ARCHIVED - 2009 - Preliminary Results

 

Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans and the Agri-Food Sector

Humans

Salmonella (n = 2,991)

Salmonella Enteritidis

(n = 703)

Table 1. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from humans, by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 118 n = 75 n = 48 n = 52 n = 245 n = 107 n = 21 n = 27 n = 3 n = 7 %
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftiofur 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftriaxone 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 2 (2) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 6 (2) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Cefoxitin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Gentamicin 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Kanamycin 1 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Nalidixic acid 11 (9) 7 (9) 4 (8) 7 (13) 29 (12) 9 (8) 3 (14) 5 (19) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10
Streptomycin 5 (4) 5 (7) 3 (6) 2 (4) 4 (2) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
III Chloramphenicol 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Sulfisoxazole 2 (2) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 3 (1) 4 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Tetracycline 3 (3) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).
The abbreviations for the provinces are located in the Appendix on page 55.

Salmonella Heidelberg

(n = 276)

Table 2. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Heidelberg isolates from humans, by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 14 n = 30 n = 10 n = 27 n = 79 n = 75 n = 22 n = 12 n = 2 n = 5 %
I Amoxicillin- clavulanic acid 0 (0) 3 (10) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 12
Ceftiofur 0 (0) 5 (17) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13
Ceftriaxone 0 (0) 4 (13) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 2 (14) 15 (50) 4 (40) 3 (11) 30 (38) 25 (33) 4 (18) 8 (67) 0 (0) 0 (0) 34
Cefoxitin 0 (0) 3 (10) 2 (20) 2 (7) 12 (15) 7 (9) 4 (18) 6 (50) 0 (0) 0 (0) 12
Gentamicin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 4 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Kanamycin 1 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Nalidixic
acid
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Streptomycin 0 (0) 2 (7) 0 (0) 2 (7) 3 (4) 5 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 5
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 1
III Chloramphenicol 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Sulfisoxazole 0 (0) 2 (7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 6 (8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 4
Tetracycline 1 (7) 3 (10) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (3) 2 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 4
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Salmonella Paratyphi A and
Paratyphi B

(n = 36)

Table 3. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 14 n = 4 n = 2 n = 0 n = 10 n = 5 n = 0 n = 1 n = 0 n = 0 %
I Amoxicillin-
clavulanic
acid
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftiofur 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ceftriaxone 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (40) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6
Cefoxitin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Gentamicin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Kanamycin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Nalidixic
acid
14 (100) 2 (50) 1 (50) 0 (0) 10 (100) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 80
Streptomycin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
III Chloramphenicol 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Sulfisoxazole 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Tetracycline 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (20) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
Salmonella Paratyphi B does not include S. Paratyphi B var. L (+) tartrate +, formerly called S. Paratyphi var. Java. The biotype of S. Paratyphi B here included is tartrate negative and associated with more severe, typhoid-like fever. Salmonella Paratyphi B var. L (+) tartrate+ is commonly associated with gastro-enteritidis and is included under "Other serovars".
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Salmonella Typhi

(n=117)

Table 4. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhi isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canada
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 31 n = 12 n = 1 n = 3 n = 59 n = 11 n = 0 n = 0 n = 0 n = 0 %
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Ceftiofur 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Ceftriaxone 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Ciprofloxacin 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 2 (6) 8 (67) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (15) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 18
Cefoxitin 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Gentamicin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Kanamycin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Nalidixic
acid
26 (84) 11 (92) 1 (100) 3 (100) 42 (71) 5 (45) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 75
Streptomycin 1 (3) 7 (58) 0 (0) 0 (0) 8 (14) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 16
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
1 (3) 7 (58) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (15) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 17
III Chloramphenicol 1 (3) 7 (58) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (15) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 17
Sulfisoxazole 1 (3) 8 (67) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10 (17) 2 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 18
Tetracycline 0 (0) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (5) 1 (9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.

Salmonella Typhimurium

(n = 269)

Table 5. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 19 n = 36 n = 17 n = 12 n = 117 n = 41 n = 7 n = 12 n = 4 n = 4 %
I Amoxicillin-
clavulanic
acid
2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Ceftiofur 2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Ceftriaxone 2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 7 (37) 9 (25) 2 (12) 5 (42) 22 (19) 8 (20) 0 (0) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 21
Cefoxitin 2 (11) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
Gentamicin 0 (0) 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
Kanamycin 1 (5) 4 (11) 1 (6) 3 (25) 4 (3) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5
Nalidixic
acid
3 (16) 2 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Streptomycin 6 (32) 13 (36) 2 (12) 4 (33) 21 (18) 9 (22) 1 (14) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 22
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (2) 1 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2
III Chloramphenicol 5 (26) 8 (22) 1 (6) 3 (25) 17 (15) 8 (20) 0 (0) 2 (17) 0 (0) 0 (0) 17
Sulfisoxazole 6 (32) 13 (36) 3 (18) 5 (42) 23 (20) 10 (24) 1 (14) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 24
Tetracycline 6 (32) 9 (25) 3 (18) 5 (42) 26 (22) 10 (24) 1 (14) 3 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 24
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Salmonella “Other Serovars”

(n = 890)

Table 6. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella “Other Serovars” isolates from humans by province; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

  Antimicrobial Number (%) of isolates resistant Canadaa
BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PEI NL  
n = 119 n = 146 n = 60 n = 88 n = 285 n = 135 n = 27 n = 22 n = 3 n = 5 %
I Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 5 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Ceftiofur 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 6 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Ceftriaxone 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 6 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Ciprofloxacin 0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) <1
II Amikacin 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Ampicillin 11 (9) 12 (8) 7 (12) 10 (11) 12 (4) 5 (4) 2 (7) 1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6
Cefoxitin 5 (4) 7 (5) 4 (7) 5 (6) 5 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Gentamicin 3 (3) 2 (1) 1 (2) 3 (3) 3 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
Kana-
mycin
1 (1) 4 (3) 0 (0) 1 (1) 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
Nalidixic
acid
2 (2) 14 (10) 2 (3) 2 (2) 11 (4) 4 (3) 0 (0) 1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4
Streptomycin 9 (8) 10 (7) 7 (12) 7 (8) 28 (10) 12 (9) 3 (11) 3 (14) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9
Trimethoprim-
sulfamethoxazole
5 (4) 8 (5) 0 (0) 1 (1) 4 (1) 4 (3) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
III Chloramphenicol 8 (7) 5 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (2) 2 (1) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3
Sulfisoxazole 11 (9) 14 (10) 9 (15) 6 (7) 14 (5) 8 (6) 2 (7) 1 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7
Tetracycline 15 (13) 30 (21) 12 (20) 12 (14) 39 (14) 14 (10) 4 (15) 5 (23) 0 (0) 0 (0) 15
IV                        

Roman numerals I to IV indicate the ranking of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine as outlined by the Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
a Estimated percentage for Canada corrected for non-proportional submission protocols among provinces (see Appendix A.2 in the 2007 CIPARS Annual Report).

Table 7. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from humans, by province and serovar; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as "Less common serovars".
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 7 - Text Equivalent
Province / Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
0 1 2–3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
British Columbia
Enteritidis 118 (37.5) 100 14 4         1 5 2         2       11 3
Typhi 31 (9.8) 4 26   1         1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 26  
Typhimurium 19 (6) 7 5 2 5       1 6 7 2 2 2 2 6 1 5   3 6
Heidelberg 14 (4.4) 12 1 1         1   2                   1
Newport 14 (4.4) 13     1         1 1 1 1 1 1 1   1     1
Paratyphi A 14 (4.4)   14                                 14  
I 4,[5],12:i:- 11 (3.5) 4 3 2 1 1   1   2 4 2 2 2 2 4 1 2   1 5
Stanley 7 (2.2) 5     2     1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2     2
Less common serovars 87 (27.6) 79 2 3 2 1   1   4 4 1 1 1 1 4 3 3   1 7
Total 315 (100) 224 65 12 12 2   3 4 21 24 8 8 8 8 20 7 14 1 56 25
Alberta
Enteritidis 75 (24.8) 64 10   1     1 1 5 1         1       7 1
Typhimurium 36 (11.9) 18 4 6 8     1 4 13 9 1 1 1 1 13   8   2 9
Heidelberg 30 (9.9) 15 8 7           2 15 3 4 3 5 2         3
I 4,[5],12:i:- 16 (5.3) 4 12               2 2 2 2 2           10
Saintpaul 12 (4) 10 2                                   2
Typhi 12 (4) 1 3   6 2       7 8         8 7 7   11 3
Infantis 11 (3.6) 7 1 2   1   1 1   2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1   3 3
Less common serovars 111 (36.6) 86 10 9 6     1 3 10 8 4 4 4 4 11 7 4 1 13 15
Total 303 (100) 205 50 24 21 3   4 9 37 45 11 12 11 13 38 15 20 1 36 46
Saskatchewan
Enteritidis 48 (34.8) 41 7             3                   4  
I 4,[5],12:i:- 17 (12.3) 6 8 1 2         3 7 4 4 4 4 3       1 6
Typhimurium 17 (12.3) 14   1 2       1 2 2         3   1     3
Heidelberg 10 (7.2) 6 4               4 2 2 2 2            
Agona 7 (5.1) 3   4           2           4         4
Infantis 6 (4.3) 6                                      
Newport 4 (2.9) 4                                      
Oranienburg 3 (2.2) 3                                      
Less common serovars 26 (18.8) 22 2 1 1     1   2           2     1 3 2
Total 138 (100) 105 21 7 5     1 1 12 13 6 6 6 6 12   1 1 8 15
Manitoba
Enteritidis 52 (28.6) 43 8     1   1   2 1         1   1 1 7 1
I 4,[5],12:i:- 40 (22) 28 11 1       1   1 6 4 4 4 4 1         6
Heidelberg 27 (14.8) 23 3 1           2 3 2 2 2 2            
Typhimurium 12 (6.6) 7     5       3 4 5         5   3     5
Newport 8 (4.4) 8                                      
Montevideo 4 (2.2) 4                                      
Oranienburg 4 (2.2) 4                                      
Saintpaul 4 (2.2) 3     1         1 1         1       1 1
Less common serovars 31 (17) 22 4 4 1     2 1 5 3 1 1 1 1 4 1     4 5
Total 182 (100) 142 26 6 7 1   4 4 15 19 7 7 7 7 12 1 4 1 12 18
Ontario
Enteritidis 245 (30.9) 211 28 4 2         4 6         3 1     29 2
Typhimurium 116 (14.6) 88 4 4 19 1   1 4 21 22 3 3 3 3 23 2 17   3 26
Heidelberg 79 (9.9) 46 29 4       2   3 30 12 12 12 12 2       1 2
Typhi 59 (7.4) 17 32 2 5 3       8 9         10 9 9   42 3
Newport 38 (4.8) 37   1           1                     1
I 4,[5],12:i:- 24 (3) 19 4 1           1 2 1 1 1 1           3
Hadar 20 (2.5) 1 5 14           14                     19
Saintpaul 20 (2.5) 19   1       1   1           1          
Less common serovars 193 (24.3) 160 15 10 7 1   2 2 11 10 4 5 4 5 13 4 5 2 21 16
Total 794 (100) 598 117 41 33 5   6 6 64 79 20 21 20 21 52 16 31 2 96 72
Québec
Enteritidis 107 (28.6) 96 7 3 1     1   1 3         4       9 1
Heidelberg 75 (20.1) 45 24 6       4   5 25 7 7 7 7 6 2       2
Typhimurium 41 (11) 31   2 8       2 9 8         10 1 8     10
Javiana 27 (7.2) 27                                      
Thompson 13 (3.5) 13                                      
Newport 11 (2.9) 11                                      
Typhi 11 (2.9) 6 3   1 1       2 2         2 2 2   5 1
I 4,[5],12:i:- 8 (2.1) 5 1 1 1     1   2 2 1 1 1 1 2         1
Less common serovars 81 (21.7) 60 9 8 4         11 5 1 1 1 1 7 4 3   5 14
Total 374 (100) 294 44 20 15 1   6 2 30 45 9 9 9 9 31 9 13   19 29
New Brunswick
Heidelberg 22 (28.6) 18 4               4 4 4 4 4            
Enteritidis 21 (27.3) 18 3                                 3  
Typhimurium 7 (9.1) 6   1           1           1         1
Carrau 4 (5.2) 3 1               1                    
I 4,[5],12:i:- 3 (3.9) 2     1       1 1 1         1   1     1
Poona 3 (3.9) 3                                      
Hadar 2 (2.6)     2           2                     2
Javiana 2 (2.6) 2                                      
Less common serovars 13 (16.9) 12   1                       1 1       1
Total 77 (100) 64 8 4 1       1 4 6 4 4 4 4 3 1 1   3 5
Nova Scotia
Enteritidis 27 (36.5) 21 6             1                   5  
Heidelberg 12 (16.2) 4 8               8 6 6 6 6            
Typhimurium 12 (16.2) 8 1 1 2         3 3         3   2     3
Hadar 3 (4.1)   1 2           2                     3
Carrau 2 (2.7) 2                                      
I 4,[5],12:i:- 2 (2.7) 1 1                                   1
Newport 2 (2.7) 2                                      
Saintpaul 2 (2.7) 1 1                         1          
Less common serovars 12 (16.2) 10 1 1           1 1                 1 1
Total 74 (100) 49 19 4 2         7 12 6 6 6 6 4   2   6 8
Prince Edward Island
Typhimurium 4 (33.3) 4                                      
Enteritidis 3 (25) 3                                      
Heidelberg 2 (16.7) 2                                      
Carrau 1 (8.3) 1                                      
Muenchen 1 (8.3) 1                                      
Thompson 1 (8.3) 1                                      
Total 12 (100) 12                                      
Newfoundland and Labrador
Enteritidis 7 (33.3) 7                                      
Heidelberg 5 (23.8) 4   1           1           1 1       1
Typhimurium 4 (19) 4                                      
Braenderup 1 (4.8) 1                                      
Mbandaka 1 (4.8) 1                                      
Nessziona 1 (4.8) 1                                      
Poona 1 (4.8) 1                                      
Rissen 1 (4.8) 1                                      
Total 21 (100) 20   1           1           1 1       1

Figure 1. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human isolates of Salmonella serovars Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Paratyphi A and B; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2009.

Figure 1 - Text Equivalent
ATM Enteritidis Heidelberg Paratyphi A and B
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
352 549 612 710 910 1258 703 608 556 409 430 318 290 276 27 43 70 66 45 65 36
Ampicillin 0.022727 0.038251 0.022876 0.029577 0.018681 0.026232 0.018492 0.351974 0.44964 0.471883 0.390698 0.298742 0.3172 0.3297 0.111111 0 0.071429 0.015152 0.044444 0.046154 0.055556
Ceftiofur 0.005682 0.003643 0.006536 0.002817 0.001099 0.001590 0.000000 0.220395 0.32554 0.286064 0.132558 0.147799 0.1414 0.1377 0 0 0 0 0 0.015385 0
Gentamicin 0.002841 0.005464 0.008170 0.000000 0.004396 0.002385 0.004267 0.041118 0.01259 0.00978 0.032558 0.025157 0.0241 0.0217 0 0 0 0 0 0.015385 0
Nalidixic acid 0.187500 0.225865 0.094771 0.201408 0.183516 0.125596 0.106686 0.011513 0.01259 0.012225 0.018605 0.006289 0 0.0036 0.703704 0.837209 0.742857 0.848485 0.688889 0.723077 0.777778
Streptomycin 0.014205 0.040073 0.016340 0.014085 0.007692 0.008744 0.029872 0.118421 0.084532 0.08313 0.132558 0.103774 0.069 0.0471 0.111111 0 0.085714 0 0.044444 0.046154 0.027778
Tetracycline 0.031250 0.045537 0.021242 0.035211 0.063736 0.015898 0.011380 0.152961 0.160072 0.105134 0.134884 0.066038 0.0621 0.0326 0.111111 0 0.1 0.015152 0.044444 0.061538 0.027778
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.014205 0.010929 0.004902 0.005634 0.006593 0.003975 0.001422 0.009868 0.01259 0.026895 0.023256 0.009434 0.0138 0.0109 0.111111 0 0.028571 0 0.022222 0.015385 0

Figure 2. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in human isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhi, Typhimurium, and “Other Serovars”; Surveillance of Human Clinical Isolates, 2003–2009.

Figure 2 - Text Equivalent
ATM Typhi Typhimurium Other serovars
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
127 125 121 164 156 186 117 605 597 559 539 658 474 269 1322 1262 1387 1296 1217 1328 890
Ampicillin 0.102362 0.16 0.264463 0.182927 0.205128 0.166667 0.179487 0.444628 0.375209 0.44186 0.302412 0.220365 0.305907 0.208178 0.077156 0.082409 0.096611 0.074846 0.055053 0.058735 0.067416
Ceftiofur 0.007874 0 0 0.012195 0 0 0.008547 0.016529 0.015075 0.042934 0.014842 0.013678 0.023207 0.022305 0.027231 0.025357 0.02956 0.033179 0.00986 0.018072 0.032584
Gentamicin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01157 0.023451 0.023256 0.012987 0.016717 0.025316 0.007435 0.016641 0.017433 0.010815 0.013117 0.00493 0.021837 0.014607
Nalidixic acid 0.440945 0.568 0.719008 0.79878 0.782051 0.693548 0.752137 0.01157 0.0134 0.028623 0.020408 0.034954 0.021097 0.02974 0.040091 0.049128 0.035328 0.050926 0.030403 0.043675 0.040449
Streptomycin 0.102362 0.16 0.272727 0.140244 0.205128 0.177419 0.153846 0.386777 0.351759 0.402504 0.361781 0.226444 0.303797 0.219331 0.109682 0.118067 0.124009 0.104167 0.09696 0.113705 0.088764
Tetracycline 0.086614 0.152 0.239669 0.103659 0.128205 0.05914 0.059829 0.466116 0.413735 0.481216 0.376623 0.267477 0.320675 0.234201 0.186838 0.181458 0.178082 0.154321 0.174199 0.174699 0.147191
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.094488 0.16 0.256198 0.152439 0.205128 0.172043 0.162393 0.06281 0.072027 0.078712 0.081633 0.048632 0.050633 0.01487 0.034796 0.026941 0.02956 0.037809 0.029581 0.031627 0.025843

Beef Cattle

Salmonella

Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 122)

Figure 3. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from cattle; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 3 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Cattle (n = 122)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Bovine Salmonella Diagnostic / clinical cases 122 TET 0.52459016 0.432 0.616 0.092357 0.09114
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.54098361 0.448 0.632 0.092577 0.09054
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.28688525 0.209 0.376 0.078242 0.08889
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.08196721 0.04 0.146 0.04196 0.06361
Streptomycin STR 0.39344262 0.306 0.486 0.087205 0.0925
Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.024 0 0.02426
Kanamycin KAN 0.3852459 0.299 0.478 0.086677 0.09239
Gentamicin GEN 0 0 0.024 0 0.02426
Cefoxitin FOX 0.08196721 0.04 0.146 0.04196 0.06361
Ampicillin AMP 0.58196721 0.489 0.671 0.092713 0.08864
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.024 0 0.02426
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.024 0 0.02426
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.08196721 0.04 0.146 0.04196 0.06361
Ceftiofur TIO 0.08196721 0.04 0.146 0.04196 0.06361
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.08196721 0.04 0.146 0.04196 0.06361

Table 8. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from cattle, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”. 
Serovar identity was not available for 1 isolate.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 8 - Text Equivalent
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
Typhimurium var. 5- 47 (38.8) 1 7   39       30 28 46 7 7 7 7 39 1 16     39
Typhimurium 31 (25.6) 10   2 19       15 18 20 1 1 1 1 20 7 18     21
Heidelberg 7 (5.8) 4 1 2             3         2 2        
I 6,14,18:-:- 5 (4.1) 5                                      
Kentucky 4 (3.3) 4                                      
Cerro 3 (2.5) 3                                      
Oranienburg 3 (2.5) 3                                      
Less common serovars 21 (17.4) 15 2 3 1       2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5   1     4
Total 121 (100) 45 10 7 59       47 48 71 10 10 10 10 66 10 35     64

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Serovar identity was not available for 1 isolate.

Escherichia coli

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 119)

Figure 4. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 4 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Beef cattle (n = 119)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Bovine Escherichia Pilote Abattoir 119 TET 0.30252101 0.222 0.393 0.080825 0.09093
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.19327731 0.127 0.276 0.066633 0.08248
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.05042017 0.019 0.107 0.031695 0.05609
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.00840336 2E-04 0.046 0.008191 0.03753
Streptomycin STR 0.17647059 0.113 0.257 0.063787 0.08054
Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.025 0 0.02486
Kanamycin KAN 0.02521008 0.005 0.072 0.019981 0.0467
Gentamicin GEN 0.02521008 0.005 0.072 0.019981 0.0467
Cefoxitin FOX 0 0 0.025 0 0.02486
Ampicillin AMP 0.01680672 0.002 0.059 0.014765 0.04259
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.025 0 0.02486
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.025 0 0.02486
Ceftriaxone CRO 0 0 0.025 0 0.02486
Ceftiofur TIO 0 0 0.025 0 0.02486
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0 0 0.025 0 0.02486

Figure 5. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 5 - Text Equivalent
ATM 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
75 153 167 122 150 188 176 119
Ampicillin 0.013333 0.03268 0.065868 0.02459 0.053333 0.026596 0.011364 0.016807
Ceftiofur 0 0.013072 0.011976 0 0 0 0 0
Gentamicin 0 0 0.005988 0 0 0.010638 0 0.02521
Nalidixic acid 0 0.006536 0.005988 0 0 0 0 0
Streptomycin 0.12 0.137255 0.101796 0.081967 0.093333 0.117021 0.147727 0.176471
Tetracycline 0.28 0.287582 0.245509 0.221311 0.3 0.356383 0.375 0.302521
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0 0.013072 0.011976 0 0.006667 0 0 0.008403
Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 647)

Figure 6. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 6 - Text Equivalent

Figure 7. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from beef; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 7 - Text Equivalent
ATM British Columbia Saskatchewan Ontario Québec Maritimes
2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2008 2009
49 88 79 120 123 118 134 135 101 190 184 189 187 185 195 84 137 126 109 147 126 108 39 130
Ampicillin 0.020408 0.056818 0.025316 0.016667 0.00813 0.025424 0.007463 0 0.079208 0.052632 0.027174 0.037037 0.026738 0.059459 0.030769 0.071429 0.036496 0.055556 0.036697 0.034014 0.02381 0.064815 0.025641 0.053846
Ceftiofur 0 0.022727 0 0 0 0 0.007463 0 0.019802 0.005263 0 0.005291 0 0.010811 0.010256 0 0.021898 0.007937 0 0.006803 0.007937 0.009259 0.025641 0.015385
Gentamicin 0 0 0 0 0 0.008475 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.010811 0.010256 0.011905 0 0.007937 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nalidixic acid 0.020408 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005263 0 0.005291 0.005348 0 0 0.011905 0.007299 0 0 0 0 0.009259 0 0
Streptomycin 0.020408 0.090909 0.037975 0.041667 0.01626 0.008475 0.052239 0.02963 0.108911 0.063158 0.054348 0.037037 0.032086 0.113514 0.128205 0.071429 0.094891 0.039683 0.055046 0.068027 0.071429 0.092593 0.051282 0.069231
Tetracycline 0.102041 0.227273 0.101266 0.091667 0.089431 0.076271 0.201493 0.133333 0.227723 0.189474 0.173913 0.148148 0.139037 0.205405 0.230769 0.190476 0.145985 0.174603 0.201835 0.14966 0.166667 0.12037 0.179487 0.184615
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.040816 0 0.037975 0.008333 0 0 0.007463 0 0.019802 0.015789 0.01087 0.015873 0.02139 0.032432 0.035897 0.011905 0.021898 0.031746 0.018349 0.020408 0.007937 0.018519 0.025641 0.015385

Campylobacter

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 86; C. jejuni – n = 64; C. coli – n = 16; Campylobacter spp. – n = 6)

Figure 8. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

a Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Figure 8 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial zspecies bspecies project C. jejuni (n = 64) C. coli (n = 16) Campylobacter spp. (n = 6)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                  
III Tetracycline Bovine Campylobacter Pilote Abattoir 64 TET 0.5 0.372322863 0.627677137 0.127677137 0.127677137 16 TET 0.6875 0.413379364 0.889830045 0.274120636 0.202330045 6 TET 0.333333 0.043272 0.777222 0.290061 0.443889
Florfenicol FLR 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 FLR 0 0 0.170749723 0 0.170749723 FLR 0 0 0.393038 0 0.393038
II Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 NAL 0.0625 0.001581112 0.302320738 0.060918888 0.239820738 NAL 0.833333 0.358765 0.995789 0.474568 0.162456
Gentamicin GEN 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 GEN 0 0 0.170749723 0 0.170749723 GEN 0 0 0.393038 0 0.393038
Erythromycin ERY 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 ERY 0 0 0.170749723 0 0.170749723 ERY 0 0 0.393038 0 0.393038
Clindamycin CLI 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 CLI 0 0 0.170749723 0 0.170749723 CLI 0 0 0.393038 0 0.393038
Azithromycin AZM 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 AZM 0 0 0.170749723 0 0.170749723 AZM 0 0 0.393038 0 0.393038
I Telithromycin TEL 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 TEL 0 0 0.170749723 0 0.170749723 TEL 0 0 0.393038 0 0.393038
Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.045729702 0 0.045729702 CIP 0.0625 0.001581112 0.302320738 0.060918888 0.239820738 CIP 0 0 0.393038 0 0.393038

Table 9. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle, by Campylobacter species; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
a Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Table 9 - Text Equivalent
Species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides Ketolides Lincosamides Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6–7 GEN TEL CLI AZM ERY FLR CIP NAL TET
C. jejuni 64 (74.4) 32 32                       32
C. coli 16 (18.6) 4 12                   1 1 11
Campylobacter spp. a 6 (7) 1 3 2                   5 2
Total 86 (100) 37 47 2                 1 6 45

a Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Figure 9. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle; Abattoir Surveillance, 2006–2009.

a This number of isolates includes isolates from year 2005 (n = 23).

Figure 9 - Text Equivalent
.
ATM 2006 2007 2008 2009
105a 73 128 86
Azithromycin 0 0 0 0
Ciprofloxacin 0.00952 0.0137 0.0234 0.01163
Gentamicin 0 0 0 0
Tetracycline 0.45714 0.65753 0.6641 0.52326

a This number of isolates includes isolates from year 2005 (n = 23).

Chickens

Salmonella

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 230)

Figure 10. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 10 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Chickens (n = 230)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Chicken Salmonella Pilote Abattoir 230 TET 0.36956522 0.307 0.435 0.062508 0.06592
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.03043478 0.012 0.062 0.018113 0.03126
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.00434783 1E-04 0.024 0.004238 0.01964
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0 0 0.013 0 0.01294
Streptomycin STR 0.40869565 0.345 0.475 0.064159 0.06654
Nalidixic acid NAL 0.00434783 1E-04 0.024 0.004238 0.01964
Kanamycin KAN 0.01304348 0.003 0.038 0.010345 0.0246
Gentamicin GEN 0.01304348 0.003 0.038 0.010345 0.0246
Cefoxitin FOX 0.15652174 0.112 0.21 0.044424 0.05353
Ampicillin AMP 0.31304348 0.254 0.377 0.059343 0.06424
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.013 0 0.01294
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.013 0 0.01294
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.23043478 0.178 0.29 0.052801 0.05989
Ceftiofur TIO 0.23043478 0.178 0.29 0.052801 0.05989
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.23043478 0.178 0.29 0.052801 0.05989

Table 10. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 10 - Text Equivalent
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
Kentucky 95 (41.3) 16 9 69 1         70 41 40 40 24 40         1 71
Heidelberg 50 (21.7) 23 18 9       2   8 27 10 10 9 10 2          
Enteritidis 44 (19.1) 43 1             1                      
Hadar 9 (3.9) 2 1 6           7                     6
Typhimurium 6 (2.6) 5     1         1 1         1   1     1
Less common serovars 26 (11.3) 17 1 8       1 3 7 3 3 3 3 3 4         7
Total 230 (100) 106 30 92 2     3 3 94 72 53 53 36 53 7   1   1 85

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.

Figure 11. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 11 - Text Equivalent
ATM 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
25 126 142 199 187 206 234 230
Ampicillin 0.36 0.253968 0.274648 0.180905 0.15508 0.179612 0.162393 0.313043
Ceftiofur 0.12 0.063492 0.21831 0.130653 0.096257 0.121359 0.115385 0.230435
Gentamicin 0.12 0.047619 0.014085 0.020101 0.016043 0 0.004274 0.013043
Nalidixic acid 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004348
Streptomycin 0.2 0.238095 0.119718 0.135678 0.347594 0.373786 0.397436 0.408696
Tetracycline 0.08 0.190476 0.147887 0.20603 0.368984 0.441748 0.410256 0.369565
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0 0.007937 0 0.005025 0.005348 0 0 0
Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 457)

Figure 12. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 12 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial zspecies bspecies project Maritimes (n = 80) Québec (n = 105) Ontario (n = 142) Saskatchewan (n = 71) British Columbia (n = 59)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                                              
III Tetracycline Chicken Salmonella Pilote Detail 80 TET 0.2625 0.170409251 0.37285083 0.092090749 0.11035083 105 TET 0.295238095 0.210203395 0.392182572 0.0850347 0.096944476 142 TET 0.345070423 0.267362139 0.429392839 0.077708284 0.084322417 71 TET 0.267606 0.169435 0.38594 0.098171 0.118335 59 TET 0.152542 0.072202 0.26992 0.08034 0.117377
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.025 0.003042086 0.087407156 0.021957914 0.062407156 SSS 0.028571429 0.005931322 0.081231933 0.022640107 0.052660504 SSS 0.042253521 0.015661802 0.089697815 0.02659172 0.047444294 SSS 0.056338 0.015562 0.138011 0.040776 0.081673 SSS 0.016949 0.000429 0.090856 0.01652 0.073907
Chloramphenicol CHL 0 0 0.036754198 0 0.036754198 CHL 0 0 0.028127624 0 0.028127624 CHL 0.007042254 0.000178279 0.038611105 0.006863975 0.031568851 CHL 0 0 0.041316 0 0.041316 CHL 0 0 0.049508 0 0.049508
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0 0 0.036754198 0 0.036754198 SXT 0.028571429 0.005931322 0.081231933 0.022640107 0.052660504 SXT 0.007042254 0.000178279 0.038611105 0.006863975 0.031568851 SXT 0 0 0.041316 0 0.041316 SXT 0 0 0.049508 0 0.049508
Streptomycin STR 0.2375 0.149453752 0.345776971 0.088046248 0.108276971 STR 0.304761905 0.218671581 0.402201707 0.086090323 0.097439802 STR 0.352112676 0.273891846 0.436645437 0.07822083 0.084532761 STR 0.225352 0.13464 0.339999 0.090712 0.114647 STR 0.135593 0.060404 0.249804 0.07519 0.114211
Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.036754198 0 0.036754198 NAL 0 0 0.028127624 0 0.028127624 NAL 0 0 0.020875727 0 0.020875727 NAL 0 0 0.041316 0 0.041316 NAL 0 0 0.049508 0 0.049508
Kanamycin KAN 0 0 0.036754198 0 0.036754198 KAN 0 0 0.028127624 0 0.028127624 KAN 0 0 0.020875727 0 0.020875727 KAN 0 0 0.041316 0 0.041316 KAN 0.016949 0.000429 0.090856 0.01652 0.073907
Gentamicin GEN 0.0125 0.000316423 0.067687784 0.012183577 0.055187784 GEN 0.00952381 0.000241093 0.051922383 0.009282717 0.042398573 GEN 0.014084507 0.001710274 0.049950633 0.012374233 0.035866126 GEN 0 0 0.041316 0 0.041316 GEN 0 0 0.049508 0 0.049508
Cefoxitin FOX 0.1875 0.108913688 0.290327896 0.078586312 0.102827896 FOX 0.161904762 0.097238337 0.246522427 0.064666425 0.084617665 FOX 0.169014085 0.111394808 0.240961197 0.057619277 0.071947113 FOX 0.084507 0.031646 0.174916 0.052861 0.090409 FOX 0.186441 0.096919 0.309149 0.089521 0.122708
Ampicillin AMP 0.2625 0.170409251 0.37285083 0.092090749 0.11035083 AMP 0.39047619 0.296741296 0.490555695 0.093734894 0.100079505 AMP 0.316901408 0.241433774 0.4001947 0.075467634 0.083293292 AMP 0.239437 0.146095 0.355448 0.093341 0.116012 AMP 0.271186 0.163633 0.402694 0.107554 0.131507
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.036754198 0 0.036754198 AMK 0 0 0.028127624 0 0.028127624 AMK 0 0 0.020875727 0 0.020875727 AMK 0 0 0.041316 0 0.041316 AMK 0 0 0.049508 0 0.049508
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.036754198 0 0.036754198 CIP 0 0 0.028127624 0 0.028127624 CIP 0 0 0.020875727 0 0.020875727 CIP 0 0 0.041316 0 0.041316 CIP 0 0 0.049508 0 0.049508
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.1875 0.108913688 0.290327896 0.078586312 0.102827896 CRO 0.2 0.1282739 0.289325796 0.0717261 0.089325796 CRO 0.23943662 0.171870453 0.318193073 0.067566167 0.078756453 CRO 0.15493 0.079961 0.260325 0.074969 0.105395 CRO 0.271186 0.163633 0.402694 0.107554 0.131507
Ceftiofur TIO 0.1875 0.108913688 0.290327896 0.078586312 0.102827896 TIO 0.2 0.1282739 0.289325796 0.0717261 0.089325796 TIO 0.23943662 0.171870453 0.318193073 0.067566167 0.078756453 TIO 0.15493 0.079961 0.260325 0.074969 0.105395 TIO 0.271186 0.163633 0.402694 0.107554 0.131507
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.1875 0.108913688 0.290327896 0.078586312 0.102827896 AMC 0.19047619 0.12040398 0.278730119 0.07007221 0.088253928 AMC 0.23943662 0.171870453 0.318193073 0.067566167 0.078756453 AMC 0.140845 0.069663 0.243805 0.071182 0.10296 AMC 0.254237 0.149821 0.384424 0.104417 0.130187

Table 11. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chicken, by serovar; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 11 - Text Equivalent
Province / Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
British Columbia
Enteritidis 30 (50.8) 30                                      
Kentucky 10 (16.9)   4 6           6 8 7 8 3 8           7
Hadar 8 (13.6) 6 1 1           1 1 1 1 1 1           1
Heidelberg 6 (10.2)   6               6 6 6 6 6            
Worthington 2 (3.4) 1   1         1 1           1         1
Less common serovars 3 (5.1) 2 1               1 1 1 1 1            
Total 59 (100) 39 12 8         1 8 16 15 16 11 16 1         9
Saskatchewan
Enteritidis 23 (32.4) 23                                      
Heidelberg 14 (19.7) 5 7 2             9 2 3 2 3           2
Kentucky 10 (14.1)     10           10 6 6 6 2 6           10
Schwarzengrund 4 (5.6) 1   3           3           3         3
Typhimurium 4 (5.6) 4                                      
I 4,[5],12:i:- 3 (4.2) 3                                      
Infantis 3 (4.2) 2 1               1 1 1 1 1            
Agona 2 (2.8) 1 1                                   1
Montevideo 2 (2.8) 2                                      
Less common serovars 6 (8.5) 2 1 3           3 1 1 1 1 1 1         3
Total 71 (100) 43 10 18           16 17 10 11 6 11 4         19
Ontario
Kentucky 51 (35.9) 11 4 36           37 14 14 14 5 14           37
Heidelberg 44 (31) 21 20 3           2 22 13 13 13 13 1 1       1
Enteritidis 19 (13.4) 19                                      
Hadar 8 (5.6) 2   6       1   6 1 1 1 1 1 1         6
Schwarzengrund 5 (3.5) 3 2               2 2 2 2 2            
Typhimurium 4 (2.8) 2   1 1     1   2 1         2   1     1
Thompson 3 (2.1) 2   1           1 1         1          
Less common serovars 8 (5.6) 2 3 3           2 4 4 4 3 4 1         4
Total 142 (100) 62 29 50 1     2   50 45 34 34 24 34 6 1 1     49
Québec
Heidelberg 49 (46.7) 19 25 4 1         4 29 9 10 10 10 2 3       2
Kentucky 24 (22.9) 2   22           22 8 8 8 4 8           22
Enteritidis 14 (13.3) 14                                      
I 8,20:i:- 3 (2.9)   1 2           2 1 1 1 1 1           3
Infantis 3 (2.9) 1 2               2 2 2 2 2            
Thompson 3 (2.9) 3                                      
Less common serovars 9 (8.6) 4 1 4       1   4 1         1         4
Total 105 (100) 43 29 32 1     1   32 41 20 21 17 21 3 3       31
Maritimes
Heidelberg 35 (43.8) 23 10 1 1         2 12 6 6 6 6 1         1
Kentucky 21 (26.3) 5 4 12           13 5 5 5 5 5           14
Enteritidis 8 (10) 8                                      
Hadar 5 (6.3)   2 3           3                     5
Albany 2 (2.5)   2               2 2 2 2 2            
Infantis 2 (2.5) 2                                      
Kiambu 2 (2.5) 1   1       1   1 1 1 1 1 1 1          
Less common serovars 5 (6.3) 3 2               1 1 1 1 1           1
Total 80 (100) 42 20 17 1     1   19 21 15 15 15 15 2         21

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.

Figure 13. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 13 - Text Equivalent
ATM British Columbia Saskatchewan Ontario Québec Maritimes
2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2008 2009
18 47 59 21 25 43 64 71 26 55 26 36 172 139 142 28 60 26 33 113 120 105 12 80
Ampicillin 0.388889 0.276596 0.271186 0.047619 0.12 0.232558 0.09375 0.239437 0.192308 0.509091 0.192308 0.166667 0.162791 0.136691 0.316901 0.607143 0.466667 0.230769 0.151515 0.159292 0.208333 0.390476 0.166667 0.2625
Ceftiofur 0.333333 0.234043 0.271186 0 0.04 0.023256 0.046875 0.15493 0.115385 0.454545 0.153846 0.138889 0.110465 0.100719 0.239437 0.5 0.366667 0.153846 0.090909 0.088496 0.15 0.2 0.166667 0.1875
Gentamicin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.038462 0 0 0 0.017442 0.007194 0.014085 0.035714 0.033333 0 0 0.026549 0.016667 0.009524 0.083333 0.0125
Nalidixic acid 0 0 0 0.095238 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Streptomycin 0.111111 0.297872 0.135593 0.428571 0.2 0.372093 0.359375 0.225352 0.038462 0.036364 0.115385 0.25 0.30814 0.323741 0.352113 0.214286 0.216667 0.076923 0.393939 0.371681 0.308333 0.304762 0.166667 0.2375
Tetracycline 0.166667 0.297872 0.152542 0.52381 0.32 0.348837 0.359375 0.267606 0 0.036364 0.076923 0.25 0.343023 0.359712 0.34507 0.214286 0.216667 0.076923 0.393939 0.371681 0.35 0.295238 0.083333 0.2625
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0 0 0 0 0 0.023256 0 0 0 0.018182 0 0.027778 0.005814 0.007194 0.007042 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.028571 0 0
Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 253)

Figure 14. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from chickens; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 14 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Chickens (n = 253)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Chicken Salmonella Diagnostic / clinical cases 253 TET 0.15019763 0.109 0.2 0.041665 0.05008
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.04347826 0.022 0.076 0.021577 0.03298
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.03162055 0.014 0.061 0.017872 0.02973
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0 0 0.012 0 0.01177
Streptomycin STR 0.13833992 0.098 0.187 0.040053 0.04877
Nalidixic acid NAL 0.01185771 0.002 0.034 0.009406 0.0224
Kanamycin KAN 0 0 0.012 0 0.01177
Gentamicin GEN 0.01185771 0.002 0.034 0.009406 0.0224
Cefoxitin FOX 0.07905138 0.049 0.119 0.030097 0.0404
Ampicillin AMP 0.11462451 0.078 0.16 0.0365 0.04583
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.012 0 0.01177
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.012 0 0.01177
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.09486166 0.062 0.138 0.033133 0.04299
Ceftiofur TIO 0.09486166 0.062 0.138 0.033133 0.04299
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.09090909 0.059 0.133 0.032406 0.04237

Table 12. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from chickens, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Serovar identity was not available for 2 isolates.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 12 - Text Equivalent
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
Enteritidis 129 (51.4) 127     2     1   2 2 2 2   2 2   2     2
Heidelberg 39 (15.5) 33 4 1 1     1   1 6 4 5 3 5 1   1     2
Kentucky 31 (12.4) 5 1 23 2         24 8 7 7 7 7         3 24
Typhimurium 14 (5.6) 10 1   3         3 4 1 1 1 1 3   3     3
I Rough:g,m:- 7 (2.8) 7                                      
Less common serovars 31 (12.4) 16 9 4 2     1   5 9 9 9 9 9 5   2     7
Total 251 (100) 198 15 28 10     3   35 29 23 24 20 24 11   8   3 38

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Serovar identity was not available for 2 isolates.

Escherichia coli

Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 171)

Figure 15. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 15 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Chickens (n = 171)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Chicken Escherichia Pilote Abattoir 171 TET 0.43859649 0.363 0.516 0.075646 0.07781
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.35672515 0.285 0.433 0.07166 0.07672
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.08187135 0.045 0.134 0.036389 0.05168
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.09356725 0.054 0.147 0.039135 0.05393
Streptomycin STR 0.4502924 0.374 0.528 0.076046 0.0778
Nalidixic acid NAL 0.04678363 0.02 0.09 0.026372 0.04332
Kanamycin KAN 0.14619883 0.097 0.208 0.049298 0.06201
Gentamicin GEN 0.11695906 0.073 0.175 0.044034 0.05788
Cefoxitin FOX 0.31578947 0.247 0.391 0.068836 0.07535
Ampicillin AMP 0.43274854 0.357 0.511 0.075431 0.0778
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.017 0 0.01737
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.017 0 0.01737
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.30994152 0.242 0.385 0.068383 0.07511
Ceftiofur TIO 0.28654971 0.22 0.361 0.066441 0.074
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.31578947 0.247 0.391 0.068836 0.07535

Figure 16. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chickens; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 16 - Text Equivalent
ATM 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
40 153 130 220 167 180 170 171
Ampicillin 0.325 0.411765 0.430769 0.381818 0.431138 0.388889 0.364706 0.432749
Ceftiofur 0.1 0.169935 0.253846 0.204545 0.209581 0.261111 0.2 0.28655
Gentamicin 0.2 0.150327 0.115385 0.113636 0.083832 0.111111 0.076471 0.116959
Nalidixic acid 0 0.039216 0.030769 0.045455 0.035928 0.022222 0.035294 0.046784
Streptomycin 0.525 0.522876 0.530769 0.431818 0.335329 0.4 0.435294 0.450292
Tetracycline 0.65 0.69281 0.553846 0.577273 0.51497 0.572222 0.505882 0.438596
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.075 0.078431 0.115385 0.086364 0.095808 0.044444 0.117647 0.093567
Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 619)

Figure 17. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 17 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial zspecies bspecies project Maritimes (n = 178) Québec (n = 126) Ontario (n = 155) Saskatchewan (n = 90) British Columbia (n = 70)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                                              
III Tetracycline Chicken Escherichia Pilote Detail 178 TET 0.404494382 0.331726652 0.480498153 0.07276773 0.076003771 126 TET 0.603174603 0.512184973 0.689198454 0.09098963 0.086023851 155 TET 0.490322581 0.409256937 0.571765238 0.081065643 0.081442657 90 TET 0.511111 0.403458 0.618013 0.107653 0.106901 70 TET 0.457143 0.337448 0.580579 0.119695 0.123436
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.387640449 0.315677703 0.463411603 0.071962746 0.075771153 SSS 0.484126984 0.394203154 0.57481391 0.08992383 0.090686926 SSS 0.283870968 0.214440812 0.361765402 0.069430155 0.077894434 SSS 0.255556 0.169406 0.358386 0.086149 0.10283 SSS 0.3 0.196227 0.421334 0.103773 0.121334
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.061797753 0.031249851 0.107881456 0.030547902 0.046083704 CHL 0.023809524 0.00493727 0.068004864 0.018872253 0.044195341 CHL 0.051612903 0.022543199 0.099163338 0.029069705 0.047550435 CHL 0.044444 0.012241 0.109901 0.032204 0.065456 CHL 0.071429 0.023598 0.158872 0.04783 0.087444
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.151685393 0.102403438 0.212968658 0.049281955 0.061283265 SXT 0.158730159 0.099735576 0.234446482 0.058994582 0.075716323 SXT 0.116129032 0.070297041 0.177314075 0.045831992 0.061185043 SXT 0.055556 0.018283 0.124903 0.037273 0.069347 SXT 0.028571 0.003479 0.099429 0.025092 0.070858
Streptomycin STR 0.353932584 0.283849987 0.428970477 0.070082597 0.075037893 STR 0.563492063 0.472309559 0.651620943 0.091182504 0.088128879 STR 0.406451613 0.328374371 0.488176471 0.078077242 0.081724858 STR 0.366667 0.267522 0.474851 0.099145 0.108185 STR 0.342857 0.233482 0.465996 0.109376 0.123139
Nalidixic acid NAL 0.039325843 0.015954846 0.079345072 0.023370997 0.04001923 NAL 0.031746032 0.008716161 0.079288006 0.023029871 0.047541974 NAL 0.032258065 0.010555494 0.073671589 0.021702571 0.041413525 NAL 0.044444 0.012241 0.109901 0.032204 0.065456 NAL 0.071429 0.023598 0.158872 0.04783 0.087444
Kanamycin KAN 0.08988764 0.052254043 0.141867274 0.037633598 0.051979634 KAN 0.119047619 0.068184548 0.188740495 0.050863071 0.069692876 KAN 0.122580645 0.075440453 0.184791229 0.047140192 0.062210584 KAN 0.177778 0.105169 0.272585 0.072609 0.094807 KAN 0.028571 0.003479 0.099429 0.025092 0.070858
Gentamicin GEN 0.140449438 0.092998843 0.200312877 0.047450596 0.059863439 GEN 0.26984127 0.194662665 0.356158362 0.075178605 0.086317092 GEN 0.070967742 0.035957213 0.123431796 0.035010529 0.052464054 GEN 0.077778 0.031843 0.153706 0.045935 0.075928 GEN 0.014286 0.000362 0.077044 0.013924 0.062758
Cefoxitin FOX 0.269662921 0.206004439 0.341164247 0.063658482 0.071501326 FOX 0.23015873 0.159881717 0.313536374 0.070277013 0.083377643 FOX 0.225806452 0.162603886 0.299791845 0.063202566 0.073985393 FOX 0.244444 0.159969 0.346377 0.084475 0.101932 FOX 0.485714 0.364402 0.608273 0.121312 0.122559
Ampicillin AMP 0.426966292 0.353260733 0.503145577 0.073705559 0.076179284 AMP 0.412698413 0.325764709 0.503832507 0.086933704 0.091134094 AMP 0.406451613 0.328374371 0.488176471 0.078077242 0.081724858 AMP 0.355556 0.257434 0.463474 0.098121 0.107918 AMP 0.614286 0.490299 0.72828 0.123986 0.113994
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.016689124 0 0.016689124 AMK 0 0 0.023495239 0 0.023495239 AMK 0 0 0.01914173 0 0.01914173 AMK 0 0 0.032738 0 0.032738 AMK 0 0 0.041893 0 0.041893
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.016689124 0 0.016689124 CIP 0 0 0.023495239 0 0.023495239 CIP 0 0 0.01914173 0 0.01914173 CIP 0 0 0.032738 0 0.032738 CIP 0 0 0.041893 0 0.041893
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.275280899 0.211110033 0.347100822 0.064170866 0.071819923 CRO 0.214285714 0.146216791 0.296247892 0.068068923 0.081962178 CRO 0.225806452 0.162603886 0.299791845 0.063202566 0.073985393 CRO 0.244444 0.159969 0.346377 0.084475 0.101932 CRO 0.471429 0.350878 0.594472 0.12055 0.123044
Ceftiofur TIO 0.275280899 0.211110033 0.347100822 0.064170866 0.071819923 TIO 0.19047619 0.126019982 0.270025758 0.064456209 0.079549567 TIO 0.212903226 0.151314451 0.285795924 0.061588775 0.072892698 TIO 0.233333 0.150612 0.334292 0.082722 0.100958 TIO 0.414286 0.297721 0.538338 0.116565 0.124053
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.280898876 0.216228534 0.353024719 0.064670343 0.072125843 AMC 0.23015873 0.159881717 0.313536374 0.070277013 0.083377643 AMC 0.232258065 0.168282331 0.306757029 0.063975734 0.074498965 AMC 0.255556 0.169406 0.358386 0.086149 0.10283 AMC 0.485714 0.364402 0.608273 0.121312 0.122559

Figure 18. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 18 - Text Equivalent
ATM British Columbia Saskatchewan Ontario Québec Maritimes
2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2008 2009
42 70 70 81 85 75 91 90 136 150 145 152 157 150 155 111 158 142 135 128 131 126 37 178
Ampicillin 0.595238 0.628571 0.614286 0.246914 0.305882 0.346667 0.406593 0.355556 0.352941 0.393333 0.331034 0.421053 0.388535 0.393333 0.406452 0.495495 0.518987 0.492958 0.348148 0.34375 0.328244 0.412698 0.297297 0.426966
Ceftiofur 0.285714 0.485714 0.414286 0.037037 0.058824 0.133333 0.197802 0.233333 0.176471 0.213333 0.172414 0.223684 0.22293 0.24 0.212903 0.324324 0.341772 0.246479 0.059259 0.132813 0.183206 0.190476 0.189189 0.275281
Gentamicin 0 0.057143 0.014286 0.061728 0.058824 0.106667 0.076923 0.077778 0.066176 0.053333 0.068966 0.059211 0.133758 0.12 0.070968 0.171171 0.101266 0.105634 0.214815 0.242188 0.206107 0.269841 0.054054 0.140449
Nalidixic acid 0.047619 0.042857 0.071429 0.049383 0.035294 0.053333 0.065934 0.044444 0.014706 0.006667 0.006897 0.032895 0.031847 0.04 0.032258 0 0.050633 0.021127 0.007407 0.03125 0.083969 0.031746 0 0.039326
Streptomycin 0.214286 0.314286 0.342857 0.259259 0.329412 0.32 0.285714 0.366667 0.316176 0.333333 0.255172 0.263158 0.305732 0.333333 0.406452 0.477477 0.455696 0.359155 0.42963 0.367188 0.389313 0.563492 0.297297 0.353933
Tetracycline 0.452381 0.457143 0.457143 0.481481 0.470588 0.44 0.483516 0.511111 0.507353 0.52 0.462069 0.414474 0.484076 0.4 0.490323 0.567568 0.531646 0.429577 0.488889 0.484375 0.450382 0.603175 0.405405 0.404494
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.166667 0.057143 0.028571 0.012346 0.011765 0.04 0.032967 0.055556 0.036765 0.04 0.034483 0.039474 0.038217 0.066667 0.116129 0.117117 0.113924 0.098592 0.059259 0.117188 0.152672 0.15873 0.162162 0.151685

Campylobacter

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 325)

Figure 19. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 19. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.
Figure 19 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial zspecies bspecies project Maritimes (n = 47) Québec (n = 52) Ontario (n = 101) Saskatchewan (n = 48) British Columbia (n = 77)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                                              
III Tetracycline Chicken Campylobacter Pilote Detail 47 TET 0.531914894 0.38077789 0.678884731 0.151137004 0.146969838 52 TET 0.615384615 0.470184822 0.746953471 0.145199794 0.131568856 101 TET 0.386138614 0.290905457 0.488233825 0.095233157 0.102095212 48 TET 0.604167 0.452696 0.742301 0.151471 0.138134 77 TET 0.532468 0.415213 0.647149 0.117254 0.114681
Florfenicol FLR 0 0 0.061750135 0 0.061750135 FLR 0 0 0.05598218 0 0.05598218 FLR 0 0 0.029225154 0 0.029225154 FLR 0 0 0.060503 0 0.060503 FLR 0 0 0.038159 0 0.038159
II Nalidixic acid NAL 0.042553191 0.005195583 0.145405245 0.037357608 0.102852054 NAL 0 0 0.05598218 0 0.05598218 NAL 0.00990099 0.00025064 0.053932347 0.00965035 0.044031357 NAL 0.145833 0.060704 0.277638 0.085129 0.131805 NAL 0.285714 0.188489 0.400035 0.097225 0.114321
Gentamicin GEN 0 0 0.061750135 0 0.061750135 GEN 0 0 0.05598218 0 0.05598218 GEN 0 0 0.029225154 0 0.029225154 GEN 0 0 0.060503 0 0.060503 GEN 0 0 0.038159 0 0.038159
Erythromycin ERY 0.063829787 0.013361769 0.17539243 0.050468018 0.111562643 ERY 0.076923077 0.021356586 0.185396604 0.05556649 0.108473527 ERY 0.04950495 0.016267215 0.111755059 0.033237735 0.062250108 ERY 0 0 0.060503 0 0.060503 ERY 0 0 0.038159 0 0.038159
Clindamycin CLI 0.021276596 0.000538532 0.112937717 0.020738064 0.091661121 CLI 0.019230769 0.000486762 0.102553545 0.018744007 0.083322775 CLI 0.02970297 0.00616786 0.084356898 0.023535111 0.054653928 CLI 0 0 0.060503 0 0.060503 CLI 0 0 0.038159 0 0.038159
Azithromycin AZM 0.063829787 0.013361769 0.17539243 0.050468018 0.111562643 AZM 0.076923077 0.021356586 0.185396604 0.05556649 0.108473527 AZM 0.04950495 0.016267215 0.111755059 0.033237735 0.062250108 AZM 0 0 0.060503 0 0.060503 AZM 0 0 0.038159 0 0.038159
I Telithromycin TEL 0.063829787 0.013361769 0.17539243 0.050468018 0.111562643 TEL 0.057692308 0.012059318 0.159473359 0.04563299 0.101781051 TEL 0.03960396 0.010894484 0.098305019 0.028709477 0.058701058 TEL 0 0 0.060503 0 0.060503 TEL 0 0 0.038159 0 0.038159
Ciprofloxacin CIP 0.042553191 0.005195583 0.145405245 0.037357608 0.102852054 CIP 0 0 0.05598218 0 0.05598218 CIP 0.00990099 0.00025064 0.053932347 0.00965035 0.044031357 CIP 0.145833 0.060704 0.277638 0.085129 0.131805 CIP 0.285714 0.188489 0.400035 0.097225 0.114321

Figure 20. Resistance to antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates (n = 325) from chicken, by Campylobacter species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Figure 20 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on their importance in human medicine Antimicrobial zspecies bspecies project Campylobacter jejuni (n = 290) Campylobacter coli (n = 34) Campylobacter spp. (n = 1)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                  
III Tetracycline Chicken Campylobacter Pilote Detail 290 TET 0.520689655 0.461511016 0.579441313 0.05917864 0.058751658 34 TET 0.441176471 0.271850196 0.621142356 0.169326274 0.179965885 1 TET 0 0 0.95 0 0.95
Florfenicol FLR 0 0 0.010276939 0 0.010276939 FLR 0 0 0.084339643 0 0.084339643 FLR 0 0 0.95 0 0.95
II Nalidixic acid NAL 0.086206897 0.056565644 0.124627595 0.029641252 0.038420699 NAL 0.176470588 0.067640653 0.345315131 0.108829936 0.168844543 NAL 1 0.05 1 0.95 0
Gentamicin GEN 0 0 0.010276939 0 0.010276939 GEN 0 0 0.084339643 0 0.084339643 GEN 0 0 0.95 0 0.95
Erythromycin ERY 0.037931034 0.019084499 0.066854332 0.018846536 0.028923297 ERY 0.029411765 0.000744364 0.15326767 0.0286674 0.123855905 ERY 0 0 0.95 0 0.95
Clindamycin CLI 0.013793103 0.003770604 0.034937326 0.010022499 0.021144222 CLI 0.029411765 0.000744364 0.15326767 0.0286674 0.123855905 CLI 0 0 0.95 0 0.95
Azithromycin AZM 0.037931034 0.019084499 0.066854332 0.018846536 0.028923297 AZM 0.029411765 0.000744364 0.15326767 0.0286674 0.123855905 AZM 0 0 0.95 0 0.95
I Telithromycin TEL 0.031034483 0.0142872 0.058093651 0.016747283 0.027059169 TEL 0.029411765 0.000744364 0.15326767 0.0286674 0.123855905 TEL 0 0 0.95 0 0.95
Ciprofloxacin CIP 0.086206897 0.056565644 0.124627595 0.029641252 0.038420699 CIP 0.176470588 0.067640653 0.345315131 0.108829936 0.168844543 CIP 1 0.05 1 0.95 0

Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Table 13. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Campylobacter isolates from chicken, by species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 13 - Text Equivalent
Province / Species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides Ketolides Lincosamides Macrolides Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6–7 GEN TEL CLI AZM ERY FLR CIP NAL TET
British Columbia
C. jejuni 65 (84.4) 21 31 13                 18 18 39
C. coli 11 (14.3) 6 5                   3 3 2
Campylobacter spp. 1 (1.3)   1                   1 1  
Total 77 (100) 27 37 13                 22 22 41
Saskatchewan
C. jejuni 41 (85.4) 16 20 5                 6 6 24
C. coli 7 (14.6) 1 6                   1 1 5
Total 48 (100) 17 26 5                 7 7 29
Ontario
C. jejuni 94 (93.1) 54 36 4       3 2 4 4   1 1 36
C. coli 7 (6.9) 3 3 1       1 1 1 1       3
Total 101 (100) 57 39 5       4 3 5 5   1 1 39
Québec
C. jejuni 48 (92.3) 17 27 4       3 1 4 4       30
C. coli 4 (7.7) 2 2                       2
Total 52 (100) 19 29 4       3 1 4 4       32
Maritimes
C. jejuni 42 (89.4) 20 19 2 1     3 1 3 3       22
C. coli 5 (10.6) 2 1 2                 2 2 3
Total 47 (100) 22 20 4 1     3 1 3 3   2 2 25

Campylobacter spp. includes unidentified species, some of which may be intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid.

Figure 21. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Campylobacter isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Ciprofloxacin has replaced nalidixic acid in the Campylobacter temporal graphs because resistance to nalidixic acid is close or identical to ciprofloxacin resistance. Unlike resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin resistance does not pose the problem associated with intrinsic resistance in certain Campylobacter spp.

Figure 21 - Text Equivalent
ATM British Columbia Saskatchewan Ontario Québec Maritimes
2007 2008 2009 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2008 2009
28 50 77 52 51 49 40 48 78 140 120 105 117 120 101 94 158 103 100 59 54 52 2 47
Ciprofloxacin 0.03571 0.08 0.2857 0.057692 0.019608 0.061224 0.1 0.145833 0.038462 0.021429 0.025 0.028571 0.008547 0.041667 0.009901 0.031915 0.025316 0.019417 0.02 0.135593 0 0 0 0.042553
Azithromycin 0 0 0 0 0.019608 0.020408 0 0 0.089744 0.078571 0.05 0.038095 0.017094 0.083333 0.049505 0.223404 0.158228 0.126214 0.09 0.101695 0.111111 0.076923 0 0.06383
Gentamicin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.012821 0 0 0 0 0.008333 0 0.021277 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tetracycline 0.39286 0.32 0.5325 0.538462 0.352941 0.387755 0.45 0.604167 0.576923 0.471429 0.608333 0.552381 0.57265 0.491667 0.386139 0.702128 0.791139 0.699029 0.66 0.542373 0.555556 0.615385 0.5 0.531915

Enterococcus

Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 459)

Figure 22. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

a Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (QDA) and lincomycin (LIN) is not reported for E. faecalis because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to these antimicrobials.
Due to quality control and other laboratory-based issues, results of Enterococcus isolates from the Maritimes are not presented in 2009 (n=89).

Figure 22 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial SPECIES Final_Id_Genus PROJECT_1 British Columbia (n = 72, QDA and LIN n = 9) Saskatchewan (n = 92, QDA and LIN n = 6) Ontario (n = 164, QDA and LIN n = 13) Québec (n = 131, QDA and LIN n = 5) Maritimes (n = 89, QDA and LIN n = 2)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                                              
III Tetracycline Chicken Enterococcus Pilote Detail 72 TET 0.763888889 0.649099966 0.856033936 0.114788923 0.092145047 92 TET 0.826087 0.733 0.9 0.093091555 0.071111534 164 TET 0.853658537 0.790124124 0.903930548 0.063534412 0.050272012 131 TET 0.832061 0.756852 0.891659 0.075209 0.059597 89 TET 0.898876 0.816698 0.952707 0.082178 0.053831
Nitrofurantoin 72 NIT 0.055555556 0.015342537 0.136178649 0.040213018 0.080623094 92 NIT 0.054348 0.018 0.12 0.036468033 0.06793931 164 NIT 0.042682927 0.01733041 0.085963475 0.025352517 0.043280548 131 NIT 0.007634 0.000193 0.041797 0.00744 0.034163 89 NIT 0.011236 0.000284 0.061018 0.010952 0.049782
Chloramphenicol 72 CHL 0.027777778 0.0033819 0.096767289 0.024395877 0.068989511 92 CHL 0 0 0.03 0 0.032037863 164 CHL 0.006097561 0.000154365 0.033503677 0.005943196 0.027406116 131 CHL 0.030534 0.008381 0.076334 0.022153 0.0458 89 CHL 0 0 0.0331 0 0.0331
II Tylosin 72 TYL 0.458333333 0.34024584 0.579955591 0.118087494 0.121622258 92 TYL 0.554348 0.447 0.66 0.107313215 0.10371685 164 TYL 0.542682927 0.463215618 0.620579708 0.079467309 0.077896781 131 TYL 0.59542 0.506188 0.680238 0.089232 0.084818 89 TYL 0.393258 0.291327 0.502503 0.101932 0.109245
Streptomycin 72 STR 0.291666667 0.190453298 0.410667155 0.101213368 0.119000488 92 STR 0.293478 0.203 0.4 0.090361019 0.104102993 164 STR 0.243902439 0.180321977 0.31697736 0.063580462 0.073074921 131 STR 0.351145 0.269833 0.439353 0.081313 0.088208 89 STR 0.258427 0.171404 0.36212 0.087023 0.103693
Quinupristin-dalfopristina 9 QDA 0.666666667 0.299295056 0.925145369 0.36737161 0.258478702 6 QDA 0.5 0.118 0.88 0.381882751 0.381882751 13 QDA 0.461538462 0.192232442 0.748654518 0.26930602 0.287116056 5 QDA 0.6 0.146633 0.947255 0.453367 0.347255 2 QDA 0.5 0.012579 0.987421 0.487421 0.487421
Penicillin 72 PEN 0.027777778 0.0033819 0.096767289 0.024395877 0.068989511 92 PEN 0.01087 3E-04 0.06 0.01059441 0.048208286 164 PEN 0.024390244 0.006684615 0.061268896 0.017705629 0.036878652 131 PEN 0.007634 0.000193 0.041797 0.00744 0.034163 89 PEN 0.011236 0.000284 0.061018 0.010952 0.049782
Lincomycina 9 LIN 1 0.716871164 1 0.283128836 0 6 LIN 1 0.607 1 0.393037769 0 13 LIN 0.923076923 0.639702565 0.998054372 0.283374358 0.074977448 5 LIN 1 0.54928 1 0.45072 0 2 LIN 1 0.223607 1 0.776393 0
Kanamycin 72 KAN 0.194444444 0.110583787 0.304668933 0.083860658 0.110224489 92 KAN 0.173913 0.103 0.27 0.071111534 0.093091555 164 KAN 0.25 0.18576583 0.323498426 0.06423417 0.073498426 131 KAN 0.221374 0.153549 0.302211 0.067825 0.080837 89 KAN 0.157303 0.088754 0.249823 0.068549 0.092519
Gentamicin 72 GEN 0 0 0.040753686 0 0.040753686 92 GEN 0.043478 0.012 0.11 0.031506667 0.06411519 164 GEN 0.079268293 0.042881623 0.131736702 0.03638667 0.052468409 131 GEN 0.099237 0.053905 0.163719 0.045331 0.064482 89 GEN 0.011236 0.000284 0.061018 0.010952 0.049782
Erythromycin 72 ERY 0.458333333 0.34024584 0.579955591 0.118087494 0.121622258 92 ERY 0.554348 0.447 0.66 0.107313215 0.10371685 164 ERY 0.542682927 0.463215618 0.620579708 0.079467309 0.077896781 131 ERY 0.59542 0.506188 0.680238 0.089232 0.084818 89 ERY 0.393258 0.291327 0.502503 0.101932 0.109245
I Vancomycin 72 VAN 0 0 0.040753686 0 0.040753686 92 VAN 0 0 0.03 0 0.032037863 164 VAN 0 0 0.018100836 0 0.018100836 131 VAN 0 0 0.022609 0 0.022609 89 VAN 0 0 0.0331 0 0.0331
Tigecycline 72 TIG 0 0 0.040753686 0 0.040753686 92 TIG 0 0 0.03 0 0.032037863 164 TIG 0 0 0.018100836 0 0.018100836 131 TIG 0 0 0.022609 0 0.022609 89 TIG 0 0 0.0331 0 0.0331
Linezolid 72 LNZ 0 0 0.040753686 0 0.040753686 92 LNZ 0 0 0.03 0 0.032037863 164 LNZ 0 0 0.018100836 0 0.018100836 131 LNZ 0 0 0.022609 0 0.022609 89 LNZ 0 0 0.0331 0 0.0331
Daptomycin 72 DAP 0 0 0.040753686 0 0.040753686 92 DAP 0 0 0.03 0 0.032037863 164 DAP 0 0 0.018100836 0 0.018100836 131 DAP 0 0 0.022609 0 0.022609 89 DAP 0 0 0.0331 0 0.0331
Ciprofloxacin 72 CIP 0.055555556 0.015342537 0.136178649 0.040213018 0.080623094 92 CIP 0 0 0.03 0 0.032037863 164 CIP 0.030487805 0.009971953 0.069711485 0.020515852 0.03922368 131 CIP 0.022901 0.004748 0.065467 0.018153 0.042566 89 CIP 0.011236 0.000284 0.061018 0.010952 0.049782

a Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (QDA) and lincomycin (LIN) is not reported for E. faecalis because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to these antimicrobials.
Due to quality control and other laboratory-based issues, results of Enterococcus isolates from the Maritimes are not presented in 2009 (n=89).

Figure 23. Resistance to antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by Enterococcus species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

a Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin and lincomycin is not reported for E. faecalis because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to these antimicrobials.

Figure 23 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial SPECIES bspecies project E. faecalis (n = 426) E. faecium (n = 8) Enterococcus spp. (n = 25)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                  
III Tetracycline Chicken Enterococcus Pilote Detail 426 TET 0.8450704 0.8071543 0.878106159 0.037916074 0.033035736 8 TET 0.75 0.349144206 0.968145974 0.400855794 0.218145974 25 TET 0.56 0.349282 0.755976 0.210718 0.195976
Nitrofurantoin 426 NIT 0.0046948 0.0005691 0.016855679 0.004125763 0.012160844 NIT 0.625 0.244863216 0.914766586 0.380136784 0.289766586 NIT 0.4 0.211255 0.613347 0.188745 0.213347
Chloramphenicol 426 CHL 0.0164319 0.0066314 0.033561695 0.009800569 0.017129771 CHL 0 0 0.312343978 0 0.312343978 CHL 0 0 0.112928 0 0.112928
II Tylosin 426 TYL 0.5657277 0.5171664 0.61336992 0.048561346 0.047642221 TYL 0.5 0.15701277 0.84298723 0.34298723 0.34298723 TYL 0.24 0.093564 0.451288 0.146436 0.211288
Streptomycin 426 STR 0.286385 0.2438955 0.331870507 0.042489461 0.045485531 STR 0.75 0.349144206 0.968145974 0.400855794 0.218145974 STR 0.24 0.093564 0.451288 0.146436 0.211288
Quinupristin-dalfopristina 0 QDA 0 0 0 0 0 QDA 0.875 0.473490329 0.996840276 0.401509671 0.121840276 QDA 0.44 0.244024 0.650718 0.195976 0.210718
Penicillin 426 PEN 0 0 0.007007567 0 0.007007567 PEN 0.625 0.244863216 0.914766586 0.380136784 0.289766586 PEN 0.12 0.025465 0.31219 0.094535 0.19219
Lincomycina 0 LIN 0 0 0 0 0 LIN 1 0.687656022 1 0.312343978 0 LIN 0.96 0.796483 0.998988 0.163517 0.038988
Kanamycin 426 KAN 0.2159624 0.1778027 0.258119254 0.038159789 0.042156813 KAN 0.25 0.031854026 0.650855794 0.218145974 0.400855794 KAN 0.24 0.093564 0.451288 0.146436 0.211288
Gentamicin 426 GEN 0.0680751 0.0460616 0.096306259 0.022013493 0.028231142 GEN 0 0 0.312343978 0 0.312343978 GEN 0.04 0.001012 0.203517 0.038988 0.163517
Erythromycin 426 ERY 0.5657277 0.5171664 0.61336992 0.048561346 0.047642221 ERY 0.5 0.15701277 0.84298723 0.34298723 0.34298723 ERY 0.24 0.093564 0.451288 0.146436 0.211288
I Vancomycin 426 VAN 0 0 0.007007567 0 0.007007567 VAN 0 0 0.312343978 0 0.312343978 VAN 0 0 0.112928 0 0.112928
Tigecycline 426 TIG 0 0 0.007007567 0 0.007007567 TIG 0 0 0.312343978 0 0.312343978 TIG 0 0 0.112928 0 0.112928
Linezolid 426 LNZ 0 0 0.007007567 0 0.007007567 LNZ 0 0 0.312343978 0 0.312343978 LNZ 0 0 0.112928 0 0.112928
Daptomycin 426 DAP 0 0 0.007007567 0 0.007007567 DAP 0 0 0.312343978 0 0.312343978 DAP 0 0 0.112928 0 0.112928
Ciprofloxacin 426 CIP 0.0117371 0.0038217 0.027176625 0.007915406 0.015439536 CIP 0.625 0.244863216 0.914766586 0.380136784 0.289766586 CIP 0.08 0.00984 0.260306 0.07016 0.180306

a Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin and lincomycin is not reported for E. faecalis because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to these antimicrobials.

Table 14. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Enterococcus isolates from chicken, by species; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.
a Because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to lincomycin and quinupristine-dalfopristine the range is 10-11.

Table 14 - Text Equivalent
Province / Species Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides Glycopeptides Glycylcyclines Lincosamides Lipopeptides Macrolides Nitrofurans Oxazolidinones Penicillins Phenicols Quinolones Streptogramins Tetracyclines
  1 2–5 6–9 10–13 a GEN KAN STR VAN TIG LIN DAP ERY TYL NIT LNZ PEN CHL CIP QDA TET
British Columbia
E. faecalis 63 (87.5) 10 21 32       12 17         31 31       2 2   50
Enterococcus spp. 7 (9.7)     7       1 2     7   1 1 3         4 3
E. faecium 2 (2.8)       2     1 2     2   1 1 1   2   2 2 2
Total 72 (100) 10 21 39 2     14 21     9   33 33 4   2 2 4 6 55
Saskatchewan
E. faecalis 86 (93.5) 8 30 48     4 16 27         51 51             72
Enterococcus spp. 5 (5.4)     5               5       4   1     2 3
E. faecium 1 (1.1)     1               1       1         1 1
Total 92 (100) 8 30 54     4 16 27     6   51 51 5   1     3 76
Ontario
E. faecalis 151 (92.1) 15 50 86     12 36 34         82 82 2     1 1   131
Enterococcus spp. 9 (5.5)   2 5 2   1 4 3     8   4 4 2   1   2 3 6
E. faecium 4 (2.4)   1   3     1 3     4   3 3 3   3   2 3 3
Total 164 (100) 15 53 91 5   13 41 40     12   89 89 7   4 1 5 6 140
Québec
E. faecalis 126 (96.2) 10 38 78     13 28 44         77 77       4 2   107
Enterococcus spp. 4 (3.1)   1 3       1 1     4   1 1 1   1     2 2
E. faecium 1 (0.8)     1         1     1               1 1  
Total 131 (100) 10 39 82     13 29 46     5   78 78 1   1 4 3 3 109

a Because E. faecalis is intrinsically resistant to lincomycin and quinupristine-dalfopristine the range is 10-11.

Figure 24. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Enterococcus isolates from chicken; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Due to quality control and other laboratory-based issues, results of Enterococcus isolates from the Maritimes are not presented in 2009 (n=89).

Figure 24 - Text Equivalent

Due to quality control and other laboratory-based issues, results of Enterococcus isolates from the Maritimes are not presented in 2009 (n=89).

Pigs

Salmonella

Farm Surveillance

(n =124)

Figure 25. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 25 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Pigs (n = 124)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Porcine Escherichia CIPARS On-farm 124 TET 0.65597312 0.533 0.761 0.122772 0.10498
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.44882978 0.328 0.576 0.120732 0.12708
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.15726769 0.085 0.273 0.072262 0.11539
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.12440078 0.065 0.224 0.058983 0.09943
Streptomycin STR 0.48133368 0.361 0.604 0.119981 0.1222
Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.056 0 0.05585
Kanamycin KAN 0.1537483 0.084 0.264 0.069509 0.11033
Gentamicin GEN 0.008044 0.001 0.054 0.006889 0.04577
Cefoxitin FOX 0 0 0.056 0 0.05585
Ampicillin AMP 0.29648345 0.199 0.417 0.097586 0.12054
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.056 0 0.05585
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.056 0 0.05585
Ceftriaxone CRO 0 0 0.056 0 0.05585
Ceftiofur TIO 0 0 0.056 0 0.05585
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0 0 0.056 0 0.05585

Table 15. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns in Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as ''Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 15 - Text Equivalent
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
Typhimurium var. 5- 28 (22.6)   2 15 11       11 13 15         12 4 7     28
Derby 25(20.2) 6 1 17 1         18 1         18 1       19
Typhimurium 13(10.5) 1   3 9       12 12 9         12 6 7     11
Brandenburg 12(9.7) 2 8 2             2                   10
Infantis 7(5.6) 7                                      
Senftenberg 5(4.0) 5                                      
I 4,12:i:- 4(3.2)     1 3         3 4         3 1       4
Schwarzengrund 4(3.2) 1   3           3           3         3
Bovismorbificans 3(2.4) 1 2               2                    
I 4,12:-:e,n,z15 3(2.4) 3                                      
Cerro 2(1.6) 2                                      
London 2(1.6) 2                                      
Rissen 2(1.6) 1   1           1           1         1
Less common serovars 14(11.3) 5 4 2 3     1 3 5 3         4 3 1     8
Total 124(100) 36 17 44 27     1 26 55 36         53 15 15     84

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as ''Less common serovars”.

Figure 26. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

Figure 26 - Text Equivalent
ATM 2006 2007 2008 2009
72 110 61 124
Ampicillin 0.23657 0.35382 0.33438 0.29648
Ceftiofur 0.01423 0 0 0
Gentamicin 0 0 0.01645 0.00804
Nalidixic acid 0 0 0 0
Streptomycin 0.37601 0.42448 0.39781 0.48133
Tetracycline 0.57441 0.56866 0.6043 0.65597
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.07166 0.09473 0.03267 0.1244
Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 147)

Figure 27. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 27 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Pigs (n = 147)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Porcine Salmonella Pilote Abattoir 147 TET 0.46258503 0.38 0.547 0.082509 0.08405
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.34693878 0.27 0.43 0.076533 0.08284
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.14965986 0.096 0.218 0.053429 0.06812
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.03401361 0.011 0.078 0.022879 0.04358
Streptomycin STR 0.39455782 0.315 0.478 0.079544 0.08388
Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.02 0 0.02017
Kanamycin KAN 0.11564626 0.069 0.179 0.046815 0.06305
Gentamicin GEN 0.01360544 0.002 0.048 0.011953 0.03468
Cefoxitin FOX 0 0 0.02 0 0.02017
Ampicillin AMP 0.19727891 0.136 0.271 0.060998 0.0736
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.02 0 0.02017
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.02 0 0.02017
Ceftriaxone CRO 0 0 0.02 0 0.02017
Ceftiofur TIO 0 0 0.02 0 0.02017
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0 0 0.02 0 0.02017

Table 16. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 16 - Text Equivalent
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2 – 3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
Derby 26 (17.7) 6 2 18           17           18 1 1     17
Typhimurium var. 5- 20 (13.6) 6 2   12       6 12 12         12   11     14
Brandenburg 13 (8.8) 8 3 2         1 2 1                   4
Infantis 11 (7.5) 11                                      
Typhimurium 11 (7.5)     5 6       4 9 10         7 2 5     10
Worthington 8 (5.4) 3 5                                   5
Schwarzengrund 5 (3.4) 4   1           1           1   1      
Anatum 4 (2.7) 2 1   1       1   1         1 1       2
Enteritidis 4 (2.7) 4                                      
Give 4 (2.7) 3   1           1 1                    
Hadar 3 (2)     3           3                     3
Havana 3 (2) 3                                      
Krefeld 3 (2)       3       3 3 3         3   2     3
Mbandaka 3 (2)     3       1 1 3           3         3
Less common serovars 29 (19.7) 22   5 2     1 1 7 1         6 1 2     7
Total 147 (100) 72 13 38 24     2 17 58 29         51 5 22     68

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.

Figure 28. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 28 - Text Equivalent
ATM 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
101 391 269 212 145 105 151 147
Ampicillin 0.207921 0.176471 0.126394 0.127358 0.186207 0.285714 0.278146 0.197279
Ceftiofur 0 0.002558 0 0 0.006897 0.009524 0.006623 0
Gentamicin 0.029703 0.017903 0.022305 0.004717 0.013793 0.057143 0.006623 0.013605
Nalidixic acid 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Streptomycin 0.336634 0.337596 0.260223 0.301887 0.303448 0.447619 0.443709 0.394558
Tetracycline 0.376238 0.450128 0.420074 0.443396 0.482759 0.552381 0.576159 0.462585
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.029703 0.023018 0.048327 0.023585 0.062069 0.057143 0.066225 0.034014
Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates

(n = 198)

Figure 29. Resistance to antimicrobials in Salmonella isolates from pigs; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Figure 29 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Pigs (n = 198)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Porcine Salmonella Diagnostic / clinical cases 198 TET 0.72222222 0.654 0.783 0.06794 0.06115
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.64141414 0.57 0.708 0.071054 0.06675
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.3030303 0.24 0.372 0.063145 0.06915
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.12626263 0.083 0.181 0.042859 0.05446
Streptomycin STR 0.6010101 0.529 0.67 0.071827 0.06875
Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.015 0 0.01502
Kanamycin KAN 0.25757576 0.198 0.324 0.059383 0.0668
Gentamicin GEN 0.03535354 0.014 0.071 0.021024 0.03613
Cefoxitin FOX 0.03535354 0.014 0.071 0.021024 0.03613
Ampicillin AMP 0.41414141 0.345 0.486 0.069382 0.07199
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.015 0 0.01502
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.015 0 0.01502
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.04040404 0.018 0.078 0.022802 0.03765
Ceftiofur TIO 0.04040404 0.018 0.078 0.022802 0.03765
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.03535354 0.014 0.071 0.021024 0.03613

Table 17. Number of antimicrobial classes in resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates from pigs, by serovar; Surveillance of Animal Clinical Isolates, 2009.

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Serovar identity was not available for 3 isolates.
Red, blue and black numbers indicate isolates resistant to antimicrobials in Categories I, II, and III of importance to human medicine, respectively.

Table 17 - Text Equivalent
Serovar Number (%) of isolates Number of isolates by number of antimicrobial classes in the resistance pattern Number of isolates resistant by antimicrobial class and antimicrobial
Aminoglycosides β-lactams Folate pathways inhibitors Phenicols Quinolones Tetracyclines
  1 2–3 4–5 6 AMK GEN KAN STR AMP AMC CRO FOX TIO SSS SXT CHL CIP NAL TET
Typhimurium 48 (24.6) 4   8 36     2 20 38 39 2 2 2 2 42 13 30     44
Derby 27 (13.8) 4 2 20 1         21           21   1     23
Typhimurium var. 5- 21 (10.8) 1 1 2 17     1 14 17 18         19 2 12     19
Infantis 12 (6.2) 11 1                                   1
Brandenburg 8 (4.1) 4 2 1 1     1 1 2 1   1   1 1 1 1     4
Schwarzengrund 8 (4.1) 3   4 1       1 5 1         5         5
Mbandaka 7 (3.6) 3   3 1     1 1 3 1         3 1       4
I 4,[5],12:i:- 6 (3.1) 1     5       3 5 5         5 2 4     5
Worthington 6 (3.1) 3   3           3           3         3
Bovismorbificans 5 (2.6)   1   4       2 4 5 2 2 2 2 4   2     4
I 4,[5],12:-:- 4 (2.1)   1 2 1         3 1         3   1     4
Less common serovars 43 (22.1) 17 4 12 10     2 8 16 10 3 3 3 3 19 5 8     25
Total 195 (100) 51 12 55 77     7 50 117 81 7 8 7 8 125 24 59     141

Serovars represented by less than 2% of isolates were classified as “Less common serovars”.
Serovar identity was not available for 3 isolates.

Escherichia coli

Farm Surveillance

(n = 1,800)

Figure 30. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 30 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial Pigs (n = 1800)
zspecies bspecies project N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                      
III Tetracycline Porcine Escherichia CIPARS On-farm 1800 TET 0.76498376 0.714859 0.80867 0.050125 0.04369
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.46789423 0.409701 0.52697 0.058193 0.05908
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.18981695 0.153449 0.23242 0.036368 0.0426
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.11941307 0.093105 0.1519 0.026308 0.03248
Streptomycin STR 0.37275871 0.329864 0.41775 0.042895 0.045
Nalidixic acid NAL 0.00209626 0.000505 0.00866 0.001591 0.00656
Kanamycin KAN 0.13821445 0.108776 0.17408 0.029438 0.03586
Gentamicin GEN 0.00965957 0.004756 0.01952 0.004904 0.00986
Cefoxitin FOX 0.00558872 0.002583 0.01205 0.003005 0.00646
Ampicillin AMP 0.33006303 0.280375 0.38391 0.049688 0.05384
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.01977 0 0.01977
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0.00055472 7.86E-05 0.0039 0.000476 0.00335
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.00110788 0.000279 0.00439 0.000829 0.00328
Ceftiofur TIO 0.00110788 0.000279 0.00439 0.000829 0.00328
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.01305813 0.006992 0.02426 0.006066 0.0112

Figure 31. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Farm Surveillance, 2006–2009.

Figure 31 - Text Equivalent
ATM 2006 2007 2008 2009
1721 1575 1425 1800
Ampicillin 0.348 0.356 0.34 0.33006
Ceftiofur 0.01 0.005 0.01 0.00111
Gentamicin 0.009 0.007 0.01 0.00966
Nalidixic acid 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.002
Streptomycin 0.373 0.337 0.347 0.37276
Tetracycline 0.786 0.784 0.797 0.76498
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.117 0.10294 0.19 0.11943
Abattoir Surveillance

(n = 160)

Figure 32. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 32 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial zspecies bspecies project Pigs (n = 160)
N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV   Porcine Escherichia Pilote Abattoir 160            
III Tetracycline TET 0.76875 0.696 0.832 0.073128 0.0629
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.50625 0.426 0.586 0.080072 0.07984
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.225 0.163 0.298 0.062162 0.07263
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.11875 0.073 0.179 0.045719 0.06047
Streptomycin STR 0.46875 0.39 0.549 0.079222 0.0804
Nalidixic acid NAL 0 0 0.019 0 0.01855
Kanamycin KAN 0.1125 0.068 0.172 0.044446 0.05946
Gentamicin GEN 0.01875 0.004 0.054 0.014866 0.03507
Cefoxitin FOX 0.0125 0.002 0.044 0.010983 0.03192
Ampicillin AMP 0.33125 0.259 0.41 0.072294 0.07868
Amikacin AMK 0 0 0.019 0 0.01855
I Ciprofloxacin CIP 0 0 0.019 0 0.01855
Ceftriaxone CRO 0.0125 0.002 0.044 0.010983 0.03192
Ceftiofur TIO 0.0125 0.002 0.044 0.010983 0.03192
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid AMC 0.0125 0.002 0.044 0.010983 0.03192

Figure 33. Temporal variation in resistance to selected antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs; Abattoir Surveillance, 2003–2009.

Figure 33 - Text Equivalent
ATM 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
37 153 142 163 114 93 150 160
Ampicillin 0.297297 0.352941 0.302817 0.349693 0.350877 0.365591 0.333333 0.33125
Ceftiofur 0 0 0 0.006135 0 0.010753 0.006667 0.0125
Gentamicin 0.027027 0.03268 0.007042 0.006135 0.017544 0 0.02 0.01875
Nalidixic acid 0 0.006536 0 0.006135 0 0 0.006667 0
Streptomycin 0.432432 0.398693 0.394366 0.386503 0.263158 0.333333 0.353333 0.46875
Tetracycline 0.783784 0.816993 0.711268 0.748466 0.833333 0.752688 0.846667 0.76875
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 0.054054 0.143791 0.049296 0.104294 0.175439 0.11828 0.133333 0.11875
Retail Meat Surveillance

(n = 322)

Figure 34. Resistance to antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from pork, by province; Retail Meat Surveillance, 2009.

Figure 34 - Text Equivalent
Categorization of antimicrobials based on importance in human medicine Antimicrobial zspecies bspecies project Maritimes (n = 78) Québec (n = 41) Ontario (n = 136) Saskatchewan (n = 29) British Columbia (n = 38)
N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N_ON ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS N ATM P LCL UCL EBMINUS EBPLUS
IV                                                                              
III Tetracycline Porcine Escherichia Pilote Detail 78 TET 0.487179487 0.372282485 0.603079144 0.114897002 0.115899657 41 TET 0.268292683 0.142213003 0.429444705 0.12607968 0.161152022 136 TET 0.352941176 0.27298007 0.439460122 0.079961106 0.086518945 29 TET 0.344828 0.179384 0.543306 0.165444 0.198478 38 TET 0.342105 0.196329 0.513527 0.145776 0.171421
Sulfisoxazole SSS 0.243589744 0.153474557 0.353969503 0.090115187 0.11037976 41 SSS 0.243902439 0.123632488 0.403046237 0.120269951 0.159143798 136 SSS 0.205882353 0.141380834 0.283626023 0.064501519 0.07774367 29 SSS 0.206897 0.079942 0.397247 0.126955 0.19035 38 SSS 0.210526 0.095541 0.373188 0.114985 0.162662
Chloramphenicol CHL 0.051282051 0.014147431 0.12612763 0.03713462 0.074845579 41 CHL 0.024390244 0.000617317 0.12855402 0.023772927 0.104163776 136 CHL 0.073529412 0.03582198 0.131066002 0.037707431 0.05753659 29 CHL 0.068966 0.008464 0.227662 0.060502 0.158696 38 CHL 0.052632 0.006439 0.177491 0.046193 0.124859
II Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole SXT 0.076923077 0.028752525 0.159946365 0.048170552 0.083023288 41 SXT 0.097560976 0.027227467 0.231314549 0.070333509 0.133753574 136 SXT 0.073529412 0.03582198 0.131066002 0.037707431 0.05753659 29 SXT 0.034483 0.000873 0.177644 0.03361 0.143162 38 SXT 0.078947 0.016586 0.213773 0.062361 0.134826
Streptomycin STR 0.256410256 0.16418972</