(4):426-36.
  1899. Steere AC. Current understanding of Lyme disease. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1993 Apr;28(4):37-44.
  1900. Steere AC, Berardi VP, Weeks KE, Logigian EL, Ackermann R. Evaluation of the intrathecal antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi as a diagnostic test for Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Infect Dis. 1990 Jun;161(6):1203-9.
  1901. Steere AC, Broderick TF, Malawista SE. Erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme arthritis: epidemiologic evidence for a tick vector. Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Oct;108(4):312-21.
  1902. Steere AC, Grodzicki RL, Kornblatt AN, Craft JE, Barbour AG, Burgdorfer W, Schmid GP, Johnson E, Malawista SE. The spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 1983;308(13):733-40.
  1903. Steere AC, Malawista SE, Snydman DR, Shope RE, Andiman WA, Ross MR, Steele FM. Lyme arthritis: an epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three connecticut communities. Arthritis Rheum. 1977 Jan-Feb;20(1):7-17.
  1904. Steere AC, McHugh G, Damle N, Sikand VK. Prospective study of serologic tests for Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul;47(2):188-95. https://doi.org/10.1086/589242
  1905. Steere AC, McHugh G, Suarez C, Hoitt J, Damle N, Sikand VK. Prospective study of coinfection in patients with erythema migrans. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Apr;36(8):1078-81.
  1906. Steere AC, Sikand VK, Meurice F, Parenti DL, Fikrig E, Schoen RT, Nowakowski J, Schmid CH, Laukamp S, Buscarino C, Krause DS. Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. Lyme Disease Vaccine Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul;339(4):209-15.
  1907. Steere AC, Sikand VK, Schoen RT, Nowakowski J. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Aug;37(4):528-32.
  1908. Steere AC, Taylor E, Wilson ML, Levine JF, Spielman A. Longitudinal assessment of the clinical and epidemiological features of Lyme disease in a defined population. J Infect Dis. 1986 Aug;154(2):295-300.
  1909. Steere AC, Glickstein L. Elucidation of Lyme arthritis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004 Feb;4(2):143-52.
  1910. Stefanciková A, Adaszek Ł, Pet'ko B, Winiarczyk S, Dudinák V. Serological evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in horses and cattle from Poland and diagnostic problems of Lyme borreliosis. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008;15(1):37-43.
  1911. Stefancíková A, Bhide M, Pet'ko B, Stanko M, Mosanskỳ L, Fricova J, Derdáková M, Trávnicek M. Anti-Borrelia antibodies in rodents: important hosts in ecology of Lyme disease. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11(2):209-13.
  1912. Stefancíková A, Derdáková M, Škardová I, Szestáková E, Čislákova L, Kováčová D, Stanko M, Petko B. Some epidemiological and epizootiological aspects of Lyme borreliosis in Slovakia with the emphasis on the problems of serological diagnostics. Biologia. 2008;63(6):1135-42.
  1913. Stefançíková A, Tresová G, Pet'ko B, Skardová I, Sesztàková E. ELISA comparison of three whole-cell antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in serological study of dogs from area of Kosice, eastern Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med. 1998;5(1):25-30.
  1914. Stegall-Faulk T, Clark DC, Wright SM. Detection of Borrelia lonestari in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Tennessee. J Med Entomol. 2003 Jan;40(1):100-2.
  1915. Steinberg SH, Strickland GT, Pena C, Israel E. Lyme disease surveillance in Maryland, 1992. Ann Epidemiol. 1996 Jan;6(1):24-9.
  1916. Steiner FE, Pinger RR, Vann CN, Grindle N, Civitello D, Clay K, Fuqua C. Infection and co-infection rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from sites in Indiana, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. J Med Entomol. 2008 Mar;45(2):289-97.
  1917. Steketee RW, Eckman MR, Burgess EC, Kuritsky JN, Dickerson J, Schell WL, Godsey MS Jr, Davis JP. Babesiosis in Wisconsin. A new focus of disease transmission. JAMA. 1985 May;253(18):2675-8.
  1918. Stephenson N, Higley JM, Sajecki JL, Chomel BB, Brown RN, Foley JE. Demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of American black bears in Humboldt County, California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Feb;15(2):116-23. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2014.1671
  1919. Stephenson N, Wong J, Foley J. Host, habitat and climate preferences of Ixodes angustus (Acari: Ixodidae) and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in California, USA. Exp Appl Acarol. 2016 Oct;70(2):239-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-016-0068-8
  1920. Stich RW, Blagburn BL, Bowman DD, Carpenter C, Cortinas MR, Ewing SA, Foley D, Foley JE, Gaff H, Hickling GJ, Lash RR, Little SE, Lund C, Lund R, Mather TN, Needham GR, Nicholson WL, Sharp J, Varela-Stokes A, Wang D. Quantitative factors proposed to influence the prevalence of canine tick-borne disease agents in the United States. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Sep;7:417. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-417
  1921. Sticht-Groh V, Martin R. Possible pitfalls of an indirect immunofluorescence assay as the sole serological test in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988 Feb;7(1):84-5.
  1922. Stiernstedt G. Tick-borne Borrelia infection in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1985;45:1-70.
  1923. Stiernstedt GT, Granström M, Hederstedt B, Sköldenberg B. Diagnosis of spirochetal meningitis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 May;21(5):819-25.
  1924. Stillman BA, Monn M, Liu J, Thatcher B, Foster P, Andrews B, Little S, Eberts M, Breitschwerdt EB, Beall MJ, Chandrashekar R. Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia ewingii and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2014 Jul;245(1):80-6. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.245.1.80
  1925. Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Tick prevention in a population living in a highly endemic area. Scand J Public Health. 2005;33(6):432-8.
  1926. Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Risk of acquiring tick bites in south-eastern Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34(11):840-4.
  1927. Stöbel K, Schönberg A, Staak C. A new non-species dependent ELISA for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in zoo animals. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jun;291 Suppl 33:88-99.
  1928. Stobierski MG, Bidol SA, Hall WN. Lyme disease in Michigan. An update. Mich Med. 1992 Jul;91(7):41-2.
  1929. Stobierski MG, Hall WN, Robinson-Dunn B, Stiefel H, Shiflett S, Carlson V. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from two patients in Michigan. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Nov;19(5):944-946.
  1930. Stoebel K, Schoenberg A, Streich WJ. The seroepidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in zoo animals in Germany. Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Oct;131(2):975-83.
  1931. Stone EG, Lacombe EH, Rand PW. Antibody testing and Lyme disease risk. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 May;11(5):722-4.
  1932. Stone DL, Young R, Schram R, Radtke F, Sinor LT. Detection of Antibodies to Borrelia-Burgdorferi by a Rapid Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Assay. FASED J. 1991;5(6):A1627.
  1933. Straubinger RK, Chang YF, Jacobson RH, Appel MJ. Sera from OspA-vaccinated dogs, but not those from tick-infected dogs, inhibit in vitro growth of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Oct;33(10):2745-51.
  1934. Straubinger RK, Dharma Rao T, Davidson E, Summers BA, Jacobson RH, Frey AB. Protection against tick-transmitted Lyme disease in dogs vaccinated with a multiantigenic vaccine. Vaccine. 2001 Oct 12;20(1-2):181-93.
  1935. Stricker R. Risks of lyme vaccine. Microbe. 2007;2(7):321.
  1936. Stricker RB, Johnson L. Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment: lessons from the AIDS epidemic. Minerva Med. 2010 Dec;101(6):419-25.
  1937. Stricker RB, Lautin A. The Lyme Wars: time to listen. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2003 Oct;12(10):1609-14.
  1938. Stricker RB, Lautin A, Burrascano JJ. Lyme disease: the quest for magic bullets. Chemotherapy. 2006;52(2):53-9.
  1939. Strickland GT, Karp AC, Mathews A, Peña CA. Utilization and cost of serologic tests for Lyme disease in Maryland. J Infect Dis. 1997 Sep;176(3):819-21.
  1940. Strickland GT, Trivedi L, Watkins S, Clothier M, Grant J, Morgan J, Schmidtman E, Burkot T. Cluster of Lyme disease cases at a summer camp in Kent County, Maryland. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996 Jan-Mar;2(1):44-6.
  1941. Strickman D. Taking new measures against ticks. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Healthy Animals. 2011;(44):1-2.
  1942. Strle F, Maraspin V, Furlan-Lotric S, Cimperman J. Epidemiological study of a cohort of adult patients with Erythema migrans registered in Slovenia in 1993. Eur J Epidemiol. 1996 Oct;12(5):503-7.
  1943. Strobino B, Abid S, Gewitz M. Maternal Lyme disease and congenital heart disease: A case-control study in an endemic area. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Mar;180(3 Pt 1):711-6.
  1944. Strobino BA, Williams CL, Abid S, Chalson R, Spierling P. Lyme disease and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study of two thousand prenatal patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Aug;169(2 Pt 1):367-74.
  1945. Stroh M. Picking out the Lymes from the lemons. Sci News. 1992;141(20):325.
  1946. Stromdahl EY, Evans SR, O'Brien JJ, Gutierrez AG. Prevalence of infection in ticks submitted to the human tick test kit program of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine. J Med Entomol. 2001 Jan;38(1):67-74.
  1947. Stromdahl EY, Williamson PC, Kollars TM Jr, Evans SR, Barry RK, Vince MA, Dobbs NA. Evidence of Borrelia lonestari DNA in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) removed from humans. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Dec;41(12):5557-62.
  1948. Stromdahl E, Hamer S, Jenkins S, Sloan L, Williamson P, Foster E, Nadolny R, Elkins C,Vince M, Prittet B. Comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the Ehrlichia muris-like (EML) agent, of Ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern United States over a 15 year period (1997-2012). Parasit Vectors. 2014;7:553. http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/7/1/553
  1949. Stromdahl EY, Evans SR, Barry RK, Cai C, Vince MA, Williamson PC. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella Spp., Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis ticks removed from humans. Am J Trop Med. 2006;75(5 Suppl S):30.
  1950. Stromdahl EY, Nadolny RM, Gibbons JA, Auckland LD, Vince MA, Elkins CE, Murphy MP, Hickling GJ, Eshoo MW, Carolan HE, Crowder CD, Pilgard MA, Hamer SA. Borrelia burgdorferi not confirmed in human-biting Amblyomma americanum ticks from the southeastern United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 May;53(5):1697-704. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03454-14
  1951. Strube C, Montenegro VM, Epe C, Eckelt E, Schnieder T. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR. Parasit Vectors. 2010 Aug;3:69. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-3-69
  1952. Strube C, Schicht S, Schnieder T. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia spp. infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the region of Hanover (Germany). Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011 Nov-Dec;124(11-12):512-17.
  1953. Stünzner D, Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Wendelin I, Sixl W, Marth E. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the tick Ixodes ricinus in the Styrian mountains of Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006 Nov;118(21-22):682-5.
  1954. Subak S. Effects of climate on variability in Lyme disease incidence in the northeastern United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;157(6):531-8.
  1955. Sugiyama Y, Sugiyama F, Yagami K. Comparative study on cross-reaction of leptospiral antibodies in several serological tests to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Feb;55(1):149-51.
  1956. Sun R, Barmat SL, McQuilkin SH, Risley LS, Diaco R. The use of PCR in the direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi from Ixodes dammini [Ixodes scapularis]. In: Lyme Borreliosis. JS Axford and DHE Rees Eds. Plenum Press, New York. 1994. pp. 321-5.
  1957. O’Connell S. Critical needs and gaps in understanding tick-borne diseases: the global perspective. Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes Workshop Report. The National Academies Press. 2011. Chapter 9.
  1958. Susta L, Uhl EW, Grosenbaugh DA, Krimer PM. Synovial lesions in experimental canine Lyme borreliosis. Vet Pathol. 2012 May;49(3):453-61. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985811424754
  1959. Suszkiw J. Tackling ticks that spread Lyme disease. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Agricultural Research. 1998;46(3):22.
  1960. Suszkiw J. Lignin + Nootkatone = Dead ticks. USDA Agricultural Research Service. Agricultural Research. 2011 Jan;59(1):10-1.
  1961. Svihrova V, Hudeckova H, Jesenak M, Schwarzova K, Kostanova Z, Ciznar I. Lyme borreliosis--analysis of the trends in Slovakia, 1999-2008. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2011 May;56(3):270-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12223-011-0036-y
  1962. Swanson KI, Norris DE. Presence of multiple variants of Borrelia burgdorferi in the natural reservoir Peromyscus leucopus throughout a transmission season. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008 Jun;8(3):397-405. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0222
  1963. Swanson KI, Norris DE. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in lizards from Southern Maryland. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007 Spring;7(1):42-9.
  1964. Swanson KI, Norris DE. Co-circulating microorganisms in questing Ixodes scapularis nymphs in Maryland. J Vector Ecol. 2007 Dec;32(2):243-51.
  1965. Swei A, Briggs CJ, Lane RS, Ostfeld RS. Impacts of an introduced forest pathogen on the risk of lyme disease in California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Aug;12(8):623-32. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0783
  1966. Swei A, Meentemeyer R, Briggs CJ. Influence of abiotic and environmental factors on the density and infection prevalence of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) with Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 2011;48(1):20-8.
  1967. Swei A, Ostfeld RS, Lane RS, Briggs CJ. Impact of the experimental removal of lizards on Lyme disease risk. Proc Biol Sci. 2011 Oct;278(1720):2970-8. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.2402
  1968. Swei A, Ostfeld RS, Lane RS, Briggs CJ. Effects of an invasive forest pathogen on abundance of ticks and their vertebrate hosts in a California Lyme disease focus. Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):91-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-010-1796-9
  1969. Swei A, Briggs C, Meentemeyer R. Impacts of an emerging forest pathogen on tick abundance and implications for Lyme disease in California. Abstracts of The ESA/SER Joint Meeting (August 5 -- August 10, 2007) San Jose, California. PS 25-30.
  1970. Swigar ME. Psychological impact of media coverage of Lyme disease. N J Med. 1990 Jul;87(7):544-6.
  1971. Sytykiewicz H, Karbowiak G, Chorostowska-Wynimko J, Szpechciński A, Supergan-Marwicz M, Horbowicz M, Szwed M, Czerniewicz P, Sprawka I. Coexistence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genospecies within Ixodes ricinus ticks from central and eastern Poland. Acta Parasitol. 2015 Dec;60(4):654-61. https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0093
  1972. Szonyi B, Srinath I, Esteve-Gassent M, Lupiani B, Ivanek R. Exploratory spatial analysis of Lyme disease in Texas -what can we learn from the reported cases? BMC Public Health. 2015;15:924.
  1973. Tälleklint L. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on three islands in the Baltic Sea. Exp Appl Acarol. 1996;20(8):467-76.
  1974. Tabibi R, Baccalini R, Barassi A, Bonizzi L, Brambilla G, Consonni D, Melzi d'Eril G, Romanò L, Sokooti M, Somaruga C, Vellere F, Zanetti A, Colosio C. Occupational exposure to zoonotic agents among agricultural workers in Lombardy Region, Northern Italy. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(4):676-81.
  1975. Tack W, Madder M, Baeten L, De Frenne P, Verheyen K. The abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks depends on tree species composition and shrub cover. Parasitology. 2012 Sep;139(10):1273-81. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182012000625.
  1976. Tackett K. The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in tick species collected from raccoons (Procyon lotor) and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) trapped in the Warren and Barren Counties of South Central Kentucky. Masters Theses & Specialist Projects. Paper 118. Western Kentucky University.
  1977. Taft SC, Miller MK, Wright SM. Distribution of borreliae among ticks collected from eastern states. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005 Winter;5(4):383-9.
  1978. Tälleklint-Eisen L, Lane RS. Efficiency of drag sampling for estimating population sizes of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in leaf litter. J Med Entomol. 2000 May;37(3):484-7.
  1979. Tälleklint E, L, Lane, R S. Variation in the density of questing Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi at different spatial scales in California. J Parasitol. 1999;85(5):824-31.
  1980. Tammemagi MC, Frank JW, Leblanc M, Artsob H, Streiner DL. Methodological issues in assessing reproducibility--a comparative study of various indices of reproducibility applied to repeat ELISA serologic tests for Lyme disease. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995 Sep;48(9):1123-32.
  1981. Tanner CL, Ammer FK, Barry RE, Stromdahl EY. Tick burdens on Peromyscus leucopus rafinesque and infection of ticks by Borrelia spp. in Virginia. Southeast Nat. 2010;9(3):529-46.
  1982. Taragel'ová V, Koci J, Hanincová K, Kurtenbach K, Derdáková M, Ogden NH, Literák I, Kocianová E, Labuda M. Blackbirds and song thrushes constitute a key reservoir of Borrelia garinii, the causative agent of borreliosis in Central Europe. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Feb;74(4):1289-93.
  1983. Taragel'ová VR, Mahríková L, Selyemová D, Václav R, Derdáková M. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Mar;7(2):350-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.12.006
  1984. Tasseva E, Georgieva G, Panova M, Gergova S, Gaydajiev I. Study of Ixodes ticks (Ixodidae, Acarina) harbouring Borreliae in Sofia and its surroundings: I. Comparative investigation of Borrelia presence in Ixodes ticks using three methods. Dokladi Na B"Lgarskata Akademiya Na Naukite. 1999;52(9-10):91-4.
  1985. Taylor KR, Takano A, Konnai S, Shimozuru M, Kawabata H, Tsubota T. Borrelia miyamotoi infections among wild rodents show age and month independence and correlation with Ixodes persulcatus larval attachment in Hokkaido, Japan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Feb 1;13(2):92-7. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2012.1027
  1986. Teege L, Eiffert H, Grob U, Bohne W. Identification of marker epitopes for Borrelia. Int J Med Microbiol. 2003;293(Suppl 36):339.
  1987. Teitler J, Madigan J, Derock E, Pedersen N, Carpenter T, Franti C. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs in Northern California USA risk factors and zoonotic implications. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988;539(1):500-3.
  1988. Telford SR 3rd, Cunningham JA, Waltari E, Hu L. Nest box-deployed bait for delivering oral vaccines to white-footed mice. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011 Sep;2(3):151-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2011.06.001
  1989. Telford SR 3rd, Mather TN, Adler GH, Spielman A. Short-tailed shrews as reservoirs of the agents of Lyme disease and human babesiosis. J Parasitol. 1990 Oct;76(5):681-3.
  1990. Telford SR 3rd, Mather TN, Moore SI, Wilson ML, Spielman A. Incompetence of deer as reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Jul;39(1):105-9.
  1991. Telford SR 3rd, Urioste SS, Spielman A. Clustering of host-seeking nymphal deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) infected by Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992 Jul;47(1):55-60.
  1992. Telford SR 3rd, Mather TN, Moore SI, Wilson ML, Spielman A. Incompetence of deer as reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann NY acad Sci. 1988;539(1):429-30.
  1993. Telford SR 3rd, Spielman A. Enzootic transmission of the agents of Lyme disease in rabbits. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989 Oct;41(4):482-90.
  1994. Tella MN, Feinglass J, Chang RW. Cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies in rheumatology: a review of the literature, 2001-2002. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2003 Mar;15(2):127-31.
  1995. Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991 May;44(5):469-74.
  1996. Teng J, Bartlett K, Klinkenberg B. Risk perception and the adoption of protective behaviours against ticks and tick-borne diseases in the South Okanagan. 9th Annual Zoonotic Diseases Symposium. 2009.
  1997. Teng J, Lindsay LR, Bartlett K, Klinkenberg B, Dibernardo A, Wood H, Morshed MG. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in the South Okanagan, British Columbia: Active surveillance in ticks (Dermacentor andersoni) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). BCMJ 2011;53(3):122-127. http://www.bcmj.org/sites/default/files/BCMJ_53_Vol3_ticks.pdf
  1998. Teng J. Environmental and social determinants of tick-borne zoonoses in the South Okanagan. Thesis. University of British Columbia. 2010.
  1999. Thambidurai RM, Grigor JK, Horman JT, Israel E. Lyme disease: epidemiological characteristics in Maryland, 1984-1986. Md Med J. 1988 Jun;37(6):465-67.
  2000. Theisen M, Frederiksen B, Lebech AM, Vuust J, Hansen K. Polymorphism in ospC gene of Borrelia burgdorferi and immunoreactivity of OspC protein: implications for taxonomy and for use of OspC protein as a diagnostic antigen. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Oct;31(10):2570-6.
  2001. Thieking A, Goyal SM, Bey RF, Loken KI, Mech LD, Thiel RP, O'Connor TP. Seroprevalence of Lyme disease in gray wolves from Minnesota and Wisconsin. J Wildl Dis. 1992 Apr;28(2):177-82.
  2002. Thomas DR, Sillis M, Coleman TJ, Kench SM, Ogden NH, Salmon RL, Morgan-Capner P, Softley P, Meadows D. Low rates of ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis in English farmworkers. Epidemiol Infect. 1998 Dec;121(3):609-14.
  2003. Thomas D Rh, Salmon RL, Coleman TJ, Morgan-Capner P, Sillis M, Caul EO, Morgan KL, Paiba GA, Bennett M, Ribeiro D, Lloyd G, Kench SM, Meadows D, Softley P, Chalmers RM. Occupational exposure to animals and risk of zoonotic illness in a cohort of farmers, farmworkers, and their families in England. J Agric Saf Health. 1999;5(4):373-82.
  2004. Thorin C, Rigaud E, Capek I, André-Fontaine G, Oster B, Gastinger G, Abadia G. [Seroprevalence of Lyme Borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in workers at risk, in eastern France]. Med Mal Infect. 2008 Oct;38(10):533-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2008.06.008
  2005. Tierney EF, Nielsen LC, Nichols CR. Lyme disease. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Utah Mosquito Abatement Association. 1988;41:16-8.
  2006. Ţilea B, Tripon G, Voidǎzan S, Ţilea I. Serological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of Lyme borreliosis in Mures County, Romania. Rev Romana Med Lab. 2014;22(2):233-44.
  2007. Tilton RC, Sand MN, Manak M. The western immunoblot for Lyme disease: determination of sensitivity, specificity, and interpretive criteria with use of commercially available performance panels. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Jul;25 Suppl 1:S31-4.
  2008. Tilton RC, Barden D, Sand M. Culture of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(7):2747.
  2009. Tinoco-Gracia L, Quiroz-Romero H, Quintero-Martinez MT, Renteria-Evangelista TB, Barreras-Serrano A, Hori-Oshima S, Medina-Basulto G, Vinasco J, Moro MH. Prevalence and risk factors for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Mexicali, Baja California, a Mexico-US border city. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2008;6(3):161-5.
  2010. Tinoco-Gracia L, Quiroz-Romero H, Quintero-Martinez MT, Renteria-Evangelista TB, Barreras-Serrano A, Lopez-Valencia G, Hori-Oshima S, Tamayo-Sosa AR, Rico-Diez de Bonilla O, Moro M, Vinasco J. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs from a Mexico-U.S. border desert region: pilot study. J Anim Vet Adv. 2007;6:787-9.
  2011. Tinoco-Gracia L, Quiroz-Romero H, Quintero-Martínez MT, Rentería-Evangelista TB, Barreras-Serrano A, Hori-Oshima S, López-Valencia G, Tamayo-Sosa AR, Medina-Basulto G, Haro-Alvarez P, Moro M, Vinasco J. Prevalence and risk factors for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in dogs of animal control centers from Mexicali, Baja California: A Mexico-US Border City. J Anim Vet Adv. 2009;8(2):251-4.
  2012. Tjernberg I, Krüger G, Eliasson I. C6 peptide ELISA test in the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Sweden. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Jan;26(1):37-42.
  2013. Tjernberg I, Schön T, Ernerudh J, Wistedt AC, Forsberg P, Eliasson I. C6-peptide serology as diagnostic tool in neuroborreliosis. APMIS. 2008 May;116(5):393-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0463.2008.00842.x
  2014. Tjernberg I, Sillanpää H, Seppälä I, Eliasson I, Forsberg P, Lahdenne P. Antibody responses to borrelia IR(6) peptide variants and the C6 peptide in Swedish patients with erythema migrans. Int J Med Microbiol. 2009 Aug;299(6):439-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2008.10.006
  2015. Todd MJ, Carter AO. Lyme disease in Canada--1989 update. Can Dis Wkly Rep. 1989 Jul;15(27):135-7.
  2016. Tokarz R, Jain K, Bennett A, Briese T, Lipkin WI. Assessment of polymicrobial infections in ticks in New York State. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010 Apr;10(3):217-21. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2009.0036
  2017. Tokarz R, Kapoor V, Samuel JE, Bouyer DH, Briese T, Lipkin WI. Detection of tick-borne pathogens by MassTag polymerase chain reaction. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Apr;9(2):147-52. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2008.0088
  2018. Tomao P, Ciceroni L, D'Ovidio MC, De Rosa M, Vonesch N, Iavicoli S, Signorini S, Ciarrocchi S, Ciufolini MG, Fiorentini C, Papaleo B. Prevalence and incidence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and to tick-borne encephalitis virus in agricultural and forestry workers from Tuscany, Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005 Jul;24(7):457-63.
  2019. Tongren EJON, Deyrup L, Yartel A, Beckett G. Implications of a change in the case definition of Lyme disease surveillance - Maine, 2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(6 Suppl S):141.
  2020. Topfer K, Straubinger RK. Characterization of the humoral immune response in dogs after vaccination against the Lyme borreliosis agent - a study with five commercial vaccines using two different vaccination schedules.: Charakterisierung der humoralen Immunantwort im Hund nach Impfung gegen den Erreger der Lyme-Borreliose, Borrelia burgdorferi, unter Berucksichtigung zweier verschiedener Impfstrategien und funf verschiedener, kommerziell verfugbarer Impfstoffe. Prakt Tierarzt. 2006;87:430-9.
  2021. Torrence ME, Jenkins SR, Levine JF, Nicholson WL, Pelzer KD. Serosurvey of shelter dogs in Virginia USA for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Prev Vet Med. 1990;10(1-2):41-6.
  2022. Townsend AK, Ostfeld RS, Geher KB. The effects of bird feeders on Lyme disease prevalence and density of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in a residential area of Dutchess County, New York. J Med Entomol. 2003 Jul;40(4):540-6.
  2023. Trájer A, Bobvos J, Krisztalovics K, Páldy A. Regional differences between ambient temperature and incidence of Lyme disease in Hungary. Idojaras. 2013;117(2):175.
  2024. Trájer A, Bede-Fazekas Á, Hufnagel L, Bobvos J, Páldy A. The paradox of the binomial Ixodes ricinus activity and the observed unimodal Lyme borreliosis season in Hungary. Int J Environ Health Res. 2014;24(3):226-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2013.807329
  2025. Trájer A, Bobvos J, Páldy A, Krisztalovics K. Association between incidence of Lyme disease and spring-early summer season temperature changes in Hungary—1998-2010. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(2):245-51.
  2026. Tran PM, Waller L. Effects of landscape fragmentation and climate on Lyme disease incidence in the northeastern United States. EcoHealth. 2013;10(4):394.
  2027. Trevejo RT, Krause PJ, Schriefer ME, Dennis DT. Evaluation of a two-test serodiagnostic method for community assessment of Lyme disease in an endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Nov;65(5):563-6.
  2028. Trevejo RT, Krause PJ, Sikand VK, Schriefer ME, Ryan R, Lepore T, Porter W, Dennis DT. Evaluation of two-test serodiagnostic method for early Lyme disease in clinical practice. J Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;179(4):931-8.
  2029. Trnovcova M, Bazovska S, Svecova D. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in erythema migrans patients. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2007;108(9):399-402.
  2030. Troy GC, Becker MJ, Greene RT. Proficiency testing of selected antigen and antibody tests for use in dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1996 Sep 1;209(5):914-7.
  2031. Tsai TF, Bailey RE, Moore PS. National surveillance of Lyme disease, 1987-1988. Conn Med. 1989 Jun;53(6):324-6.
  2032. Tsao J, Barbour AG, Luke CJ, Fikrig E, Fish D. OspA immunization decreases transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes from infected Peromyscus leucopus mice to larval Ixodes scapularis ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001 Spring;1(1):65-74.
  2033. Tsao JI, Barbour A, Fikrig E, Fish D. Vaccination with Ospa causes a decrease in transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi from infected Peromyscus leucopus to larval Ixodes scapularis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61(3 Suppl):425.
  2034. Tsao JI, Wootton JT, Bunikis J, Luna MG, Fish D, Barbour AG. An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec;101(52):18159-64.
  2035. Tsao K, Fish D, Galvani AP. Predicted outcomes of vaccinating wildlife to reduce human risk of Lyme disease. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Jul;12(7):544-51. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0731
  2036. Tseng YJ, Cami A, Goldmann DA, DeMaria A, Mandl KD. Using nation-wide health insurance claims data to augment Lyme disease surveillance. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Oct;15(10):591-6. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1790
  2037. Tuerlinckx D, Bodart E, Jamart J, Glupczynski Y. Prediction of Lyme meningitis based on a logistic regression model using clinical and cerebrospinal fluid analysis: a European study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 May;28(5):394-7. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e318191f035
  2038. Tuerlinckx D, De Bilderling G, Bigaignon G, Bodart E. Neuroborreliosis: critical analysis of diagnostic criteria in 13 Cases. Arch Pediatr. 1999;6(Suppl 2):534s.
  2039. Tuhácková J, Bĕláková J, Krupka M, Neperený J, Chumela J, Weigl E, Vrzal V. Testing of the Biocan B inj. ad us. vet. vaccine and development of the new recombinant vaccine against canine borreliosis. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2005 Dec;149(2):297-302.
  2040. Tumani H, Nölker G, Reiber H. Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid variables for early diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. Neurology. 1995 Sep;45(9):1663-70.
  2041. Turney S, Gonzalez A, Millien V. The negative relationship between mammal host diversity and Lyme disease incidence strengthens through time. Ecol. 2014;95(12):3244.
  2042. Turtinen LW, Kruger AN, Hacker MM. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in adult female ticks (Ixodes scapularis), Wisconsin 2010-2013. J Vector Ecol. 2015;40(1):195.
  2043. Tuuminen T, Hedman K, Soderlund-Venermo M, Seppala I. Acute parvovirus B19 infection causes nonspecificity frequently in Borrelia and less often in Salmonella and Campylobacter serology, posing a problem in diagnosis of infectious arthropathy. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Jan;18(1):167-72. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00367-10
  2044. Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S, Chmielewski T. Limitation of serological testing for Lyme borreliosis: evaluation of ELISA and western blot in comparison with PCR and culture methods. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Jul;114(13-14):601-5.
  2045. Tzipory N, Crawford PC, Levy JK. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in pet dogs, racing greyhounds, and shelter dogs in Florida. Vet Parasitol. 2010 Jul;171(1-2):136-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.03.016
  2046. Uesaka K, Maezawa M, Inokuma H. Serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection was previously detected. J Vet Med Sci. 2016;78(3):463.
  2047. Uhlenbrock JM, Sedmak DD, Smith KL, Neff JC. Specificity of commercial assays in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Am J Clin Path. 1990;93:453.
  2048. Ullmann AJ, Gabitzsch ES, Schulze TL, Zeidner NS, Piesman J. Three multiplex assays for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato in field-collected Ixodes nymphs in North America. J Med Entomol. 2005 Nov;42(6):1057-62.
  2049. Ullmann AJ, Dolan MC, Sackal CA, Fikrig E, Piesman J, Zeidner NS. Immunization with adenoviral-vectored tick salivary gland proteins (SALPs) in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Feb;4(1-2):160-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2012.08.006
  2050. Ullmann-Moore AJ. Tick salivary gland proteins (SALPs) as antigens for vaccine development to decrease spirochete load in a murine model of lyme borreliosis. Doctoral dissertation. Colorado State University. 2011. 1-124.
  2051. Ulvestad E, Kanestrøm A, Sønsteby LJ, Jureen R, Omland T, Edvardsen B, Lundervik J, Kristoffersen E, van Dam AP. Diagnostic and biological significance of anti-p41 IgM antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. Scand J Immunol. 2001 Apr;53(4):416-21.
  2052. Vail SG, Smith G. Density-Dependent Seasonal Dynamics of Blacklegged Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs. J Med Entomol. 1997 May;34(3):301-6.
  2053. Valente SL, Wemple D, Ramos S, Cashman SB, Savageau JA. Preventive behaviors and knowledge of tick-borne illnesses: results of a survey from an endemic area. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2015;21(3):E16.
  2054. Valentine-Thon E, Ilsemann K, Sandkamp M. A novel lymphocyte transformation test (LTT-MELISAReg.) for Lyme borreliosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Jan;57(1):27-34.
  2055. Van Buskirk J, Ostfeld RS. Habitat heterogeneity, dispersal, and local risk of exposure to Lyme disease. Ecol Appl. 1998;8(2):365-78.
  2056. Van Buskirk J, Ostfeld RS. Controlling Lyme disease by modifying the density and species composition of tick hosts. Ecol Appl. 1995;5(4):1133-40.
  2057. van Burgel ND, Bakels F, Kroes AC, van Dam AP. Discriminating Lyme neuroborreliosis from other neuroinflammatory diseases by levels of CXCL13 in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 May;49(5):2027-30. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00084-11
  2058. van Burgel ND, Brandenburg A, Gerritsen HJ, Kroes AC, van Dam AP. High sensitivity and specificity of the C6-peptide ELISA on cerebrospinal fluid in Lyme neuroborreliosis patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Oct;17(10):1495-500. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03459.x
  2059. Van Hoecke C, Comberbach M, De Grave D, Desmons P, Fu D, Hauser P, Lebacq E, Lobet Y, Voet P. Evaluation of the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of three recombinant outer surface protein (OspA) lyme vaccines in healthy adults. Vaccine. 1996 Dec;14(17-18):1620-6.
  2060. Van Hoecke C, Fu D, De Grave D, Voet P, Lebacq E. Clinical and immunological assessment of a candidate Lyme disease vaccine in healthy adults: antibody persistence and effect of a booster dose at month 12. Vaccine. 1998 Oct;16(17):1688-92.
  2061. Van Hoecke C, Lebacq E, Beran J, Parenti D. Alternative Vaccination Schedules (0, 1, and 6 Months Versus 0, 1, and 12 Months) for a Recombinant Ospa Lyme Disease Vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jun;28(6):1260-4.
  2062. Varde S, Beckley J, Schwartz I. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes scapularis in a rural New Jersey County. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998 Jan-Mar;4(1):97-9.
  2063. Varde S, Marcus J, Daniels TJ, Schwartz I. Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks in New York. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1997;97:221.
  2064. Varela AS, Moore VA, Little SE. Disease agents in Amblyomma americanum from northeastern Georgia. J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):753-9.
  2065. Vaughn MF, Meshnick SR. Pilot study assessing the effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Jul;11(7):869-875. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0158
  2066. Vázquez M, Cartter ML, Shapiro ED. Effectiveness of Personal Preventive Measures for Lyme Disease. Pediatr Res. 2003;53(4 Part 2):327A.
  2067. Vázquez M, Cartter ML, Shapiro ED. Accuracy of reporting of Lyme disease in Connecticut. Pediatr Res. 2002;51(4 Part 2):135A.
  2068. Venclíková K, Betášová L, Šikutová S, Jedličková P, Hubálek Z, Rudolf I. Human pathogenic borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in natural and urban ecosystem (Czech Republic). Acta Parasitol. 2014;59(4):717.
  2069. Venczel R, Knoke L, Pavlovic M, Dzaferovic E, Vaculova T, Silaghi C, Overzier E, Konrad R, Kolenčík S, Derdakova M, Sing A, Schaub GA, Margos G, Fingerle V. A novel duplex real-time PCR permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Infection. 2016 Feb;44(1):47-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-015-0820-8
  2070. Vermeersch P, Resseler S, Nackers E, Lagrou K. The C6 Lyme antibody test has low sensitivity for antibody detection in cerebrospinal fluid. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Jul;64(3):347-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2009.03.013
  2071. Vestrheim DF, White RA, Aaberge IS, Aase A. Geographical differences in seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in Norway, 2011-2013. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Jul;7(5):698-702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.02.020
  2072. Villeneuve A, Goring J, Marcotte L, Overvelde S. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis among dogs in Canada. Can Vet J. 2011 May;52(5):527-30.
  2073. Vogt RL. National survey of state epidemiologists to determine the status of Lyme disease surveillance. Public Health Rep. 1992 Nov-Dec;107(6):644-6.
  2074. von Baehr V, Doebis C, Volk HD, von Baehr R. The lymphocyte transformation test for borrelia detects active lyme borreliosis and verifies effective antibiotic treatment. Open Neurol J. 2012;6:104-12. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874205X01206010104
  2075. von Stedingk LV, Olsson I, Hanson HS, Asbrink E, Hovmark A. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in skin lesions of early and late Lyme borreliosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995 Jan;14(1):1-5.
  2076. Von Stedingk L-V, Von Stedingk M, Hårdemark H-G, Brauner A, Kindstrand E, Hovmark A, Ǻsbrink E. Intrathecally produced antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi measured by IgG-capture ELISA. Serodiagnosis Immunotherapy Infect Dis. 1990;4(5):387-94.
  2077. Voordouw MJ, Tupper H, Önder Ö, Devevey G, Graves CJ, Kemps BD, Brisson D. Reductions in human Lyme disease risk due to the effects of oral vaccination on tick-to-mouse and mouse-to-tick transmission. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Apr;13(4):203-14. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2012.1003
  2078. Vos K, Van Dam AP, Kuiper H, Bruins H, Spanjaard L, Dankert J. Seroconversion for Lyme borreliosis among Dutch military. Scand J Infect Dis. 1994;26(4):427-34.
  2079. Vourc'h G, Abrial D, Bord S, Jacquot M, Masseglia S, Poux V, Pisanu B, Bailly X, Chapuis JL. Mapping human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in a periurban forest in France. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Jul;7(5):644-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.02.008
  2080. Vrbova L, Middleton D. Descriptive epidemiology of Lyme disease in Ontario: 1999-2004. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2006 Nov;32(21):247-57.
  2081. Vredevoe LK, Stevens JR, Schneider BS. Detection and characterization of Borrelia bissettii in rodents from the central California coast. J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):736-45.
  2082. Vreede RW. Usefulness of C6 Peptide Antibody Assay in Early Localised Lyme Borreliosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;29(Suppl 2):S422.
  2083. Wagemakers A, Mason LM, Oei A, de Wever B, van der Poll T, Bins AD, Hovius JW. Rapid outer-surface protein C DNA tattoo vaccination protects against Borrelia afzelii infection. Gene Ther. 2014 Dec;21(12):1051-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/gt.2014.87.
  2084. Wagner B, Erb HN. Dogs and horses with antibodies to outer-surface protein C as on-time sentinels for ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi in New York State in 2011. Prev Vet Med. 2012 Dec;107(3-4):275-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.07.002
  2085. Wagner B, Freer H, Rollins A, Erb HN. A fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins in canine serum. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011 Apr 15;140(3-4):190-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.12.003
  2086. Wagner B, Freer H, Rollins A, Erb HN, Lu Z, Gröhn Y. Development of a multiplex assay for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in horses and its validation using Bayesian and conventional statistical methods. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011 Dec;144(3-4):374-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.08.005
  2087. Wagner B, Glaser A, Bartol J, Mahar O, Johnson A, Divers T. A new sensitive lyme multiplex assay to confirm neuroborreliosis in horses: a case report. Proceedings of the 57th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 18-22 November 2011. 2011:70-5.
  2088. Wagner B, Goodman LB, Rollins A, Freer HS. Antibodies to OspC, OspF and C6 antigens as indicators for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in horses. Equine Vet J. 2013 Sep;45(5):533-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.12033
  2089. Walk ST, Xu G, Stull JW, Rich SM. Correlation between tick density and pathogen endemicity, New Hampshire. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Apr;15(4):585-7. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1504.080940
  2090. Walker ED, McLean RG, Smith TW, Paskewitz SM. Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Peromyscus leucopus in northeastern Wisconsin. J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):165-8.
  2091. Walker ED, Smith TW, DeWitt J, Beaudo DC, McLean RG. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in host-seeking ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from a Lyme disease endemic area in northern Michigan. J Med Entomol. 1994 Jul;31(4):524-8.
  2092. Walker ED, Stobierski MG, Poplar ML, Smith TW, Murphy AJ, Smith PC, Schmitt SM, Cooley TM, Kramer CM. Geographic distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Michigan, with emphasis on Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1998 Sep;35(5):872-82.
  2093. Wallace JW, Nicholson WL, Perniciaro JL, Vaughn MF, Funkhouser S, Juliano JJ, Lee S, Kakumanu ML, Ponnusamy L, Apperson CS, Meshnick SR. Incident tick-borne infections in a cohort of North Carolina outdoor workers. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016 May;16(5):302-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1887
  2094. Wallach FR, Forni AL, Hariprashad J, Stoeckle MY, Steinberg CR, Fisher L, Malawista SE, Murray HW. Circulating Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with acute Lyme disease: results of blood cultures and serum DNA analysis. J Infect Dis. 1993 Dec;168(6):1541-3.
  2095. Wallach FR, Murray HW. Lymphocyte proliferation assay in Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct;166(4):938-9.
  2096. Waller LA, Goodwin BJ, Wilson ML, Ostfeld RS, Marshall SL, Hayes EB. Spatio-temporal patterns in county-level incidence and reporting of Lyme disease in the northeastern United States, 1990-2000. Environ Ecol Stat. 2007;14(1):83-100.
  2097. Wallet F, Labalette P, Herwegh S, Loiez C, Margaron F, Courcol R. Molecular diagnosis of a bilateral panuveitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by cerebral spinal fluid analysis. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008 May;61(3):214-5.
  2098. Wallich R, Jahraus O, Stehle T, Tran TT, Brenner C, Hofmann H, Gern L, Simon MM. Artificial-infection protocols allow immunodetection of novel Borrelia burgdorferi antigens suitable as vaccine candidates against Lyme disease. Eur J Immunol. 2003 Mar;33(3):708-19.
  2099. Wallich R, Kramer MD, Simon MM. The recombinant outer surface protein A (lipOspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi: a Lyme disease vaccine. Infection. 1996 Sep-Oct;24(5):396-7.
  2100. Wallich R, Kramer MD, Simon MM. A recombinant vaccine for Lyme disease. Behring Inst Mitt. 1994;(95):106-8.
  2101. Wallich R, Siebers A, Jahraus O, Brenner C, Stehle T, Simon MM. DNA vaccines expressing a fusion product of outer surface proteins A and C from Borrelia burgdorferi induce protective antibodies suitable for prophylaxis but Not for resolution of Lyme disease. Infect Immun. 2001 Apr;69(4):2130-6.
  2102. Wallis RC, Brown SE, Kloter KO, Main AJ Jr. Erythema chronicum migrans and lyme arthritis:field study of ticks. Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Oct;108(4):322-7.
  2103. Wang G, Liveris D, Brei B, Wu H, Falco RC, Fish D, Schwartz I. Real-time PCR for simultaneous detection and quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi in field-collected Ixodes scapularis ticks from the Northeastern United States. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Aug;69(8):4561-5.
  2104. Wang W, Ratkiewicz I, Hamilton P, Aslanzadeh J. Evaluation of the Immunetics C6 peptide Elisa kit for detection of antibody response to B burgdorferi infection. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2006;106:615.
  2105. Wang P, Glowacki MN, Hoet AE, Needham GR, Smith KA, Gary RE, Li X. Emergence of Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease vector and agent, in Ohio. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2014 Jun;4:70. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2014.00070
  2106. Wang Y, Kern A, Boatright NK, Schiller ZA, Sadowski A, Ejemel M, Souders CA, Reimann KA, Hu L, Thomas WD Jr, Klempner MS. Pre-exposure prophylaxis with OspA-specific human monoclonal antibodies protects mice against tick transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes. J Infect Dis. 2016 Jul;214(2):205-11. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw151
  2107. Wang Z, Duobinis-Gray L, White S, Snoddy E D, Stuart J. Serological evidence for Borrelia Sp. in Peromyscus leucopus from Western Kentucky. Transactions Ky Acad Sci. 1995;56(12):
  2108. Wang Z, Stuart J, Duobinis-Gray L, White S. Lyme disease surveillance in several Tva public-use areas on Kentucky Lake. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 1992;92:470.
  2109. Wanner AJ, Maris RC. Diagnostic tests and population dynamics concerning interactions among Lyme disease vectors and agents in Northern Pennsylvania. Am Zool. 1999;39(5):41A.
  2110. Ward SE, Brown RD. A framework for incorporating the prevention of Lyme disease transmission into the landscape planning and design process. Landsc Urban Plan. 2004;66(2):91-106.
  2111. Warpinski P, Burgess E. Natural infection of cranes with Borrelia burgdorferi. Poult Sci. 1989;68(Suppl 1):155.
  2112. Webster P, Frandsen F. Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Danish deer. APMIS. 1994 Apr;102(4):287-90.
  2113. Wegner Z, Stańczak J, Racewicz M, Kruminis-Lozowska W, Kubica-Biernat B. Occurrence of Borrelia spirochaetes in ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) collected in the forest areas in Olsztyn province (north central Poland). Bull Inst Marit Trop Med Gdynia. 1993-1994;44-45(1-4):51-9.
  2114. Wegner Z, Stanczak J, Racewicz M, Kubica-Biernat B, Kruminis-Lozowska W. The etiological agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from eastern Poland. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1997;286(1):93-106.
  2115. Weiner ZP, Crew RM, Brandt KS, Ullmann AJ, Schriefer ME, Molins CR, Gilmore RD. Evaluation of selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 plasmid-encoded gene products expressed during mammalian infection as antigens to improve serodiagnostic testing for early Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Nov;22(11):1176-86. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00399-15
  2116. Weinstein A, Sivak SL, Pavia C. Comparison of three serologic tests for Lyme disease Ld using receiver operating characteristic curves. Clin Res. 1990;38(2):381A.
  2117. Weisbrod AR, Johnson RC. Lyme disease and migrating birds in the Saint Croix River Valley. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Aug;55(8):1921-4.
  2118. Weisshaar E, Schaefer A, Scheidt RR, Bruckner T, Apfelbacher CJ, Diepgen TL. Epidemiology of tick bites and borreliosis in children attending kindergarten or so-called "forest kindergarten" in southwest Germany. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Mar;126(3):584-90.
  2119. Wells SJ, Trent AM, Robinson RA, Knutson KS, Bey RF. Association between clinical lameness and Borrelia burgdorferi antibody in dairy cows. Am J Vet Res. 1993 Mar;54(3):398-405.
  2120. Brown W. Developing opportunities for future vaccines. Critical needs and gaps in understanding prevention, amelioration, and resolution of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases: the short-term and long-term outcomes Workshop Report. The National Academies Press. 2011. Chapter 8.
  2121. Wengenmayer C, Williams H, Zschiesche E, Moritz A, Langenstein J, Roepke RK, Heckeroth AR. The speed of kill of fluralaner (Bravecto™) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Nov;7:525. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0525-3
  2122. Werner M, Nordin P, Arnholm B, Elgefors B, Krantz I. Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in outdoor and indoor workers in south-west Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(2):128-31.
  2123. Werra R. Lyme disease surveillance in California. West J Med. 1991;154(2):227.
  2124. White DJ, Chang HG, Benach JL, Bosler EM, Meldrum SC, Means RG, Debbie JG, Birkhead GS, Morse DL. The geographic spread and temporal increase of the Lyme disease epidemic. JAMA. 1991 Sep;266(9):1230-6.
  2125. White J, Noonan-Toly C, Lukacik G, Thomas N, Hinckley A, Hook S, Backenson PB. Lyme disease surveillance in New York State: an assessment of case underreporting. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016 Sep 10;65(2):238-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12307
  2126. Wielinga PR, Gaasenbeek C, Fonville M, de Boer A, de Vries A, Dimmers W, Akkerhuis Op Jagers G, Schouls LM, Borgsteede F, van der Giessen JW. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in The Netherlands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Dec;72(12):7594-601.
  2127. Wienecke R, Neubert U, Volkenandt M. Molecular detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lesions of Lyme disease. J Cutan Pathol. 1993 Oct;20(5):385-8.
  2128. Wieneke CA, Lovrich SD, Callister SM, Jobe DA, Marks JA, Schell RF. Evaluation of whole-cell and OspC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for discrimination of early lyme borreliosis from OspA vaccination. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jan;38(1):313-7.
  2129. van den Wijngaard CC, Hofhuis A, Harms MG, Haagsma JA, Wong A, de Wit GA, Havelaar AH, Lugnér AK, Suijkerbuijk AW, van Pelt W. The burden of Lyme borreliosis expressed in disability-adjusted life years. Eur J Public Health. 2015 Dec;25(6):1071-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv091
  2130. Wikle RE, Fretwell B, Jarecki M, Jarecki-Black JC. Canine Lyme disease: one-year duration of immunity elicited with a canine OspA monovalent Lyme vaccine. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2006;4:23-8.
  2131. Wilder SM, Meikle DB. Prevalence of deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) on white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in forest fragments. J Mammal. 85(5):1015-8.
  2132. Wilhelmsson P, Fryland L, Börjesson S, Nordgren J, Bergström S, Ernerudh J, Forsberg P, Lindgren PE. Prevalence and diversity of Borrelia species in ticks that have bitten humans in Sweden. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Nov;48(11):4169-76. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01061-10
  2133. Wilking H, Fingerle V, Klier C, Thamm M, Stark K. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):107.
  2134. Wilking H, Stark K. Trends in surveillance data of human Lyme borreliosis from six federal states in eastern Germany, 2009-2012. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Apr;5(3):219-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.10.010
  2135. Wilkinson HW. Immunodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease. Yale J Biol Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;57(4):567-72.
  2136. Williams CL, Curran AS, Lee AC, Sousa VO. Lyme disease: epidemiologic characteristics of an outbreak in Westchester County, NY. Am J Public Health. 1986 Jan;76(1):62-5.
  2137. Williams CL, Strobino B, Weinstein A, Spierling P, Medici F. Maternal Lyme disease and congenital malformations: a cord blood serosurvey in endemic and control areas. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1995 Jul;9(3):320-30.
  2138. Williams SC, Ward JS. Effects of Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) removal and resulting microclimatic changes on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) abundances in Connecticut, USA. Environ Entomol. 2010 Dec;39(6):1911-21. https://doi.org/10.1603/EN10131
  2139. Williams SC, Ward JS, Worthley TE, Stafford KC 3rd. Managing Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae). Environ Entomol. 2009 Aug;38(4):977-84.
  2140. Williams WV, Callegari P, Freundlich B, Keenan G, Eldridge D, Shin H, Kreitman M, McCallus D, Weiner DB. Molecular diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection (Lyme disease). DNA Cell Biol. 1992 Apr;11(3):207-13.
  2141. Williamson PC, Billingsley PM, Teltow GJ, Seals JP, Turnbough MA, Atkinson SF. Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in ticks removed from persons, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Mar;16(3):441-6. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1603.091333
  2142. Wilske B, Fingerle V, Herzer P, Hofmann A, Lehnert G, Peters H, Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Soutschek E, Weber K. Recombinant immunoblot in the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1993 Nov;182(5):255-70.
  2143. Wilske B, Fingerle V, Preac-Mursic V, Jauris-Heipke S, Hofmann A, Loy H, Pfister HW, Rössler D, Soutschek E. Immunoblot using recombinant antigens derived from different genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1994 Feb;183(1):43-59.
  2144. Wilske B, Fingerle V, Hauser U, Lehnert G, Jauris-Heipke S. Implications of antigenic heterogeneity for Lyme borreliosis diagnosis. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1999;289(5-7):675-7.
  2145. Wilson JM. Concerns regarding the Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme disease clinical practice guidelines. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Apr;44(8):1135-1137; author reply 1137-9.
  2146. Wilson ML, Levine JF, Spielman A. Effect of deer reduction on abundance of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini). Yale J Biol Med. 1984 Jul-Aug;57(4):697-705.
  2147. Wilson ML, Telford SR 3rd, Piesman J, Spielman A. Reduced abundance of immature Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) following elimination of deer. J Med Entomol. 1988 Jul;25(4):224-8.
  2148. Wilson YL, Gandolfi MM, Ahn IE, Yu G, Huang TC, Kim AH. Cost analysis of asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss investigations. Laryngoscope. 2010 Sep;120(9):1832-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.20933
  2149. Wilson ML, Litwin TS, Gavin TA. Microgeographic distribution of deer and of Ixodes dammini options for reducing the risk of Lyme disease. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988:437-9.
  2150. Wittenbrink MM, Failing K, Krauss H. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis for detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. The impact of serum absorption with homologous and heterologous bacteriae. Vet Microbiol. 1996 Feb;48(3-4):257-68.
  2151. Wittenbrink MM, Reuter C, Manz ML, Krauss H. Primary culture of Borrelia burgdorferi from Ixodes ricinus ticks. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1996 Sep;285(1):20-8.
  2152. Wittenbrink MM, Thiele D, Krauss H. Comparison of dark-field microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1994 Aug;281(2):183-91.
  2153. Wiznia DH, Christos PJ, LaBonte AM. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease. J Environ Health. 2013 Apr;75(8):32-9.
  2154. Wodecka B. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Ixodes ricinus ticks in North-western Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003;10(2):171-8.
  2155. Wodecka B. flaB gene as a molecular marker for distinct identification of Borrelia species in environmental samples by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Oct;77(19):7088-92. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.05437-11
  2156. Wodecka B, Leońska A, Skotarczak B. A comparative analysis of molecular markers for the detection and identification of Borrelia spirochaetes in Ixodes ricinus. J Med Microbiol. 2010 Mar;59(Pt 3):309-14. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.013508-0
  2157. Woernle CH. Surveillance for Lyme disease in Alabama. Ala Med. 1989 Apr;58(10):19-20.
  2158. Wojciechowska-Koszko I, Maczynska I, Szych Z, Giedrys-Kalemba S. Serodiagnosis of borreliosis: indirect immunofluorescence assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2011 Feb;59(1):69-77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00005-010-0111-0
  2159. Wolf KN, DePerno CS, Jenks JA, Stoskopf MK, Kennedy-Stoskopf S, Swanson CC, Brinkman TJ, Osborn RG, Tardiff JA. Selenium status and antibodies to selected pathogens in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Southern Minnesota. J Wildl Dis. 2008 Jan;44(1):181-7.
  2160. Wolfe D, Fries C, Reynolds K, Hathcock L. The epidemiology of Lyme disease in Delaware 1989-1992. Del Med J. 1994 Nov;66(11):603-6, 609-13.
  2161. Wolff D, Gerritzen A. Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for the detection, genotyping, and quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ticks in a routine laboratory setting. Clin Lab. 2011;57(1-2):67-73.
  2162. Wong SJ, Brady GS, Dumler JS. Serological responses to Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in patients from New York State. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Sep;35(9):2198-205.
  2163. Wormser GP, Bittker S, Cooper D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Pavia C. Yield of large-volume blood cultures in patients with early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 2001 Oct;184(8):1070-2.
  2164. Wormser GP, Bittker S, Cooper D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Pavia C. Comparison of the yields of blood cultures using serum or plasma from patients with early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Apr;38(4):1648-50.
  2165. Wormser GP, Brisson D, Liveris D, Hanincová K, Sandigursky S, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Ludin S, Schwartz I. Borrelia burgdorferi genotype predicts the capacity for hematogenous dissemination during early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis. 2008 Nov;198(9):1358-64. https://doi.org/10.1086/592279
  2166. Wormser GP, Carbonaro C, Miller S, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Sivak S, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME. A limitation of 2-stage serological testing for Lyme disease: enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot assay are not independent tests. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;30(3):545-8.
  2167. Wormser GP, Forseter G, Cooper D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Horowitz H, Schwartz I, Bowen SL, Campbell GL, Goldberg NS. Use of a novel technique of cutaneous lavage for diagnosis of Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. JAMA. 1992 Sep;268(10):1311-3.
  2168. Wormser GP, Masters E, Liveris D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Holmgren D, Bittker S, Cooper D, Wang G, Schwartz I. Microbiologic evaluation of patients from Missouri with erythema migrans. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Feb;40(3):423-8.
  2169. Wormser GP, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Bittker S, Cooper D, Pavia C. Improving the yield of blood cultures for patients with early Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Jan;36(1):296-8.
  2170. Wormser GP, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Schwartz I, McKenna D, Holmgren D, Aguero-Rosenfeld M. Efficacy of an OspA vaccine preparation for prevention of Lyme disease in New York State. Infection. 1998 Jul-Aug;26(4):208-12.
  2171. Wormser GP, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Visintainer P, Levin A, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME. Impact of clinical variables on Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody seropositivity in acute-phase sera from patients in North America with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008 Oct;15(10):1519-22. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00109-08
  2172. Wormser GP, Schriefer M, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Levin A, Steere AC, Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Marques A, Johnson BJ, Dumler JS. Single-tier testing with the C6 peptide ELISA kit compared with two-tier testing for Lyme disease. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 Jan;75(1):9-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.09.003
  2173. Wormser GP, Horowitz HW, Nowakowski J, McKenna D, Dumler JS, Varde S, Schwartz I, Carbonaro C, Aguero-Rosenfeld M. Positive Lyme disease serology in patients with clinical and laboratory evidence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Am J Clin Pathol. 1997 Feb;107(2):142-7.
  2174. Wormser GP, Liveris D, Hanincová K, Brisson D, Ludin S, Stracuzzi VJ, Embers ME, Philipp MT, Levin A, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Schwartz I. Effect of Borrelia burgdorferi genotype on the sensitivity of C6 and 2-tier testing in North American patients with culture-confirmed Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Oct;47(7):910-4. https://doi.org/10.1086/591529
  2175. Wormser GP, Levin A, Soman S, Adenikinju O, Longo MV, Branda JA. Comparative cost-effectiveness of two-tiered testing strategies for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease with noncutaneous manifestations. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51(12):4045.
  2176. Wormser GP, Tang AT, Schimmoeller NR, Bittker S, Cooper D, Visintainer P, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Ogrinc K, Strle F, Stanek G. Utility of serodiagnostics designed for use in the United States for detection of Lyme borreliosis acquired in Europe and vice versa. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2014 Feb;203(1):65-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00430-013-0315-0
  2177. Wressnigg N, Pöllabauer EM, Aichinger G, Portsmouth D, Löw-Baselli A, Fritsch S, Livey I, Crowe BA, Schwendinger M, Brühl P, Pilz A, Dvorak T, Singer J, Firth C, Luft B, Schmitt B, Zeitlinger M, Müller M, Kollaritsch H, Paulke-Korinek M, Esen M, Kremsner PG, Ehrlich HJ, Barrett PN. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel multivalent OspA vaccine against Lyme borreliosis in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomised, dose-escalation phase 1/2 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;13(8):680-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70110-5
  2178. Wressnigg N, Barrett PN, Pöllabauer EM, O'Rourke M, Portsmouth D, Schwendinger MG, Crowe BA, Livey I, Dvorak T, Schmitt B, Zeitlinger M, Kollaritsch H, Esen M, Kremsner PG, Jelinek T, Aschoff R, Weisser R, Naudts IF, Aichinger G. A Novel multivalent OspA vaccine against Lyme borreliosis is safe and immunogenic in an adult population previously infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Nov;21(11):1490-9. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00406-14
  2179. Wretlind B, Hansson Y, Hammers S, Helgesson M, Karlsson M, Stiernstedt G. Comparison with different EIA methods to determine antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi infections. Program and Abstracts of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 1991;31:208.
  2180. Wright JC, Chambers M, Mullen GR, Swango LJ, D'Andrea GH, Boyce AJ. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in Alabama, USA. Prev Vet Med. 1997 Jul;31(1-2):127-31.
  2181. Wright SA, Lane RS, Clover JR. Infestation of the southern alligator lizard (Squamata: Anguidae) by Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and its susceptibility to Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 1998 Nov;35(6):1044-9.
  2182. Wright SA, Lemenager DA, McBride RL, Brown DA.The western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus, in the Sutter Buttes. J Vector Ecol. 2003 Dec;28(2):171-4.
  2183. Wright SA, Lemenager DA, Tucker JR, Armijos MV, Yamamoto SA. An avian contribution to the presence of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Borrelia burgdorferi on the Sutter Buttes of California. J Med Entomol. 2006 Mar;43(2):368-74.
  2184. Wright SA, Thompson MA, Miller MJ, Knerl KM, Elms SL, Karpowicz JC, Young JF, Kramer VL. Ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), rodents, and birds in the Sierra Nevada foothills, Placer County, California. J Med Entomol. 2000 Nov;37(6):909-18.
  2185. Wright SA, Tucker JR, Donohue AM, Castro MB, Kelley KL, Novak MG, Macedo PA. Avian hosts of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in larvae feeding on the Oregon junco. J Med Entomol. 2011 Jul;48(4):852-9.
  2186. Wroblewski D, Carlson AJ, Gebhardt LL, Musser KA. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia species in clinical samples by real-time PCR. Abstracts of the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. 2008;108:138.
  2187. Xiao S, Kumar M, Yang X, Akkoyunlu M, Collins PL, Samal SK, Pal U. A host-restricted viral vector for antigen-specific immunization against Lyme disease pathogen. Vaccine. 2011 Jul;29(32):5294-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.05.010
  2188. Xu Y, Gao S, Bruno JF, Luft BJ, Dunn JJ. Rapid detection and identification of a pathogen's DNA using Phi29 DNA polymerase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Oct;375(4):522-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.08.082
  2189. Xu Z, Ma D, Luo W, Zhu Y. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in granulomatous tissues from patients with sarcoidosis using polymerase chain reaction in situ technique. Chin Med Sci J. 1996 Dec;11(4):220-3.
  2190. Xu G, Mather TN, Hollingsworth CS, Rich SM. Passive surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), their biting activity, and associated pathogens in Massachusetts. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016 Aug;16(8):520-7. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1912
  2191. Xue L, Scoglio C, McVey DS, Boone R, Cohnstaedt LW. Two introductions of Lyme disease into Connecticut: A geospatial analysis of human cases from 1984 to 2012. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Sep;15(9):523-8. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1791
  2192. Yabsley MJ, Davidson WR, Stallknecht DE, Varela AS, Swift PK, Devos JC Jr, Dubay SA. Evidence of tick-borne organisms in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from the western United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005 Winter;5(4):351-62.
  2193. Yabsley MJ, Murphy SM, Luttrell MP, Little SE, Massung RF, Stallknecht DE, Conti LA, Blackmore CG, Durden LA. Experimental and field studies on the suitability of raccoons (Procyon lotor) as hosts for tick-borne pathogens. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008 Aug;8(4):491-503. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2007.0240
  2194. Yabsley MJ, Nims TN, Savage MY, Durden LA. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from Georgia and Florida. J Parasitol. 2009 Oct;95(5):1125-8. https://doi.org/10.1645/GE-2111.1
  2195. Yabsley MJ, Romines J, Nettles VF. Detection of Babesia and Anaplasma species in rabbits from Texas and Georgia, USA. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2006 Spring;6(1):7-13.
  2196. Yancey CB, Hegarty BC, Qurollo BA, Levy MG, Birkenheuer AJ, Weber DJ, Diniz PP, Breitschwerdt EB. Regional seroreactivity and vector-borne disease co-exposures in dogs in the United States from 2004-2010: Utility of canine surveillance. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014 Oct;14(10):724-32. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2014.1592
  2197. Yang J, Guan G, Niu Q, Liu Z, Li Y, Liu J, Ma M, Ren Q, Liu A, Luo J, Yin H. Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in ticks. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013 Jun;60(3):238-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1865-1682.2012.01335.x
  2198. Yang J, Liu Z, Guan G, Che R, Niu Q, Li Y, Liu J, Ma M, Ren Q, Liu A, Luo J, Yin H. Evaluation of molecular methods for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato in ticks. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 May;73(1):80-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.02.016
  2199. Yartel AK, Beckett G. Infectious Disease Epidemiology Report: Lyme Disease Surveillance Report - Maine 2006. Maine Public Health. pp. 1-2.
  2200. Ye L, Huang NL, Ma XL, Schneider M, Huang XJ, Du WD. Establishment of N-succinimidyl 4-(maleimidomethyl) cyclohexanecarboxylate (SMCC) modified biochip enabling concurrent detection of serum infectious antibodies in neuroborreliosis. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016 Apr;78:404-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2015.11.050
  2201. Yeh MT, Bak JM, Hu R, Nicholson MC, Kelly C, Mather TN. Determining the duration of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) attachment to tick-bite victims. J Med Entomol. 1995 Nov;32(6):853-8.
  2202. Young ME, King N, Harper S, Humphreys KR. The influence of popular media on perceptions of personal and population risk in possible disease outbreaks. Health Risk Soc. 2013;15(1):103.
  2203. Yu Z, Carter JM, Huang SY, Lackland H, Sigal LH, Stein S. Presentation of peptide antigens as albumin conjugates for use in detection of serum antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bioconjug Chem. 1996 May-Jun;7(3):338-42.
  2204. Yu Z, Carter JM, Sigal LH, Stein S. Multi-well ELISA based on independent peptide antigens for antibody capture. Application to Lyme disease serodiagnosis. J Immunol Methods. 1996 Oct;198(1):25-33.
  2205. Zöller L, Haude M, Hassler D, Burkard S, Sonntag HG. Spontaneous and post-treatment antibody kinetics in late Lyme borreliosis. Serodiagnosis Immunotherapy Infect Dis. 1989;3(5):345-53.
  2206. Zajkowska J, Kondrusik M, Pancewicz Slawomir A, Sienkiewicz I, Grygorczuk S, Swierzbinska R, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T. Laboratory diagnosis of early Lyme borreliosis - comparison of ELISA, Western blot (Ecoline), and PCR results. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296(Suppl 40):291-3.
  2207. Zaki MH. Selected tickborne infections a review of Lyme disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever and babesiosis. N Y State J Med. 1989 Jun;89(6):320-35.
  2208. Žákovská A. Monitoring the presence of Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Brno Park Pisarky, Czech Republic. Biologia (Bratisl). 2000;55(6):661-6.
  2209. Žákovská A, Nejezchlebová H, Bartoňková N, Rašovská T, Kučerová H, Norek A, Ovesná P. Activity of the tick Ixodes ricinus monitored in a suburban park in Brno, Czech Republic, in association with the evaluation of selected repellents. J Vector Ecol. 2013 Dec;38(2):295-300. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2013.12043.x
  2210. Zakutna L, Dorko E, Mattova E, Rimarova K. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(4):632.
  2211. Zalewska M, Wałamaniuk M, Pawińska M, Szpak A, Huzarska D, Komorowska E. Workplace health threats and their effects in Podlasie region. Polish J Environ Stud. 2008;17(5):797-800.
  2212. Zavaleta JO, Rossignol PA. Community-level analysis of risk of vector-borne disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Oct;98(10):610-8.
  2213. Zbinden R, Goldenberger D, Lucchini GM, Altwegg M. Comparison of two methods for detecting intrathecal synthesis of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibodies and PCR for diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Jul;32(7):1795-8.
  2214. Zeidner NS, Burkot TR, Massung R, Nicholson WL, Dolan MC, Rutherford JS, Biggerstaff BJ, Maupin GO. Transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by Ixodes spinipalpis ticks: evidence of an enzootic cycle of dual infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in Northern Colorado. J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):616-9.
  2215. Zeman P. Borrelia-infection rates in tick and insect vectors accompanying human risk of acquiring Lyme borreliosis in a highly endemic region in Central Europe. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1998;45(4):319-25.
  2216. Zeman P. Objective assessment of risk maps of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis based on spatial patterns of located cases. Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Oct;26(5):1121-9.
  2217. Zeman P, Daniel M. Mosaic pattern of Borrelia infection in a continuous population of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 1999 Apr;23(4):327-35.
  2218. Zeman P, Januska J. Epizootiologic background of dissimilar distribution of human cases of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in a joint endemic area. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Oct;22(4):247-60.
  2219. Zeman P, Benes C. Spatial distribution of a population at risk: an important factor for understanding the recent rise in tick-borne diseases (Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Dec;4(6):522-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.07.003
  2220. Zeman P, Benes C. Peri-urbanisation, counter-urbanisation, and an extension of residential exposure to ticks: a clue to the trends in Lyme borreliosis incidence in the Czech Republic? Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Oct;5(6):907-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.07.006
  2221. Zeman P, Benes C, Markvart K. Increasing Residential Proximity of Lyme Borreliosis Cases to High-Risk Habitats: A Retrospective Study in Central Bohemia, the Czech Republic, 1987–2010. Ecohealth. 2015 Sep;12(3):519-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-015-1016-5
  2222. Zhang X, Meltzer MI, Peña CA, Hopkins AB, Wroth L, Fix AD. Economic impact of Lyme disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Apr;12(4):653-60.
  2223. Zhang YQ, Mathiesen D, Kolbert CP, Anderson J, Schoen RT, Fikrig E, Persing DH. Borrelia burgdorferi enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for discrimination of OspA vaccination from spirochete infection. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Jan;35(1):233-8.
  2224. Zhang L, Zhu X, Hou X, Geng Z, Chen H, Hao Q. Test of 259 serums from patients with arthritis or neurological symptoms confirmed existence of Lyme disease in Hainan province, China. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(6):9531.
  2225. Zhang LL, Hou XX, Geng Z, Lou YL, Wan KL, Hao Q. Combination of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and nested PCR for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in human serum samples. Biomed Environ Sci. 2015;28(4):312.
  2226. Zhioua E, Browning M, Johnson PW, Ginsberg HS, LeBrun RA. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Parasitol. 1997 Oct;83(5):815-8.
  2227. Zhioua E, Gern L, Aeschlimann A, Sauvain MJ, Van der Linden S, Fahrer H. Longitudinal study of Lyme borreliosis in a high risk population in Switzerland. Parasite. 1998 Dec;5(4):383-6.
  2228. Zhioua E, Gern L, Aeschlimann, A. Serological findings in relation with risk factors: a two year follow-up of a population at risk [Borrelia burgdorferi in orienteers in Switzerland in 1986-87]. Rev Suisse Zool. 1990;97:783-4.
  2229. Zhioua E, Rodhain F, Binet P, Perez-Eid C. Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers of Ile de France, France. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997 Dec;13(8):959-62.
  2230. Zibit M, Murphy EA, Glass R, Maher NE, Shadick NA. Components of the Health Belief Model are determinants of Lyme disease preventive behavior among school-aged children in an endemic area of Massachusetts. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(9 Suppl S):S767.
  2231. Ziemer M, Grabner T, Eisendle K, Baltaci M, Zelger B. Granuloma annulare--a manifestation of infection with Borrelia? J Cutan Pathol. 2008 Nov;35(11):1050-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0560.2007.00977.x
  2232. Ziska MH, Donta ST, Demarest FC. Physician preferences in the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in the United States. Infection. 1996 Mar-Apr;24(2):182-6.
  2233. Zöldi V, Juhász A, Nagy C, Papp Z, Egyed L. Tick-borne encephalitis and lyme disease in Hungary: the epidemiological situation between 1998 and 2008. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Apr;13(4):256-65. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2011.0905
  2234. Zöller L, Burkard S, Schäfer H. Validity of western immunoblot band patterns in the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jan;29(1):174-82.
  2235. Zolnik CP, Falco RC, Kolokotronis SO, Daniels TJ. No observed effect of landscape fragmentation on pathogen infection prevalence in blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in the Northeastern United States. PloS one. 2015;10(10):e0139473.
  2236. Zolnik CP, Makkay AM, Falco RC, Daniels TJ. American black bears as hosts of blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Northeastern United States. J Med Entomol. 2015;52(5):1103.
  2237. Zore A, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Lotric-Furlan S, Pikelj A, Jurca T, Logar M, Strle F. Sensitivity of culture and polymerase chain reaction for the etiologic diagnosis of erythema migrans. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Jul 31;114(13-14):606-9.
  2238. Zweitzig DR, Tibbe AG, Nguyen AT, van Rijn CJ, Kopnitsky MJ, Cichonski K, Terstappen LW. Feasibility of a simple microsieve-based immunoassay platform. J Immunol Methods. 2016 Oct;437:21-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2016.07.002
Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: